Publications by authors named "K Yadav"

707 Publications

Transformation of hazardous sacred incense sticks ash waste into less toxic product by sequential approach prior to their disposal into the water bodies.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Incense sticks ash is one of the most unexplored by-products generated at religious places and houses obtained after the combustion of incense sticks. Every year, tonnes of incense sticks ash is produced at religious places in India which are disposed of into the rivers and water bodies. The presence of heavy metals and high content of alkali metals challenges a potential threat to the living organism after the disposal in the river. The leaching of heavy metals and alkali metals may lead to water pollution. Besides this, incense sticks also have a high amount of calcium, silica, alumina, and ferrous along with traces of rutile and other oxides either in crystalline or amorphous phases. The incense sticks ash, heavy metals, and alkali metals can be extracted by water, mineral acids, and alkali. Ferrous can be extracted by magnetic separation, while calcium by HCl, alumina by sulfuric acid treatment, and silica by strong hydroxides like NaOH. The recovery of such elements by using acids and bases will eliminate their toxic heavy metals at the same time recovering major value-added minerals from it. Here, in the present research work, the effect on the elemental composition, morphology, crystallinity, and size of incense sticks ash particles was observed by extracting ferrous, followed by extraction of calcium by HCl and alumina by HSO at 90-95 °C for 90 min. The final residue was treated with 4 M NaOH, in order to extract leachable silica at 90 °C for 90 min along with continuous stirring. The transformation of various minerals phases and microstructures of incense sticks ash (ISA) and other residues during ferrous, extraction, calcium, and alumina and silica extraction was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). DLS was used for analyzing the size during the experiments while FTIR helped in the confirmation of the formation of new products during the treatments. From the various instrumental analyses, it was found that the toxic metals present in the initial incense sticks ash got eliminated. Besides this, the major alkali metals, i.e., Ca and Mg, got reduced during these successive treatments. Initially, there were mainly irregular shaped, micron-sized particles that were dominant in the incense sticks ash particles. Besides this, there were plenty of carbon particles left unburned during combustion. In the final residue, nanosized flowers shaped along with cuboidal micron-sized particles were dominant. present in If, such sequential techniques will be applied by the industries based on recycling of incense sticks ash, then not only the solid waste pollution will be reduced but also numerous value-added minerals like ferrous, silica, alumina calcium oxides and carbonates can be recovered from such waste. The value-added minerals could act as an economical and sustainable source of adsorbent for wastewater treatment in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15009-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Automated COVID-19 diagnosis and classification using convolutional neural network with fusion based feature extraction model.

Cogn Neurodyn 2021 Sep 10:1-14. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Science, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, UK.

COVID-19 was first identified in December 2019 at Wuhan, China. At present, the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in severe consequences on both economic and social infrastructures of the developed and developing countries. Several studies have been conducted and ongoing still to design efficient models for diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients. The traditional diagnostic models that use reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-qPCR) is a costly and time-consuming process. So, automated COVID-19 diagnosis using Deep Learning (DL) models becomes essential. The primary intention of this study is to design an effective model for diagnosis and classification of COVID-19. This research work introduces an automated COVID-19 diagnosis process using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with a fusion-based feature extraction model, called FM-CNN. FM-CNN model has three major phases namely, pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification. Initially, Wiener Filtering (WF)-based preprocessing is employed to discard the noise that exists in input chest X-Ray (CXR) images. Then, the pre-processed images undergo fusion-based feature extraction model which is a combination of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRM), and Local Binary Patterns (LBP). In order to determine the optimal subset of features, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed. At last, CNN is deployed as a classifier to identify the existence of binary and multiple classes of CXR images. In order to validate the proficiency of the proposed FM-CNN model in terms of its diagnostic performance, extension experimentation was carried out upon CXR dataset. As per the results attained from simulation, FM-CNN model classified multiple classes with the maximum sensitivity of 97.22%, specificity of 98.29%, accuracy of 98.06%, and F-measure of 97.93%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11571-021-09712-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8431962PMC
September 2021

Appraisal of contamination of heavy metals and health risk in agricultural soil of Jhansi city, India.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Sep 13;88:103740. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Environment Science, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India.

The accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in soil is presently a significant threat to the environment. The Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Co concentrations were assessed in the agricultural soil samples. The results of various contamination indices including contamination factor, geo-accumulation indices, and ecological risk indices revealed that Cd is responsible for moderate to high contamination of soil. The multivariate statistical analyses including PCA, HCA, and correlation matrix suggested the mixed origin of HMs in the soil. Ingestion was found to be a primary route of exposure while dermal and inhalation exposure was negligible. Overall, the non-carcinogenic health risks were well within the safe limit to human health. However, healthwise, children were likely to be at greater risk compared with adults, due to their generally increased exposure to toxic agents through hand/mouth ingestion. Moreover, no carcinogenic risks were determined through the inhalation exposure of Cd, Ni, and Co.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2021.103740DOI Listing
September 2021

Seaweed-Based Molecules and Their Potential Biological Activities: An Eco-Sustainable Cosmetics.

Molecules 2021 Sep 1;26(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea.

Amongst the countless marine organisms, seaweeds are considered as one of the richest sources of biologically active ingredients having powerful biological activities. Seaweeds or marine macroalgae are macroscopic multicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms and have the potential to produce a large number of valuable compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, phenolic compounds, pigments, etc. Since it is a prominent source of bioactive constituents, it finds diversified industrial applications viz food and dairy, pharmaceuticals, medicinal, cosmeceutical, nutraceutical, etc. Moreover, seaweed-based cosmetic products are risen up in their demands by the consumers, as they see them as a promising alternative to synthetic cosmetics. Normally it contains purified biologically active compounds or extracts with several compounds. Several seaweed ingredients that are useful in cosmeceuticals are known to be effective alternatives with significant benefits. Many seaweeds' species demonstrated skin beneficial activities, such as antioxidant, anti-melanogenesis, antiaging, photoprotection, anti-wrinkle, moisturizer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant properties, as well as certain antimicrobial activities, such as antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. This review presents applications of bioactive molecules derived from marine algae as a potential substitute for its current applications in the cosmetic industry. The biological activities of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and pigments are discussed as safe sources of ingredients for the consumer and cosmetic industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434260PMC
September 2021

A study of thyroid profile in patients suffering from the first episode of mania: A cross-sectional study.

Indian J Psychiatry 2021 Jul-Aug;63(4):395-399. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Psychiatry, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Background: Thyroid function is commonly considered in the assessment of mood disorders. Reports of thyroid dysregulation in patients with mania are associated with several confounding factors. To eliminate confounding factors, studies of first-episode mania are desirable. This study tried to find out any relationship between thyroid disorders and mania.

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the thyroid profile between first-episode mania and healthy controls and to ascertain the correlation between severity and duration of the manic episode with FT3, FT4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels.

Materials And Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital. Forty consecutive drug-naïve patients with first-episode mania, diagnosed according to the International Classification of Disease-10 (study group), were matched with 40 healthy controls (control group). Both the groups were compared on the basis of thyroid profile and thyroid levels were correlated with duration and severity of illness in the study group.

Results: Nearly 7.5% of cases in the study group had hyperthyroidism, whereas 5% had subclinical hyperthyroidism. In contrast, normal controls showed 5% and 10% prevalence of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism, respectively. A statistically significant lower level of TSH was observed in the study group ( < 0.001), whereas the mean serum levels of FT3 and FT4 were higher in the study group, but the difference was statistically nonsignificant. No significant correlation of thyroid hormones level with duration and severity of illness was noted.

Conclusion: Our findings highlight a higher prevalence of hyperthyroidism in patients with mania and suggest the role of thyroid hormones in mania.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_33_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363898PMC
August 2021
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