Publications by authors named "Kaisa M Linderborg"

42 Publications

Food Fortification Using Spray-Dried Emulsions of Fish Oil Produced with Maltodextrin, Plant and Whey Proteins-Effect on Sensory Perception, Volatiles and Storage Stability.

Molecules 2022 May 31;27(11). Epub 2022 May 31.

Food Sciences, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.

Fortification of foods with fish oil rich in -3 fatty acids improves the nutritional value, but creates challenges with flavor and oxidative stability, especially during storage. Pea, soy, and sunflower proteins were used in combination with whey protein or maltodextrin to encapsulate fish oil by spray-drying. The use of whey protein compared with maltodextrin as wall material improved oxidative stability of spray-dried emulsions, although the use of whey protein increased the number of observed cracks in outer shell of the particles. Non- and encapsulated oil were used in cookies and chocolates to examine flavor characteristics by generic descriptive analysis and volatile products by solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A long-term storage test at room temperature was conducted to evaluate the oxidative stability of the food models. Fortification changed the texture, odor, and flavor of the food models with fishy flavor being the most impactful attribute. For both food models, use of pea protein with maltodextrin resembled attributes of control the best. Fortification and encapsulation material also affected volatile profiles of food models. Both non-encapsulated oil and whey protein formulations performed well in regard to oxidative stability for both food models. Generally, the cookie model showed more potential for fortification than the chocolate one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27113553DOI Listing
May 2022

A novel UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method and automatic calculation software for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols in natural fats and oils.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Jun 1;1210:339887. Epub 2022 May 1.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, FI-20500, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Regioisomeric analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural oils and fats is a highly challenging task in analytical chemistry. Here we present a software (TAG Analyzer) for automatic calculation of regioisomeric composition of TAGs based on the mass spectral data from recently reported ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for analyzing TAG regioisomers. The software enables fast and accurate processing of complex product ion spectra containing structurally informative diacylglycerol [M+NH-RCOH-NH] and fatty acid ketene [RCO] fragment ions. Compared to manual processing, the developed software offers higher throughput with faster calculation as well as more accurate interpretation of chromatographically overlapping isobaric TAGs. The software determines results by constructing a synthetic spectrum to match the measured fragment ion spectrum, and by reporting the optimal concentrations of TAGs used to create the synthetic spectrum. This type of calculation is often extremely challenging for manual interpretation of the fragment ion spectra of isobaric TAGs with shared fragments, hence the need for automated data processing. The developed software was validated by analyzing a wide range of mixtures of regiopure TAG reference compounds of known composition and a commercial olive oil sample. Additionally, the method was also applied for regiospecific analysis of TAGs in human milk as an example of natural fats and oils with a highly complex TAG profile. The results indicate that the software is capable of resolving regioisomeric composition of natural TAGs even of the most complex composition. This novel calculation software combined with our existing UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method form a highly efficient tool for regioisomeric analysis of TAGs in natural fats and oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.339887DOI Listing
June 2022

Similarity Index for the Fat Fraction between Breast Milk and Infant Formulas.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 May 11;70(20):6191-6201. Epub 2022 May 11.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, 20500 Turku, Finland.

The similarity of the fat fraction in infant formulas rich in either bovine milk fat (MF) or vegetable oil (VO) to breast milk was evaluated by analyzing their lipid composition. Milk fat-rich formulas were highly similar (average similarity index 0.68) to breast milk compared to the VO-rich formulas (average similarity index 0.56). The highest difference in the indices was found in the contents of cholesterol (0.66 vs 0.28 in MF- and VO-rich formulas, respectively, on average) and polar lipids (0.84 vs 0.53), the positional distribution of fatty acids in the -2 position of triacylglycerols (0.53 vs 0.28), and fatty acid composition (0.72 vs 0.54). The VO-based formulas were superior in similarity in - 6 PUFA. Thus, the addition of bovine MF fractions is an effective way to increase the similarity between the lipid composition of infant formulas and human milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c08029DOI Listing
May 2022

Oxidative stability, oxidation pattern and α-tocopherol response of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3)-containing triacylglycerols and ethyl esters.

Food Chem 2022 Sep 3;387:132882. Epub 2022 Apr 3.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

DHA is most often used in supplements either in its triacylglycerol or ethyl ester form. Currently, there is only little published data on the differences in the oxidative stability and α-tocopherol response between the two lipid structures, as well as on the oxidation patterns of pure DHA. This study investigated the oxidative stability, α-tocopherol response and oxidation pattern of DHA incorporated in triacylglycerols and as ethyl esters with an untargeted approach after oxidation at 50 °C in the dark. Liquid and gas chromatographic methods with mass spectrometric detection and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied. DHA was more stable in triacylglycerols than as ethyl esters without α-tocopherol addition. With α-tocopherol added the opposite was observed. The oxidation products formed during triacylglycerol and ethyl ester oil oxidation were mostly similar, but also some structure-related differences were detected in both volatile and non-volatile oxidation products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132882DOI Listing
September 2022

Effect of oat or rice flour on pulse-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and breath hydrogen in subjects sensitive to pulses and controls - a randomised cross-over trial with two parallel groups.

Br J Nutr 2022 Jan 28:1-12. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Finland.

Pulses are healthy and sustainable but induce gut symptoms in people with a sensitive gut. Oats, on the contrary, have no fermentable oligo- di-, monosaccharides and polyols compounds and are known for the health effects of their fibres. This 4-day cross-over trial investigated the effects of oat and rice flour ingested with pulses on gut symptoms and exhaled gases (4th day only) in subjects with a sensitive gut or IBS (n 21) and controls (n 21). The sensitive group perceived more symptoms after both meals than controls (P = 0·001, P = 0·001). Frequency, intensity or quality of the symptoms did not differ between meals during the first 3 d in either group. More breath hydrogen was produced after an oat than rice containing meal in both groups (AUC, P = 0·001, P = 0·001). No between-group difference was seen in breath gases. During day 4, both sensitive and control groups perceived more symptoms after the oat flour meal (P = 0·001, P = 0·0104, respectively) as mainly mild flatulence. No difference in moderate or severe symptoms was detected. Increased hydrogen production correlated to a higher amount of perceived flatulence after the oat flour meal in both the sensitive and the control groups (P = 0·042, P = 0·003, respectively). In summary, ingestion of oat flour with pulses increases breath hydrogen levels compared with rice flour, but gastrointestinal symptoms of subjects sensitive to pulses were not explained by breath hydrogen levels. Additionally, consumer mindsets towards pulse consumption and pulse-related gut symptoms were assessed by an online survey, which implied that perceived gut symptoms hinder the use of pulses in sensitive subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114522000332DOI Listing
January 2022

Tissue-Specific Content of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in (n-3) Deficiency State of Rats.

Foods 2022 Jan 12;11(2). Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland.

The dietary intake of fatty acids (FAs) affects the composition and distribution of FAs in the body. Here, a first-generation (n-3)-deficiency study was conducted by keeping young (age 21 ± 2 days) Sprague-Dawley male rats on a peanut-oil-based diet for 33 days after weaning in order to compare the effect of mild (n-3)-deficiency on the lipid composition of different organs and feces. Soybean-oil-based diet was used as a control. The plasma FA levels corresponded to FAs levels in the organs. Lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content was detected in the plasma, brain, testis, visceral fat, heart, and lungs of the (n-3)-deficient group, whereas the DHA content of the eye and feces did not differ between the experimental groups. The DHA content of the brains of the (n-3)-deficient group was 86% of the DHA content of the brains of the (n-3)-adequate group. The DHA level of the organs was affected in the order of visceral fat > liver triacylglycerols > lung > heart > liver phospholipids > testis > eye > brain, with brain being least affected. The low levels of (n-3) FAs in the liver, brain, eye, heart, and lung were offset by an increase in the (n-6) FAs, mainly arachidonic acid. These results indicate that, in rats, adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy and weaning does not provide enough (n-3) FAs for 33 days of an (n-3)-deficient diet. Results of this study can be used also to evaluate the conditions needed to reach mild (n-3) deficiency in the first generation of rats and to evaluate the feasibility to collect data from a variety of organs or only selected ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11020208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8774705PMC
January 2022

Acylated anthocyanins: A review on their bioavailability and effects on postprandial carbohydrate metabolism and inflammation.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 11 5;20(6):5570-5615. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Anthocyanins, the natural red and purple colorants of berries, fruits, vegetables, and tubers, improve carbohydrate metabolism and decrease the risk factors of metabolic disorders, but their industrial use is limited by their chemical instability. Acylation of the glycosyl moieties of anthocyanins, however, changes the chemical properties of anthocyanins and provides enhanced stability. Thus, acylated anthocyanins are more usable as natural colorants and bioactive components of innovative functional foods. Acylated anthocyanins are common in pigmented vegetables and tubers, the consumption of which has the potential to increase the intake of health-promoting anthocyanins as part of the daily diet. For the first time, this review presents the current findings on bioavailability, absorption, metabolism, and health effects of acylated anthocyanins with comparison to more extensively investigated nonacylated anthocyanins. The structural differences between nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins lead to enhanced color stability, altered absorption, bioavailability, in vivo stability, and colonic degradation. The impact of phenolic metabolites and their potential health effects regardless of the low bioavailability of the parent anthocyanins as such is discussed. Here, purple-fleshed potatoes are presented as a globally available, eco-friendly model food rich in acylated anthocyanins, which further highlights the industrial possibilities and nutritional relevance of acylated anthocyanins. This work supports the academic community and industry in food research and development by reviewing the current literature and highlighting gaps of knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12836DOI Listing
November 2021

Predicting the Properties of Industrially Produced Oat Flours by the Characteristics of Native Oat Grains or Non-Heat-Treated Groats.

Foods 2021 Jul 5;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Ltd., P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo, Finland.

The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of the native oat grain or non-heat-treated groats (laboratory-scale dehulling) can be used to predict the quality of the industrially produced oat flour produced from heat-treated groats. Quality properties such as the color, hectoliter weight, thousand seed weight and hull content of Finnish native grains ( = 30) were determined. Furthermore, the relationship between the properties of the native grains and the chemical composition of the raw oat materials before and after the milling process were studied. A significant relationship ( < 0.01) was observed between the thousand seed weight of the native oat groats and the chemical composition of the industrially produced oat flour. Furthermore, the protein content of the native grains measured by NIT correlated with the chemical composition of the oat flours. These results suggest that the properties of oat flour produced on an industrial scale, including heat treatment, could be predicted based on the properties of native oat grains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306198PMC
July 2021

Human milk metabolome is associated with symptoms of maternal psychological distress and milk cortisol.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 20;356:129628. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Finland.

The composition of human milk is subject to considerable variation, but the effects of maternal stress are largely unknown. We studied differences in human milk metabolome between Finnish mothers (n = 120, secretors) with symptoms of prenatal symptoms of psychological distress and milk cortisol concentrations. Human milk samples acquired at 2.5 months postpartum were analyzed using targeted H NMR metabolomics. Self-reported scores for depression (EPDS), overall anxiety (SCL-90), and pregnancy-related anxiety (PRAQ) were used to evaluate psychological distress. Prenatal psychological distress was positively associated with concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, caprate, and hypoxanthine (q < 0.0012). Milk cortisol was positively associated with lactate concentration (q < 0.05). Changes in the human milk metabolome were shown to be associated with maternal psychological distress and concentration of milk cortisol in a dissimilarly, suggesting alterations in bacterial and energy metabolism of the mother, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129628DOI Listing
September 2021

Strategy for stereospecific characterization of natural triacylglycerols using multidimensional chromatography and mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 12;1641:461992. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Stereoisomeric determination of individual triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural oils and fats is a challenge due to similar physicochemical properties of TAGs with different fatty acid combinations. In this study, we present a strategy to resolve the enantiomeric composition of nutritionally important TAGs in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) as an example food matrix. The targeted strategy combines 1) fatty acid profiling with GC, 2) separation of TAGs with RP-HPLC, 3) stereospecific separation with chiral-phase HPLC and 4) structural characterization with MS. Three major asymmetric diacid- and triacid-TAG species were analyzed in sea buckthorn pulp oil. Off-line coupling of RP-HPLC and chiral-phase HPLC allowed separation of several TAG regioisomers and enantiomers, which could not be resolved using one-dimensional techniques. Enantiomeric ratios were determined and specific structural analysis of separated TAGs was performed using direct inlet ammonia negative ion chemical ionization method. Of the TAG 16:0/16:1/16:1 palmitic acid (C16:0) was located predominantly in a primary position and the enantiomeric ratio of TAG sn-16:1-16:1-16:0 to sn-16:0-16:1-16:1 was 70.5/29.5. Among the TAGs 16:0/16:0/18:2 and 16:0/16:0/16:1, only ca 5% had C16:0 in the sn-2 position, thus, ca 95% were symmetric sn-16:0-18:2-16:0 and sn-16:0-16:1-16:0. The enantiomeric ratio of triacid-TAGs containing C16:0 and two unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic C16:1, oleic C18:1 or linoleic acids C18:2) could not be resolved due to lack of commercial enantiopure reference compounds. However, it became clear that the targeted strategy presented offer unique and convenient method to study the enantiomeric structure of individual TAGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.461992DOI Listing
March 2021

Phenolic Metabolites in the Urine and Plasma of Healthy Men After Acute Intake of Purple Potato Extract Rich in Methoxysubstituted Monoacylated Anthocyanins.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 05 30;65(9):e2000898. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Turku, FIN-20014, Finland.

Scope: Structurally stable acylated anthocyanins have potential in various food applications but the effects of acylation and methoxysubstitution on anthocyanin metabolism are poorly understood. This is the first study thoroughly investigating phenolic metabolites, their time-wise changes, and pharmacokinetics following an acute intake of methoxysubstituted monoacylated anthocyanins.

Methods And Results: Healthy male volunteers (n = 17) consumed a yellow potato meal with and without purple potato extract rich in acylated anthocyanins (152 mg) and hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates (140 mg). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) is used for identification and quantification of metabolites from serially collected urine and plasma. While the parent anthocyanins are not detected, 28 phenolic metabolites from urine and 14 from plasma are quantified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and protocatechuic acid sulfates and glucuronides; three (catechol, gallic acid-4-O-glucuronide, and 2-methoxybenzoic acid) are detected for the first time after anthocyanin-rich food. Urinary hippuric acid is the most abundant with an increase of 139 µM mM creatinine after the treatment. A large additional set of tentatively identified phenolic metabolites are detected. Late urinary peak time values suggest colonic degradation.

Conclusion: Acylated anthocyanins are more bioavailable than earlier reported after extensive degradation in human and/or colonial metabolism to phenolic metabolites, which may be further conjugated and demethylated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202000898DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of oat β-glucan of different molecular weights on fecal bile acids, urine metabolites and pressure in the digestive tract - A human cross over trial.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 8;342:128219. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

While the development of oat products often requires altered molecular weight (MW) of β-glucan, the resulting health implications are currently unclear. This 3-leg crossover trial (n = 14) investigated the effects of the consumption of oat bran with High, Medium and Low MW β-glucan (average > 1000, 524 and 82 kDa respectively) with 3 consequent meals on oat-derived phenolic compounds in urine (UHPLC-MS/MS), bile acids in feces (UHPLC-QTOF), gastrointestinal conditions (ingestible capsule), and perceived gut well-being. Urine excretion of ferulic acid was higher (p < 0.001, p < 0.001), and the fecal excretion of deoxycholic (p < 0.03, p < 0.02) and chenodeoxycholic (p < 0.06, p < 0.02) acids lower after consumption of Low MW β-glucan compared with both Medium and High MW β-glucan. Duodenal pressure was higher after consumption of High MW β-glucan compared to Medium (p < 0.041) and Low (p < 0.022) MW β-glucan. The MW of β-glucan did not affect gut well-being, but the perceptions between females and males differed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128219DOI Listing
April 2021

Sensory Characteristics Contributing to Pleasantness of Oat Product Concepts by Finnish and Chinese Consumers.

Foods 2020 Sep 4;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Oats are increasingly popular among consumers and the food industry. While data exist on sensory characteristics of oats as such, previous studies focusing on the pleasantness of oats, and especially investigations of a wide range of oat products by European and Asian consumers, are scarce. An online questionnaire was organized in Finland ( = 381; 83.7% Finnish) focusing on the liking and familiarity of oat products, followed by sensory tests in Finland ( = 65 and = 73) and China ( = 103) using the Check-All-That-Apply method and hedonic ratings. A questionnaire revealed that the Finnish consumers rated the pleasantness and familiarity of several oat product categories, such as breads and porridges, higher compared to participants of other ethnicities. Sensory tests showed both similarities, e.g., porridges were described as "natural", "healthy" and "oat-like", and differences between countries, e.g., sweet biscuits, were described as "crispy" and "hard" by Finnish consumers and "strange" and "musty" by Chinese consumers. Sweet products were unanimously preferred. The ethnicity had an important role affecting the rating of pleasantness and familiarity of oat product categories, whereas food neophobia and health interest status also had an influence. The proved healthiness of oats was a crucial factor affecting the choices of consumers and their acceptance in both countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9091234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556016PMC
September 2020

Diet, Perceived Intestinal Well-Being and Compositions of Fecal Microbiota and Short Chain Fatty Acids in Oat-Using Subjects with Celiac Disease or Gluten Sensitivity.

Nutrients 2020 Aug 25;12(9). Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland.

A gluten-free diet may result in high fat and low fiber intake and thus lead to unbalanced microbiota. This study characterized fecal microbiota profiles by 16S MiSeq sequencing among oat-using healthy adult subjects ( = 14) or adult subjects with celiac disease (CeD) ( = 19) or non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) ( = 10). Selected microbial metabolites, self-reported 4d food diaries and perceived gut symptoms were compared. Subjects with NCGS experienced the highest amount of gut symptoms and received more energy from fat and less from carbohydrates than healthy and CeD subjects. Oat consumption resulted in reaching the lower limit of the recommended fiber intake. Frequent consumption of gluten-free pure oats did not result in microbiota dysbiosis in subjects with CeD or NCGS. Thus, the high number of gut symptoms in NCGS subjects was not linked to the microbiota. The proportion of fecal acetate was higher in healthy when compared to NCGS subjects, which may be linked to a higher abundance of in the control group compared to NCGS and CeD subjects. Propionate, butyrate and ammonia production and β-glucuronidase activity were comparable among the study groups. The results suggest that pure oats have great potential as the basis of a gluten-free diet and warrant further studies in minor microbiota disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12092570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551214PMC
August 2020

Effects of Anthocyanin Extracts from Bilberry ( L.) and Purple Potato ( L. var. 'Synkeä Sakari') on the Plasma Metabolomic Profile of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Sep 20;68(35):9436-9450. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Turku FI-20014, Finland.

This study compared the effects of the nonacylated and acylated anthocyanin-rich extracts on plasma metabolic profiles of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. The rats were fed with the nonacylated anthocyanin extract from bilberries (NAAB) or the acylated anthocyanin extract from purple potatoes (AAPP) at daily doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. H NMR metabolomics was used to study the changes in plasma metabolites. A reduced fasting plasma glucose level was seen in all anthocyanin-fed groups, especially in the groups fed with NAAB. Both NAAB and AAPP decreased the levels of branched-chain amino acids and improved lipid profiles. AAPP increased the glutamine/glutamate ratio and decreased the levels of glycerol and metabolites involved in glycolysis, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis. AAPP decreased the hepatic and messenger RNA level, suggesting regulation of gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. This study indicated that AAPP and NAAB affected the plasma metabolic profile of diabetic rats differently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c04125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586333PMC
September 2020

Interactions between cortisol and lipids in human milk.

Int Breastfeed J 2020 07 20;15(1):66. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

The FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Human breast milk is one of the key early postnatal biological exposures for the developing child. It includes bioactive compounds, such as cortisol and fatty acids, which may be linked via the mother's lipid metabolism.

Methods: This study investigated the associations between cortisol and lipids in human milk at the infant age of 2.5 months. Human milk cortisol concentrations were measured using luminescence immunoassay, and two groups of milks (n = 50 each) were formed based on either high (> 10 nmol/L) or low (< 3 nmol/L) cortisol levels. Lipids, as fatty acid content and composition of neutral (triacylglycerol-rich) and polar (phospholipid-rich) lipids, were measured with gas chromatography. The samples originated from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study.

Results: The percentage of phospholipid-rich lipids of total lipids was 33.08% ± 1.33%. In triacylglycerol-rich lipids, high cortisol level in milk was associated with higher lauric (12:0, mass % and mg/mL), myristic (14:0, mass % and mg/mL), eicosenoic (20:1n - 9, mass %), docosenoic (22:1n - 9, mass %, and mg/mL) acids, and to lower palmitic acid (16:0, mass %) compared with low cortisol levels in milk. In phospholipid-rich lipids, high cortisol level was associated with higher myristic (14:0, mass %) and docosenoic (22:1n - 9, mass %) acids. After adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and sampling time by linear regression, the milk cortisol remained a significant predictor for lauric and myristic acids in triacylglycerol-rich lipids, and myristic and docosenoic acid in phospholipid-rich lipids (β = 0.23 to 0.38 and p < 0.05 for each).

Conclusions: This study revealed certain significant associations between milk cortisol and the fatty acid composition of human milk, indicating that cortisol might be one of the factors affecting the origin of the lipids in human milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13006-020-00307-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370511PMC
July 2020

Synthesis and enantiospecific analysis of enantiostructured triacylglycerols containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Chem Phys Lipids 2020 09 27;231:104937. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

The stereospecific structure of triacylglycerols (TAGs) affects the bioavailability of fatty acids. Lack of enantiopure reference compounds and effective enantiospecific methods have hindered the stereospecific analysis of individual TAGs. Twelve novel enantiostructured AAB-type TAGs were synthesized containing one of the three n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid: α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in sn-1 or sn-3 position. These compounds formed six enantiomer pairs, which were separated with recycling high-performance liquid chromatography using chiral columns and UV detection. The chromatographic retention behavior of the enantiomers and the stereospecific elution order were studied. The enantiomer with an n-3 PUFA in the sn-1 position eluted faster than the enantiomer with the n-3 PUFA in the sn-3 position, regardless of the carbon chain length and number of double bonds of the PUFA. TAG enantiomers containing DHA exhibited highly different retention on the chiral column and were separated after the first column, whereas recycling was needed to separate the enantiomer pairs containing ALA or EPA. The system using two identical columns and one mobile phase, without sample derivatization, proved to be very effective also for peak purity assessment, confirming the enantiopurity of the synthesized structured TAGs being higher than 98 % (96 % ee).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2020.104937DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation of the composition and oxidative status of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on the Finnish market using NMR and SPME-GC-MS in comparison with conventional methods.

Food Chem 2020 Nov 6;330:127194. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Previous studies disagree on the oxidative status of omega-3 supplements. The great deviation raises concerns about quality and the methods used to monitor it. This study investigated 49 omega-3 products for their fatty acid content, lipid class and oxidative status using official methods, gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. With minor deviations, omega-3 fatty acid content and lipid class of all products were as declared. 24% of studied products exceeded thresholds set by The Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s for peroxide and/or p-anisidine value suggesting a compromised oxidative status. However, peroxide and/or p-anisidine value were only suitable for detection of lipid oxidation in 90% or 73%, respectively, of the products. Analysis of volatile oxidation compounds can be an alternative method for p-anisidine value. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was shown to be a rapid method for determination of oil type and lipid class.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127194DOI Listing
November 2020

Direct inlet negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of triacylglycerol regioisomers in human milk and infant formulas.

Food Chem 2020 Oct 6;328:126991. Epub 2020 May 6.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

A previously developed direct inlet tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) regioisomers was updated and validated for operation with current instrumentation with improved sensitivity and throughput. TAG regioisomers in pooled Chinese and Finnish human milk samples, two bovine milk samples and 11 infant formulas were identified and quantified. A total of 241 TAG regioisomers were identified and quantified, consisting of over 60 mol% of all TAGs in the human milk samples. The infant formulas deviated largely from human milk in regioisomeric composition of TAGs. In the Finnish and Chinese human milks, the most abundant ones were 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO; 7.4 and 8.8 mol% of all TAGs) and 1(3)-linoleoyl-2-palmitoyl-3(1)-oleoylglycerol (LPO; 4.7 and 8.3 mol% of all TAGs). In the infant formulas 1,2(2,3)-dioleoyl-3(1)-palmitoylglycerol (OOP) and 1(3)-linoleoyl-2-oleoyl-3(1)-palmitoylglycerol/1(3)-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3(1)-oleoylglycerol (LOP/PLO) were more abundant than OPO and LPO. The differences between human milk and infant formula prompt for further development of current formulas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126991DOI Listing
October 2020

Anthocyanin-rich extract from purple potatoes decreases postprandial glycemic response and affects inflammation markers in healthy men.

Food Chem 2020 Apr 26;310:125797. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Our recent clinical study suggested that polyphenol-rich purple potatoes lowered postprandial glycemia and insulinemia compared to yellow potatoes. Here, 17 healthy male volunteers consumed yellow potatoes with or without purple potato extract (PPE, extracted with water/ethanol/acetic acid) rich in acylated anthocyanins (152 mg) and other phenolics (140 mg) in a randomized cross-over trial. Ethanol-free PPE decreased the incremental area under the curve for glucose (p = 0.019) and insulin (p = 0.015) until 120 min after the meal, glucose at 20 min (p = 0.015) and 40 min (p = 0.004), and insulin at 20 min (p = 0.003), 40 min (p = 0.004) and 60 min (p = 0.005) after the meal. PPE affected some of the studied 90 inflammation markers after meal; for example insulin-like hormone FGF-19 levels were elevated at 240 min (p = 0.001). These results indicate that PPE alleviates postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and affects postprandial inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125797DOI Listing
April 2020

Linking volatile and non-volatile compounds to sensory profiles and consumer liking of wild edible Nordic mushrooms.

Food Chem 2020 Jan 21;304:125403. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

University of Turku, Functional Foods Forum, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Current information on the links between the chemistry and hedonic liking of edible mushrooms is scarce. In this study, 84 consumers evaluated the appearance, odor, taste, texture and overall liking of samples of Nordic edible wild mushroom species. Subsequently, multivariate models on the effects of non-volatile compounds, odor-contributing volatile compounds, sensory attributes and hedonic likings were created. The non-volatile compounds were measured with quantitative NMR. The five studied mushroom species were different in their sugar and acid contents. Three consumer clusters were found with species*cluster interactions. Correlations with sensory attributes and chemical components were found, and the multivariate models indicated predictor attributes for each consumer cluster. The results indicate that the sensory properties could be correlated to both volatile and non-volatile compounds, there are consumer clusters with differing likings as regards mushrooms, and these clusters are heterogenic groups with no simple factors such as age explaining their liking scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125403DOI Listing
January 2020

Mycobiome Profiles in Breast Milk from Healthy Women Depend on Mode of Delivery, Geographic Location, and Interaction with Bacteria.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 05 18;85(9). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology-National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Valencia, Spain

Recent studies report the presence of fungal species in breast milk of healthy mothers, suggesting a potential role in infant mycobiome development. In the present work, we aimed to determine whether the healthy human breast milk mycobiota is influenced by geographical location and mode of delivery, as well as to investigate its interaction with bacterial profiles in the same samples. A total of 80 mature breast milk samples from 4 different countries were analyzed by Illumina sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, joining the 18S and 5.8S regions of the fungal rRNA region. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were found to be the dominant phyla, with and being the most prevalent genera across countries. A core formed by , and was shared in the milk samples from the different origins, although specific shifts in mycobiome composition were associated with geographic location and delivery mode. The presence of fungi in the breast milk samples was further confirmed by culture and isolate characterization, and fungal loads were estimated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the fungal ITS1 region. Cooccurrence network analysis of bacteria and fungi showed complex interactions that were influenced by geographical location, mode of delivery, maternal age, and pregestational body mass index. The presence of a breast milk mycobiome was confirmed in all samples analyzed, regardless of the geographic origin. During recent years, human breast milk has been documented as a potential source of bacteria for the newborn. Recently, we have reported the presence of fungi in breast milk from healthy mothers. It is well known that environmental and perinatal factors can affect milk bacteria; however, the impact on milk fungi is still unknown. The current report describes fungal communities (mycobiota) in breast milk samples across different geographic locations and the influence of the mode of delivery. We also provide novel insights on bacterium-fungus interactions, taking into account environmental and perinatal factors. We identified a core of four genera shared across locations, consisting of , and , which have been reported to be present in the infant gut. Our data confirm the presence of fungi in breast milk across continents and support the potential role of breast milk in the initial seeding of fungal species in the infant gut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02994-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6495746PMC
May 2019

Odor-contributing volatile compounds of wild edible Nordic mushrooms analyzed with HS-SPME-GC-MS and HS-SPME-GC-O/FID.

Food Chem 2019 Jun 17;283:566-578. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

University of Turku, Functional Foods Forum, FI-20014 Turku, Finland; Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Although Nordic wild edible mushrooms offer a wide range of different odors their scientific examination has been scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the aroma compounds of four Finnish wild mushroom species with trained assessors using gas chromatography-olfactometry as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Headspace volatiles were extracted from sous vide cooked mushroom samples (Boletus edulis, Lactarius camphoratus, Cantharellus cibarius and Craterellus tubaeformis) using solid-phase microextraction. Odor-contributing compounds were measured with two columns of differing polarity using the detection frequency method. Compounds were identified based on reference compounds, linear retention indices, odor descriptions, and mass spectrometry. Both the volatile compound profiles and the aromagrams were distinct with characteristic compounds for each species. The results demonstrate that especially saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and ketones contribute to the odor of the studied wild mushrooms. This thorough comparison also indicates compounds linked to the sensory properties of mushrooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.053DOI Listing
June 2019

Bioavailability of docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) from enantiopure triacylglycerols and their regioisomeric counterpart in rats.

Food Chem 2019 Jun 14;283:381-389. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Lack of synthetic enantiospecific triacylglycerols (TAGs) has hindered our understanding of the impact of TAG structure on the absorption and metabolic fate of fatty acids (FAs). In a five-day feeding trial with mildly (n-3) deficient rats, the bioavailability of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3), DHA] and stearic acid (18:0) from the two different enantiomers of TAG: sn-22:6(n-3)-18:0-18:0 and sn-18:0-18:0-22:6(n-3), and their regioisomeric TAG: sn-18:0-22:6(n-3)-18:0 was compared. Less secretion of fecal DHA was detected from the sn-2 position compared with the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but no difference was found in DHA content of the fasting plasma or in the weight of the body or organs. 18:0 was lost to feces mainly as cleaved from the primary positions but also as glycerol-bound. The 5-day intervention in rats was long enough to modify the fatty acid profile of plasma phospholipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.12.130DOI Listing
June 2019

Human Breast Milk NMR Metabolomic Profile across Specific Geographical Locations and Its Association with the Milk Microbiota.

Nutrients 2018 Sep 21;10(10). Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Functional Foods Forum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.

The composition of human breast milk is highly variable, and it can be influenced by genetics, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the impact of geographical location and mode of delivery on the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) metabolic profile of breast milk and its relationship with the milk microbiome. Human milk metabolic and microbiota profiles were determined using NMR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively, in 79 healthy women from Finland, Spain, South Africa, and China. Up to 68 metabolites, including amino acids, oligosaccharides, and fatty acid-associated metabolites, were identified in the milk NMR spectra. The metabolite profiles showed significant differences between geographical locations, with significant differences ( < 0.05) in the levels of galactose, lacto--fucopentaose III, lacto--fucopentaose I and 2-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose, lacto--difucohexaose II, lacto--fucopentaose III, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, proline, -acetyl lysine, methyl-histidine, dimethylamine, kynurenine, urea, creatine and creatine phosphate, formate, lactate, acetate, phosphocholine, acetylcholine, LDL, VLDL, ethanolamine, riboflavin, hippurate, spermidine, spermine and uridine. Additionally, the effect of caesarean section on milk metabolome was dependent on the geographical region. Specific interrelations between human milk metabolites and microbiota were also identified. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli were most significantly associated with the milk metabolites, being either positively or negatively correlated depending on the metabolite. Our results reveal specific milk metabolomic profiles across geographical locations and also highlight the potential interactions between human milk's metabolites and microbes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10101355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213536PMC
September 2018

Low-FODMAP regular rye bread in irritable bowel syndrome: Randomized SmartPill study.

World J Gastroenterol 2018 Mar;24(11):1259-1268

Division of Nutrition, Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FI-00790, Finland.

Aim: To compare the effects of regular low-FODMAP rye bread on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and to study gastrointestinal conditions with SmartPill.

Methods: Our aim was to evaluate if rye bread low in FODMAPs would cause reduced hydrogen excretion, lower intraluminal pressure, higher colonic pH, different transit times, and fewer IBS symptoms than regular rye bread. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled cross-over meal study. Female IBS patients ( = 7) ate study breads at three consecutive meals during one day. The diet was similar for both study periods except for the FODMAP content of the bread consumed during the study day. Intraluminal pH, transit time, and pressure were measured by SmartPill, an indigestible motility capsule.

Results: Hydrogen excretion (a marker of colonic fermentation) expressed as area under the curve (AUC) was [median (range)] 6300 (1785-10800) ppm∙min for low-FODMAP rye bread and 10 635 (4215-13080) ppm∙min for regular bread ( = 0.028). Mean scores of gastrointestinal symptoms showed no statistically significant differences but suggested less flatulence after low-FODMAP bread consumption ( = 0.063). Intraluminal pressure correlated significantly with total symptom score after regular rye bread (ρ = 0.786, = 0.036) and nearly significantly after low-FODMAP bread consumption (ρ = 0.75, = 0.052). We found no differences in pH, pressure, or transit times between the breads. Gastric residence of SmartPill was slower than expected. SmartPill left the stomach in less than 5 h only during one measurement (out of 14 measurements in total) and therefore did not follow on par with the rye bread bolus.

Conclusion: Low-FODMAP rye bread reduced colonic fermentation regular rye bread. No difference was found in median values of intraluminal conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v24.i11.1259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5859228PMC
March 2018

Effects of Insect Herbivory on Bilberry Production and Removal of Berries by Frugivores.

J Chem Ecol 2017 Apr 3;43(4):422-432. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014, Turku, FI, Finland.

The evolutionary purpose of a fleshy fruit is to attract seed dispersers and get the seeds dispersed by frugivorous animals. For this reason, fruits should be highly rewarding to these mutualists. However, insect herbivory can alter plant reproductive success e.g. by decreasing fruit yield or affecting the attractiveness of the fruits to mutualistic seed dispersers. Under natural conditions, we tested the effects of experimental larval-defoliation on berry ripening and consumption of a non-cultivated dwarf shrub, the bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which produces animal-dispersed berries with high sugar and anthocyanin concentration. Bilberry ramets with high fruit yield were most likely to have their berries foraged, indicating that frugivores made foraging choices based on the abundance of berries. Moreover, the probability for berries being foraged was the lowest for non-defoliated ramets that grew adjacent to larval-defoliated ramets, even though larval-defoliation did not affect the biochemical composition (total concentrations of anthocyanins, sugars and organic acids) or the probability of ripening of berries. We hypothesise that the lower probability for berries being foraged in these ramets may be a consequence of rhizome- or volatile-mediated communication between ramets, resulting in a priming effect of the herbivore defence and lower attractiveness of the non-defoliated ramets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-017-0838-8DOI Listing
April 2017

Breast Milk Polyamines and Microbiota Interactions: Impact of Mode of Delivery and Geographical Location.

Ann Nutr Metab 2017 17;70(3):184-190. Epub 2017 Mar 17.

Functional Foods Forum, Turku, Finland.

Background/aims: The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the polyamine levels in human milk obtained from different countries and through different modes of delivery, and to investigate their association with breast milk microbes.

Methods: Mature breast milk samples were obtained from 78 healthy mothers after 1 month of lactation from 4 different geographical locations: Finland, Spain (Europe); South Africa (Africa); and China (Asia). Polyamines were determined using HPLC after dansyl derivatization and milk microbiota was obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

Results: The mean values of polyamines in breast milk were 70.0, 424.2, and 610.0 nmol/dL for putrescine, spermidine and spermine, respectively, and 1,170.9 nmol/dL of total polyamines. The levels of putrescine were significantly higher in Spain (p < 0.05) and spermidine levels were significantly higher in Finland (p < 0.05) compared with other countries. Cesarean delivery had an impact on polyamine levels and it was related to an increase in the putrescine concentration being significant in Spanish samples (p < 0.01). Furthermore, putrescine levels were correlated positively with Gammaproteobacteria (r = 0.46, p < 0.001), especially with Pseudomonas fragi (r = 0.40, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The results demonstrate significant effect of geographical variations in human milk polyamine concentrations, being correlated with human milk microbiota composition. These differences may have an impact on infant development during lactation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000457134DOI Listing
February 2018

Distinct Patterns in Human Milk Microbiota and Fatty Acid Profiles Across Specific Geographic Locations.

Front Microbiol 2016 13;7:1619. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Functional Foods Forum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku Turku, Finland.

Breast feeding results in long term health benefits in the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases at both individual and population levels. Geographical location directly impacts the composition of breast milk including microbiota and lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location, i.e., Europe (Spain and Finland), Africa (South Africa), and Asia (China), on breast milk microbiota and lipid composition in samples obtained from healthy mothers after the 1 month of lactation. Altogether, 80 women (20 from each country) participated in the study, with equal number of women who delivered by vaginal or cesarean section from each country. Lipid composition particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between the countries, with the highest amount of n-6 PUFA (25.6%) observed in the milk of Chinese women. Milk microbiota composition also differed significantly between the countries ( = 0.002). Among vaginally delivered women, Spanish women had highest amount of Bacteroidetes (mean relative abundance of 3.75) whereas Chinese women had highest amount of Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 5.7). Women who had had a cesarean section had higher amount of Proteobacteria as observed in the milk of the Spanish and South African women. Interestingly, the Spanish and South African women had significantly higher bacterial genes mapped to lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism ( < 0.05). Association of the lipid profile with the microbiota revealed that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were negatively associated with Proteobacteria ( = -0.43, < 0.05), while genus was associated with MUFA ( = -0.23, = 0.04). These findings reveal that the milk microbiota and lipid composition exhibit differences based on geographical locations in addition to the differences observed due to the mode of delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5061857PMC
October 2016

Comparison of the postprandial effects of purple-fleshed and yellow-fleshed potatoes in healthy males with chemical characterization of the potato meals.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2015 Aug 10;67(5):581-91. Epub 2016 May 10.

a Division of Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry , University of Turku , Turku , Finland ;

The aim of the current study was to characterize the anthocyanin content and composition of a purple potato landrace cultivar (Solanum tuberosum 'Synkeä Sakari') and to compare the postprandial effects of purple-fleshed potatoes, yellow-fleshed potatoes and bilberries in potato starch on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy males. The purple potato meal caused smaller insulinemia than the yellow potato meal (iAUC 120 min 1347 and 2226, respectively, p = 0.012 and iAUC 240 min 1448 and 2403, p = 0.007) or the bilberry meal (iAUC 120 min 1920, p = 0.027). The purple potato meal caused a smaller plasma glucose at 40 min postprandially compared with the yellow potato meal (p = 0.044). The results of this study suggest that anthocyanin-containing purple-fleshed potatoes influence the postprandial insulinemia positively. Since potatoes are the world's largest non-grain commodity, replacing yellow-fleshed potatoes with purple-fleshed potatoes as staple food could have large potential in maintaining public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2016.1181157DOI Listing
August 2015
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