Publications by authors named "Juntao Feng"

74 Publications

Potential value of small-molecule organic acids for the control of postharvest gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Aug 26;177:104884. Epub 2021 May 26.

College of plant protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China; Shaanxi Research Center of Biopesticide Engineering & Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, a total of 21 natural or synthetic small-molecule organic acids were selected and determined for their activity against postharvest gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, cuminic acid, which was extracted from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L, showed the most promising antifungal activity against B. cinerea both in vitro and in vivo. The study on action mechanism showed that cuminic acid could inhibit the development of sclerotia and the secretion of oxalic acid, destroy the cell membrane integrity, and down regulate the expression of several key genes involved in sclerotia development and pathogenicity of B. cinerea. Furthermore, cuminic acid could potentially reduce the degradation of TSS and TA content, while it had no significant effect on the weight loss, firmness, and VC content of apple and tomato. Importantly, cuminic acid could enhance the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fruits. All these results demonstrate the antifungal activity and highlight the great potential of cuminic acid as an alternative environmental-friendly agent for the control of postharvest gray mold both on fruits and vegetables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2021.104884DOI Listing
August 2021

Altered circulating CCR6and CXCR3 T cell subsets are associated with poor renal prognosis in MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 Jul 21;23(1):194. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Nephrology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China.

Background: Effector memory T cells are pivotal effectors of adaptive immunity with enhanced migration characteristics and are involved in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). The diversity of effector memory T cells in chemokine receptor expression has been well studied in proteinase 3 (PR3)-AAV. However, few studies have been conducted in myeloperoxidase (MPO)-AAV. Here, we characterized chemokine receptor expression on effector memory T cells from patients with active MPO-AAV.

Methods: Clinical data from newly diagnosed MPO-AAV patients and healthy subjects were collected and analyzed. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients with active MPO-AAV were analyzed by flow cytometry. The production of effector memory T cell-related chemokines in serum was assessed by ELISA.

Results: We observed decreased percentages of CD4 and CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood, accompanied by a significant decrease in CCR6-expressing T cells but an increase in CXCR3 T cells, in active MPO-AAV. Furthermore, the decrease in CCR6 and increase in CXCR3 expression were mainly limited to effector memory T cells. Consistent with this finding, the serum level of CCL20 was increased. In addition, a decreasing trend in the T17 cell frequency, with concomitant increases in the frequencies of CD4 T1 and CD4 T17.1 cells, was observed when T cell functional subsets were defined by chemokine receptor expression. Moreover, the proportions of peripheral CD8 T cells and CD4 T subsets were correlated with renal prognosis and inflammatory markers.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that dysregulated chemokine receptor expression on CD4 and CD8 effector memory T cells and aberrant distribution of functional CD4 T cell subsets in patients with active MPO-AAV have critical roles related to kidney survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-021-02576-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293504PMC
July 2021

Anaphylatoxins orchestrate Th17 response via interactions between CD16+ monocytes and pleural mesothelial cells in tuberculous pleural effusion.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 8;15(7):e0009508. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of nephrology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

The complement system is activated in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE), with increased levels of the anaphylatoxins stimulating pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) to secrete chemokines, which recruit nonclassical monocytes to the pleural cavity. The differentiation and recruitment of naive CD4+ T cells are induced by pleural cytokines and PMC-produced chemokines in TPE. However, it is unclear whether anaphylatoxins orchestrate CD4+ T cell response via interactions between PMCs and monocytes in TPE. In this study, CD16+ and CD16- monocytes isolated from TPE patients were cocultured with PMCs pretreated with anaphylatoxins. After removing the PMCs, the conditioned monocytes were cocultured with CD4+ T cells. The levels of the cytokines were measured in PMCs and monocyte subsets treated separately with anaphylatoxins. The costimulatory molecules were assessed in conditioned monocyte subsets. Furthermore, CD4+ T cell response was evaluated in different coculture systems. The results indicated that anaphylatoxins induced PMCs and CD16+ monocytes to secrete abundant cytokines capable of only inducing Th17 expansion, but Th1 was feeble. In addition, costimulatory molecules were more highly expressed in CD16+ than in CD16- monocytes isolated from TPE. The interactions between monocytes and PMCs enhanced the ability of PMCs and monocytes to produce cytokines and that of monocytes to express HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, which synergistically induced Th17 expansion. In the above process, anaphylatoxins enhanced the interactions between monocytes and PMCs by increasing the level of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and upregulating the phenotype of CD40 and CD80 in CD16+ monocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that anaphylatoxins play a central role in orchestrating Th17 response mainly via interactions between CD16+ monocytes and PMCs in TPE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009508DOI Listing
July 2021

Aberrant Methylation of Aging-Related Genes in Asthma.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 25;8:655285. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Asthma is a complex pulmonary inflammatory disease which is common among older adults. Aging-related alterations have also been found in structural cells and immune cells of asthma patients. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism by which differenced aging-related gene contributes to asthma pathology remains unclear. Of note, DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proven to play a critical mechanism for age-related gene expression changes. However, the methylation changes of aging-related genes in asthma patients are still obscure. First, changes in DNAm and gene expression were detected with multiple targeted bisulfite enrichment sequencing (MethTarget) and qPCR in peripheral blood of 51 healthy controls (HCs) and 55 asthmatic patients. Second, the correlation between the DNAm levels of specific altered CpG sites and the pulmonary function indicators of asthma patients was evaluated. Last, the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify the feasibility of the candidate CpG sites as biomarkers for asthma. Compared with HCs, there was a differential mRNA expression for nine aging-related genes in peripheral blood of asthma patients. Besides, the methylation levels of the nine aging-related genes were also altered in asthma patients, and a total of 68 CpG sites were associated with the severity of asthma. Notably, 9 of the 68 CpG sites were significantly associated with pulmonary function parameters. Moreover, ROC curve and PCA analysis showed that the candidate differential methylation sites (DMSs) can be used as potential biomarkers for asthma. In summary, this study confirmed the differentially expressed mRNA and aberrant DNAm level of aging-related genes in asthma patients. DMSs are associated with the clinical evaluation indicators of asthma, which indicate the involvement of aging-related genes in the pathogenesis of asthma and provide some new possible biomarkers for asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.655285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203316PMC
May 2021

Subcuticular sutures versus staples for skin closure in patients undergoing abdominal surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0251022. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People's Republic of China.

Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common postoperative complications. Whether the use of staples or sutures makes a difference in abdominal surgery's infection rate remains elusive.

Methods: A systematic review was performed to identify randomized clinical trials comparing staples and sutures after abdominal surgeries. Eligibility criteria involved the SSI occurrence as the primary outcome and the incidence of wound dehiscence, closure time, cosmesis, and patient satisfaction as the secondary outcomes.

Results: Of the 278 studies identified, seven randomized controlled trials representing 3705 patients were included in this review. There was no significant difference in SSI rates between sutures and staples in general (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.79-1.22, I2 = 44%, P = 0.1) or in a subgroup of gastrointestinal surgery, where subcuticular suturing was found with a comparable SSI risk with skin stapling (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.66-1.09). Staple closure was associated with a shorter surgery duration, whereas sutures appeared to provide better cosmesis and patient satisfaction. Sutures and staples achieved a comparable incidence of dehiscence. There was no significant between-study publication bias.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated similar outcomes in SSI rate between subcuticular sutures and staples for skin closure in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251022PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096075PMC
May 2021

Osthole Attenuates Macrophage Activation in Experimental Asthma by Inhibitingthe NF-ĸB/MIF Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:572463. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, China.

Inhibition of activated macrophages is an alternative therapeutic strategy for asthma. We investigated whether a coumarin compound, osthole, isolated from (L.) Cuss, alleviated macrophage activation and . Osthole could reduce expression of a marker of activated macrophages, cluster of differentiation (CD)206, in an ovalbumin-challenge model of asthma in mice. Osthole could also inhibit infiltration of inflammatory cells, collagen deposition and production of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-ɑ, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)] in asthmatic mice. , expression of phosphorylated-IĸBɑ, MIF and M2 cytokines (Ym-1, Fizz-1, arginase-1) in IL-4-induced macrophages decreased upon exposure to the NF-ĸB inhibitor MG-132. In our short hairpin (sh)RNA-MIF-knockdown model, reduced expression of M2 cytokines was detected in the IL-4 + shRNA-MIF group. Osthole could attenuate the proliferation and migration of an IL-4-induced rat alveolar macrophages line (NR8383). Osthole could reduce IL-4-induced translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) in NR8383 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that osthole ameliorates macrophage activation in asthma by suppressing the NF-ĸB/MIF signaling pathway, and might be a potential agent for treating asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.572463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020258PMC
March 2021

Epidemiological and clinical features in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 outside of Wuhan, China: Special focus in asymptomatic patients.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 03 10;15(3):e0009248. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Objectives: In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan City and rapidly spread across the world. The clinical characteristics of affected patients in different regions and populations may differ. Thus, this study aimed to identify the characteristics of the disease to provide an insight about the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

Methods: Data on the demographic characteristics and clinical findings of the patients admitted at the First Hospital of Changsha from January 1, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were assessed.

Results: In this study, there were 8 (3.8%) asymptomatic, 21 (10.0%) mild upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), and 180 (86.1%) pneumonia cases. In total, 47 (22.5%) patients resided in Wuhan, and 45 (21.5%) had recently traveled to Wuhan before disease onset. Moreover, 19 (9.1%) had contact with people from Wuhan, and 69 (33.0%) were family cluster cases. The median incubation period was approximately 6.3 (range: 1.0-20.0) days. Fever and cough were the most common initial symptoms: 99 (49.3%) patients presented with fever, without cough; 59 (29.4%) with cough, without fever; and 33 (16.4%) with both fever and cough.

Conclusion: The symptoms of patients with COVID-19 were relatively mild outside Wuhan, and family cluster was a remarkable epidemic characteristic. Special attention should be paid to asymptomatic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984620PMC
March 2021

Aberrant central plasticity underlying synchronous sensory phenomena in brachial plexus injuries after contralateral cervical seventh nerve transfer.

Brain Behav 2021 04 6;11(4):e02064. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Backgrounds: Contralateral cervical seventh (C7) nerve transfer aids motor and sensory recovery in total brachial plexus avulsion injuries (TBPI), but synchronous sensation often persists postoperatively. The mechanism underlying synchronous sensory phenomena remain largely unknown.

Objective: To investigate the role of central plasticity in sensory recovery after contralateral C7 nerve transfer.

Methods: Sixteen right TBPI patients who received contralateral C7 nerve transfer for more than 2 years were included. Sensory evaluations included Semmes-Weinstein monofilament assessment (SWM), synchronous sensation test, and sensory evoked action potential (SNAP) test. Smaller value in the SWM assessment and larger amplitude of SNAP indicates better tactile sensory. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed while stimulations delivered to each hand separately in block-design trials for central plasticity analysis.

Results: The SWM value of the injured right hand was increased compared with the healthy left side (difference: 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-2.15, p < .001), and all 16 patients developed synchronous sensation. In functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis, sensory representative areas of the injured right hand were located in its ipsilateral S1, and 23.4% of this area overlapped with the representative area of the left hand. The ratio of overlap for each patient was significantly correlated with SWM value and SNAP amplitude of the right hand.

Conclusion: The tactile sensory functioning of the injured hand was dominated by its ipsilateral SI in long-term observation, and its representative area largely overlapped with the representative area of the intact hand, which possibly reflected a key mechanism of synchronous sensation in patients with TBPI after contralateral C7 transfer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035429PMC
April 2021

A novel glycoprotein from Streptomyces sp. triggers early responses of plant defense.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jan 6;171:104719. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

College of Plant Protection, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

GP-1, a novel glycoprotein from Streptomyces sp. ZX01 has a plant immunity-inducing effect. GP-1-treated plants exhibited enhanced systemic resistance with a significant reduction in TMV lesions on tobacco leaves, but its antiviral mechanism remains unclear. In this study, early plant defense-related responses, such as Ca influx, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response, programmed cell death, increase in nitric oxide (NO), and stomatal closure, were investigated under GP-1 treatment, and the mechanism of how GP-1 induces viral resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana was studied. Results showed that GP-1 induced [Ca] rapidly in tobacco leaves and suspended cells, followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO elevation. Transcriptome analysis showed significant differences in expression levels between the GP-1-treated N. benthamiana and the control and showed significantly upregulated and enriched pathways including defense and immune reaction. Similar to typical pathogen-associated molecular patterns, GP-1 induced callose deposition and stomatal closure to form defense barriers against pathogen invasion. The expression of defense-related genes further confirmed the above conclusions. By analyzing transcriptome in N. benthamiana and the contents of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), GP-1 enhanced viral resistance of tobacco by improving the SA and JA contents, strengthening plant secondary metabolites activities, promoting systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins in TMV- inoculated tobacco there by producing antiviral activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.104719DOI Listing
January 2021

HO signaling modulates Glycoprotein-1 induced programmed cell death in tobacco suspension cells.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jan 2;171:104697. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

College of Plant Protection, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Glycoprotein (GP)-1 is a glycoprotein elicitor with antiviral activity found in Streptomyces kanasensis zx01. GP-1 can induce programmed cell death (PCD) in vitro; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that GP-1 induced PCD in tobacco suspension cells, which was modulated by hydrogen peroxide (HO). GP-1 participated in and modulated biologically relevant signaling in plant cells. GP-1 induced tobacco cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner; affected the expression of BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) and the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), which are related to PCD; and enzymatic activities and mitochondrial functions. In conclusion, GP-1-induced PCD in tobacco may be mediated by HO which alters BAK1 and SA levels, as well as mitochondrial and gene function. This cell signal cascade played an important role in the process of GP-1 induced plant disease resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.104697DOI Listing
January 2021

[Comparison of the predictive value of tip-apex distance and calcar referenced tip-apex distance in treatment of femoral intertrochanteric fractures with Asian type proximal femoral nail fixation].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Nov;34(11):1359-1363

Department of Orthopaedics, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, P.R.China.

Objective: To compare the predictive value of the two concepts for complications by comparing the incidences of surgical complications associated with different tip-apex distance (TAD) and calcar referenced tip-apex distance (Cal-TAD) in the treatment of femoral intertrochanteric fractures with Asian type proximal femoral nail (APFN) fixation.

Methods: A total of 188 cases of femoral intertrochanteric fractures treated with APFN fixation between January 2014 and December 2018 were collected according to inclusion criteria. TAD and Cal-TAD were measured on the X-ray film at immediate after operation; the patients were divided into two groups according to the measurement results: <25 mm and ≥25 mm. Gender, age, and fracture side and AO type were recorded. The patients in each group were reviewed whether there was delayed fracture union or nonunion, whether the screw blade moved axially, whether the femoral neck collapsed or even screw blade cut out, whether the internal fixator became loose or broken within 12 months after operation. Then statistical analysis was performed.

Results: There were 119 patients with TAD<25 mm and 69 patients with TAD≥25 mm, and 142 patients with Cal-TAD<25 mm and 46 patients with Cal-TAD≥25 mm. There was no significant difference in gender, age, or fracture side and AO type between groups ( >0.05). During the follow-up, 6 patients (5.04%) with TAD<25 mm, 10 patients (14.49%) with TAD≥25 mm had complications, and 1 patient (0.70%) with Cal-TAD<25 mm and 15 patients (32.61%) with Cal-TAD≥25 mm had complications. There were significant differences in the incidence of complication between the patients with different TAD, between the patients with different Cal-TAD, and between patients with TAD<25 mm and Cal-TAD<25 mm ( <0.05).

Conclusion: In the operation of femoral intertrochanteric fracture with APFN fixation, surgical complications can be significantly reduced when TAD or Cal-TAD was controlled within 25 mm, Cal-TAD is more significant in the prediction of postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202004090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171705PMC
November 2020

A functional analysis of mitochondrial respiratory chain cytochrome bc complex in Gaeumannomyces tritici by RNA silencing as a possible target of carabrone.

Mol Plant Pathol 2020 12 30;21(12):1529-1544. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Engineering and Research Center of Biological Pesticide of Shaanxi Province, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Gaeumannomyces tritici, an ascomycete soilborne fungus, causes a devastating root disease in wheat. Carabrone, a botanical bicyclic sesquiterpenic lactone, is a promising fungicidal agent that can effectively control G. tritici. However, the mechanism of action of carabrone against G. tritici remains largely unclear. Here, we used immunogold for subcellular localization of carabrone and the results showed that carabrone is subcellularly localized in the mitochondria of G. tritici. We then explored the functional analysis of genes GtCytc , GtCytb, and GtIsp of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cytochrome bc complex in G. tritici by RNA silencing as a possible target of carabrone. The results showed that the silenced mutant ∆GtIsp is less sensitive to carabrone compared to ∆GtCytc and ∆GtCytb. Compared with the control, the activities of complex III in all the strains, except ∆GtIsp and carabrone-resistant isolate 24-HN-1, were significantly decreased following treatment with carabrone at EC and EC in vitro (40%-50% and 70%-80%, respectively). The activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III and the mitochondrial respiration oxygen consumption rates in all the strains, except ∆GtIsp and 24-HN-1, were higher with respect to the control when treated with carabrone at EC in vivo. The rates of mitochondrial respiration of all strains, except ∆GtIsp, were significantly inhibited following treatment with carabrone at EC (ranging from 57% to 81%). This study reveals that the targeting of the iron-sulphur protein encoded by GtIsp is highly sensitive to carabrone and provides a direction for the research of carabrone's target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694678PMC
December 2020

Respiratory syncytial virus infection-induced mucus secretion by down-regulation of miR-34b/c-5p expression in airway epithelial cells.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 11 16;24(21):12694-12705. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Severe RSV infection is the main cause of hospitalization to children under the age of five. The regulation of miRNAs on the severity of RSV infection is unclear. The aim of the study was to identify the critical differential expression miRNAs (DE miRNAs) that can regulate the pathological response in RSV-infected airway epithelial cells. In this study, miRNA and mRNA chips of RSV-infected airway epithelia from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were screened and analysed, separately. DE miRNAs-targeted genes were performed for further pathway and process enrichment analysis. DE miRNA-targeted gene functional network was constructed on the basis of miRNA-mRNA interaction. The screened critical miRNA was also investigated by bioinformatics analysis. Then, RSV-infected human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were constructed to verify the expression of the DE miRNAs. Finally, specific synthetic DE miRNAs mimics were used to confirm the effect of DE miRNAs on the RSV-infected HBECs. 45 DE miRNAs were identified from GEO62306 dataset. Our results showed that hsa-mir-34b-5p and hsa-mir-34c-5p decreased significantly in HBECs after RSV infection. Consistent with the biometric analysis, hsa-mir-34b/c-5p is involved in the regulation of mucin expression gene MUC5AC. In RSV-infected HBECs, the inducement of MUC5AC production by decreased hsa-mir-34b/c-5p was partly mediated through activation of c-Jun. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of mucus obstruction after RSV infection and represent valuable targets for RSV infection and airway obstruction treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687004PMC
November 2020

Baseline Sensitivity and Toxic Action of the Sterol Demethylation Inhibitor Flusilazole Against .

Plant Dis 2020 Nov 27;104(11):2986-2993. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

College of Plant Protection, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

In the present study, a total of 95 single-spore strains collected from different hosts in Shaanxi Province of China were characterized for their sensitivity to the sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicide flusilazole. The effective concentration for 50% inhibition of mycelial growth (EC) of flusilazole ranged from 0.021 to 0.372 µg/ml, with an average value of 0.093 µg/ml. Cross-resistance between flusilazole and commonly used fungicides was not detected, and no flusilazole-resistant mutants were induced. Both on detached strawberry leaves and in greenhouse experiments, flusilazole was more effective than the commonly used fungicide carbendazim at reducing gray mold. After culture on PDA plates or detached strawberry leaves, no difference in sclerotia production or pathogenicity was detected between two strains, WG12 (most sensitive to flusilazole) and MX18 (least sensitive to flusilazole). After treatment with flusilazole, however, the two strains lost the ability to produce sclerotia, and oxalic acid and ergosterol contents in mycelium decreased. Interestingly, the inhibition rate of ergosterol content in MX18 was significantly lower than that in WG12. Expression of , , and genes all increased after treatment with flusilazole, especially the and genes. However, the expression of gene or gene in WG12 and MX18 were significantly different from each other after treatment with flusilazole. In addition, no point mutations in gene were found in MX18. These data suggest flusilazole is a promising fungicide for resistance management of gray mold and also provided novel insights into understanding the resistance mechanism of flusilazole against plant pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2478-REDOI Listing
November 2020

Anti-TMV activity and mode of action of three alkaloids isolated from Chelidonium majus.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jan 15;77(1):510-517. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

College of Plant Protection, Engineering and Technology Centers of Biopesticide in Shaanxi, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, China.

Background: Plant viral diseases are difficult to control and have caused serious damage to the agricultural industry. Recently, botanical biopesticides characterized by environment friendly, safe to non-target organism and not as susceptible to produce drug resistance, have exhibited great potential to be developed as antiviral agents. To screen the natural products with antiviral effect, three alkaloids possessed anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activity were isolated from Chelidonium majus and the modes of action were investigated.

Result: The anti-TMV effect of crude extracts at 10 mg mL was 51.73%. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of the compounds with anti-TMV activity were performed on the methanol extract of C. majus yielding three bioactive alkaloids namely: chelerythrine (1), chelidonine (2), and sanguinarine (3). The results of bioassay showed that chelerythrine exhibited great inactivation, proliferation inhibition and protection effects against TMV at 0.5 mg mL with the efficiency of 72.67%, 77.52% and 59.34%, respectively. Chelidonine at 0.1 mg mL can provide 54.90% and 64.45% inhibitions on TMV through inducing resistance in two kinds of tobacco. Sanguinarine showed a weaker protection for resisting TMV in comparison to chelerythrine and chelidonine.

Conclusion: Chelerythrine and chelidonine displayed significant inhibitions on TMV with different modes of action. These results provided important evidence that the extracts in C. majus might be a potential source of new drugs in controlling virus disease agriculturally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6049DOI Listing
January 2021

Reticine A, a new potent natural elicitor: isolation from the fruit peel of Citrus reticulate and induction of systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus and other plant fungal diseases.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jan 4;77(1):354-364. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

College of Plant Protection, Engineering and Technology Centers of Biopesticide in Shaanxi, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Background: Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) induced by elicitors is a highly satisfying form of resistance that protects plants against invading pathogens. Exploration and development of new elicitors is a promising alternative to conventional biocides in resistant pest management. In our previous broad screening, fruit peel extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco exhibited the ability to induce SAR in tobacco.

Result: A new potent elicitor reticine A was isolated from the fruit peel extract of industrial crop C. reticulate and its structure was well elucidated. In vivo assays showed that reticine A had considerable control efficacies at 100 and 500 μg mL , being superior to commercial elicitor benzothiadiazole (BTH) (100 μg mL ). Reticine A had no significant impact on the virulence of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) particles under in vitro conditions. Application of reticine A induced a local hypersensitive reaction (HR), systemic accumulation of H O and salicylic acid (SA), systemic increase in defensive enzyme activities and systemic upregulated expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, suggesting its induction of SAR in tobacco. The expression of NPR1 and SA biosynthesis genes ICS and PAL were systemically upregulated.

Conclusion: SAR induced by reticine A against TMV in tobacco was demonstrated and the mechanism might be attributed to activating the expression of several defensive genes mediated by an SA signal. This study highlights the potential of reticine A which is recommended to be applied directly or as an active ingredient in the crude extract formulation ahead of time in the field, as well as being a potential lead compound for further optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6025DOI Listing
January 2021

Anaphylatoxins enhance Th9 cell recruitment via the CCL20-CCR6 axis in IgA nephropathy.

J Nephrol 2020 Oct 8;33(5):1027-1036. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Department of Nephrology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, 410008, China.

Background: CD4 T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN); T helper (Th) 1, Th17 and Th22 cells promote the occurrence and amplification of inflammatory reactions, while regulatory T (Treg) cells produce the opposite effects. However, whether Th9 cells, a subset of CD4 T cells, participate in IgAN development is still unknown.

Methods: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from IgAN patients for Th9 cells detection by flow cytometry. Wild-type (WT) mouse was used to establish an IgAN mouse model while C3aR and C5aR inhibitor treated IgAN mouse. Kidney disease and function was assessed by histology and albumin-to-creatinine ratio. C3aR and C5aR expression was examined by immunohistochemical (IHC) assay. Th9 cell proportions in the blood of IgAN mouse was detected. C3a, C5a and interleukin (IL)-9 levels were tested by ELISA. Moreover, co-culture system between human mesangial cells (HMCs) and CD4 T cells were constructed with or without C3a, C5a and anti-CCL20 mAb stimulation for transwell assay to examine Th9 cell chemotaxis.

Results: We observed the numbers of Th9 cell and the levels of IL-9 were increased in IgAN patients and IgAN mice. Furthermore, C3a and C5a level in serum and kidney, C3aR and C5aR expression was increased in IgAN mice compared to WT mice. Most interestingly, C3aR and C5aR inhibitor could reduce kidney damage, Th9 cell numbers and IL-9 levels. We also observed that C3a and C5a enhanced CCL20 production in HMCs. Notably, C3a and C5a also increased the recruitment of Th9 cells and IL-9 levels by HMCs through enhancing the CCL20-CCR6 pathway.

Conclusions: Our results support that C3a and C5a increase the production of CCL20 by HMCs and consequently augment Th9 cell recruitment and IL-9 levels, resulting in IgAN exacerbation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-020-00708-1DOI Listing
October 2020

Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis With Elevated CEA Is Infrequent.

Arch Bronconeumol 2020 04 10;56(4):256-257. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Key Cite of National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arbres.2019.10.003DOI Listing
April 2020

Corrigendum: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Exacerbates Kidney Damages in IgA Nephropathy Mice via the C5a-C5aR1 Axis Orchestrating Th17 Cell Responses.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019;9:441. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Nephrology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00151.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934023PMC
December 2019

Berberine induces resistance against tobacco mosaic virus in tobacco.

Pest Manag Sci 2020 May 17;76(5):1804-1813. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

College of Plant Protection, Engineering and Technology Centers of Biopesticide in Shaanxi, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, China.

Background: Plant systemic resistance induced by botanical compounds is a promising alternative method of disease management. The natural product berberine, usually used as an antimicrobial in medicine, has been proven to have antifungal activity in agriculture. To investigate the induced resistance imparted by berberine, the effect of berberine against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the mechanism governing this effect were determined.

Result: Berberine exhibited considerable in vivo anti-TMV activity of up to 68.3% but had no in vitro direct effect on TMV. Moreover, berberine could induce immune responses against TMV in tobacco, including the hypersensitive reaction (HR), accumulation of H O , increases in defense enzymes and overexpression of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. In addition, upregulation of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis genes PAL, CM1, ICS, PBS3 and the enzyme benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H) confirmed that SA was involved in the defensive signals. Berberine can induce crop resistance against TMV, Phytophthora nicotianae, Botrytis cinerea and Blumeria graminis in the greenhouse.

Conclusion: This paper highlights the use of berberine in manipulating tobacco to generate defense responses against TMV, which can be attributed to SA-mediated induced resistance. The paper provides a theoretical basis for the application of berberine as a resistance activator and for further research on induced resistance by botanical natural product. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5709DOI Listing
May 2020

Contralateral cervical seventh nerve transfer for spastic arm paralysis via a modified prespinal route: a cadaveric study.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 01 18;162(1):141-146. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Middle Road, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Background: We proposed contralateral cervical seventh nerve transfer for spastic arm paralysis after central neurological injury in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) in 2018. In this surgery, we applied a new surgical route for nerve transfer, the Huashan prespinal route. The objective of this study was to elaborate our new surgical technique, clarify its relationship to the vertebral artery, and provide anatomical data on this novel method.

Methods: The effectiveness and safety of the Huashan prespinal route in contralateral C7 nerve transfer were evaluated anatomically. Nine cadavers (4 males, 5 females) were available for this study. Among these, anatomical parameters of the vertebral artery were obtained from 6 cadavers, and the anastomosis of the bilateral cervical seventh nerve was observed on 3 cadavers undergoing contralateral C7 nerve transfer via the Huashan prespinal route.

Results: Tension-free anastomosis of the bilateral cervical seventh nerve was achieved through the Huashan prespinal route. The tilt angle of the vertebral artery to the sagittal plane (with thyroid cartilage as the origin) was 25.5 ± 4.5°, at 22.5 ± 1.6° and 28.7 ± 4.3° on the left and right side, respectively. The safe drilling angle to penetrate through the longus colli muscles for the creation of a longus colli muscle tunnel to avoid injury to the vertebral artery in our surgical technique was above 33.2°.

Conclusions: The cadaveric study confirms that the presented technique allowed simple, effective, and safe contralateral C7 nerve transfer. This technique can be used in the treatment of hemiplegia and brachial plexus injury. There is a safe scope of drilling angle for creating the longus colli muscle tunnel required for this surgical route. The anatomical parameters obtained in this study will be helpful for the performance of this operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-04069-yDOI Listing
January 2020

Baseline Sensitivity and Action Mechanism of Propamidine Against , the Causal Agent of Dark Leaf Spot on Cabbage.

Plant Dis 2020 Jan 6;104(1):204-210. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Research and Development Center of Biorational Pesticides, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

In the current study, a total of 53 isolates of collected from Shaanxi Province of China were characterized for their sensitivity to propamidine. The EC (50% effective concentration) values for propamidine inhibiting mycelial growth and spore germination ranged from 0.515 to 3.247 µg/ml and 0.393 to 2.982 µg/ml, with average EC values of 1.327 ± 0.198 µg/ml and 1.106 ± 0.113 µg/ml, respectively. In greenhouse experiments, propamidine at 100 µg/ml provided >90% efficacy against dark leaf spot on cabbage, which was higher than the efficacy obtained by azoxystrobin at the same concentration. After treatment with propamidine, fungal growth distortions were observed in the form of excess mycelial branching, thickened cell walls, decreased cell membrane permeability, and increased chitin content. Interestingly, colony color faded after treatment with propamidine compared with that of the untreated parental isolates. Importantly, the expressions of melanin biosynthesis-associated genes , , , and were downregulated at different levels. The obtained baseline sensitivity and control efficacy data suggested that propamidine inhibited not only growth of but also melanin biosynthesis, which could reduce the biocompatibility of in the field. These biological characteristics encourage further investigation of the mechanism of action of propamidine against .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-19-0883-REDOI Listing
January 2020

Letter to the Editor Regarding "Treatment of Central Paralysis of Upper Extremity Using Contralateral C7 Nerve Transfer via Posterior Spinal Route".

World Neurosurg 2019 08;128:618-619

Department of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; The National Clinical Research Center for Aging and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Jing'an District Central Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.253DOI Listing
August 2019

Frequency of Signs and Symptoms in Persons With Asthma.

Respir Care 2020 Feb 29;65(2):252-264. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Institution of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital of 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Signs and symptoms of asthma are well established; however, no study has been performed to rank them. Therefore, we performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the pooled frequencies of different signs and symptoms of asthma in subjects age ≥ 14 y to develop a patient-specific questionnaire.

Methods: Specific search queries were developed to include records published in Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar, until November 2016. We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies for determining the pooled proportions of signs and symptoms and association between combination of symptoms and asthma severity in subjects age ≥ 14 y. The quality assessment was performed using 3 parameters: reported number or percentage of subjects with asthma symptoms, respiratory disorder history, and method for data collection.

Results: Of the 4,939 records retrieved, 67 observational studies ( = 57,033 subjects; age ≥ 14 y) were considered eligible for inclusion in the analysis. A total of 10 symptoms were reported across the studies, with pooled proportions of nasal congestion, sleep disturbances, breathlessness, chest tightness, and wheezing being 61.57%, 56.56%, 50.31%, 50.41%, and 46.97%, respectively. In records of medical history, the pooled proportion of rhinitis was 76.37%, followed by allergy/atopy at 63.53%. The pooled proportion of asthma medication use was 83.27%. In terms of the symptom combinations, the combination of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and cough was reported in 71.26% of subjects from 4 studies ( = 12,014 subjects). Nasal congestion, sleep disturbance, and chest tightness were the most common symptoms of asthma, followed by wheezing and breathlessness with a combination of symptoms (ie, wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and cough) affecting the highest proportion of subjects.

Conclusions: Asthma severity was dependent on variety of symptoms, consisting mostly of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and cough. On the basis of our analysis, we recommend a combination of symptoms be included in diagnostic-based questionnaires to aid early diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.06714DOI Listing
February 2020

Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of ( Induced by Carabrone.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Sep 9;67(37):10448-10457. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Research and Development Center of Biorational Pesticide , Northwest A&F University , Yangling 712100 , Shaanxi , China.

Carabrone is isolated from Franch. et Sav, which has good fungicidal activity, especially for (). According to previous studies, we speculated that carabrone targets the mitochondrial enzyme complex III of . To elucidate the mode of action, we used carabrone to induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in . Incubation with carabrone reduced the burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as phosphatidylserine release. Carabrone caused ROS accumulation in mycelia by inhibiting the activity of antioxidase enzymes, among which inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) activity was most obvious. The catalytic center of GR consists of l-cysteine residues that react with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone active site of carabrone. Additionally, a positive TUNEL reaction led to diffusion of the DNA electrophoresis band and upregulation of and We propose that carabrone inhibits antioxidant enzymes and promotes ROS overproduction, which causes membrane hyperpermeability, release of apoptotic factors, activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway, and fungal cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b02951DOI Listing
September 2019

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Exacerbates Kidney Damages in IgA Nephropathy Mice via the C5a-C5aR1 Axis Orchestrating Th17 Cell Responses.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 7;9:151. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Nephrology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Respiratory viral infections can directly lead to kidney damage such as IgA nephropathy (IgAN), partly due to mucosal immune system dysfunction. Although the activated C5a-C5aR1 axis results in increased Th1 and Th17 frequencies but reduced Treg frequencies in Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, how this axis affects Th cell disorders in RSV-induced IgAN exacerbation remains unknown. Here, we used a mouse model to dissect the activation of C5a-C5aR1 by RSV and the consequences on the regulation of Th1, Th17, and Treg immune responses in IgA nephropathy. RSV fusion protein was clearly deposited not only in the pulmonary interstitium but also in the glomerulus in RSV-IgAN mice, and RSV infection led to more severe pathological changes in the kidneys in IgAN mice. Blocking the C5a-C5aR1 axis resulted in a decrease in the albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and the attenuation of kidney damage in IgAN and RSV-IgAN mice might be partly attributed to the inhibition of Th cell and cytokine dysfunction. Th1, Th17 and Treg immune responses and their corelative cytokines were disrupted by RSV infection and rescued by C5aR1 inhibition. Moreover, we constructed a coculture system of human mesangial cells and CD4 T cells and found that RSV infection might lead to CD4 T cell production via human mesangial cells-enhanced CD4 T cell proliferation, consequently increasing IL-17 levels. These pathological behaviors were augmented by C5a stimulation and decreased by C5aR1 inhibition. Thus, C5aR1 inhibition alters both kidney damage and Th1, Th17, and Treg cell dysfunction in RSV-induced IgAN exacerbation and locally regulates HMC antigen presentation function in the kidney. Taken together, our data offer profound evidence that blocking the C5a-C5aR1 axis might be a potential therapy for RSV-induced IgAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514197PMC
January 2020

GLCCI1 rs37973 is associated with the response of adrenal hormone to inhaled corticosteroids in asthma.

World Allergy Organ J 2019 14;12(3):100017. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Key Cite of National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China.

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that glucocorticoid-induced transcript 1 gene ( rs37973 mutant genotype is associated with poor inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) response in asthmatics. As human airway relaxation is regulated by circulation epinephrine, which can be enhanced by corticosteroid. It is unknown whether or not rs37973 is associated with circulation epinephrine and cortisol concentrations in asthma. The aim of this study is to evaluate these relationships.

Methods: A total of 182 asthmatics and 180 healthy controls were recruited for the study. 30 mild-to-moderate asthmatics received fluticasone propionate (125 μg, bid) treatment for 12 weeks. rs37973 genotyping was performed with the iPlex MassARRAY genotyping platform. The plasma concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine of each participant were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.

Results: GLCCI1 rs37973 homozygotes mutant genotype GG had a higher plasma epinephrine concentration (median concentration 27.032 pg/ml, n = 36; median concentration 23.149 pg/ml, n = 146; P = 0.015) and cortisol concentration (median concentration 1.141 ng/ml, n = 36; median concentration 0.921 ng/ml, n = 146; P = 0.013). Both epinephrine concentration and cortisol concentration in plasma were positively correlated with FEV (r = 0.889 and r = 0.821, respectively. n = 182). For asthmatics treated with ICS, rs37973 was associated with change in plasma epinephrine and cortisol concentration in a recessive model (AA + AG vs GG), with GG had less improvement in epinephrine concentration [ΔEPI = 6.843 (9.26) pg/ml, n = 26; ΔEPI = -1.666 (6.52) pg/ml, n = 4; P = 0.018] and cortisol concentration [ΔCOR = 0.3040 (0.21) ng/ml, n = 26; ΔCOR = -0.066 (0.24) ng/ml, n = 4; P = 0.009].

Conclusions: Our study suggested that the poor ICS response in rs37973 mutant genotype might be related to the less increased amplitudes of plasma epinephrine and cortisol in asthmatic patients.

Trial Registration: ChiCTR-RCC-13003634 www.chictr.org.cn. Active since September 27, 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2019.100017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439416PMC
March 2019

Antifungal Activity and Action Mechanism of the Natural Product Cinnamic Acid Against .

Plant Dis 2019 May 20;103(5):944-950. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Research and Development Center of Biorational Pesticides, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Sclerotinia stem rot caused by (Lib.) de Bary spreads worldwide and causes serious economic losses. Considering the development of fungicide resistance and chemical residues, it is urgently necessary to explore alternative fungicides. In this study, the activity of the natural product cinnamic acid was assessed. The EC values for cinnamic acid inhibition of mycelial growth of 103 strains ranged from 9.37 to 42.54 µg/ml with an average EC value of 18.77 (±3.39) µg/ml. No cross-resistance was detected between cinnamic acid and the commonly used fungicides carbendazim or dimethachlon. After treatment with cinnamic acid, mycelia distorted with more branches, no sclerotia developed, and the oxalic acid content decreased, whereas cell membrane permeability increased significantly. In pot experiments, cinnamic acid at 2,000 µg/ml provided over 95% efficacy against both carbendazim-sensitive and carbendazim-resistant strains of . The expression of the sclerotia development-correlated genes , , , and decreased, whereas the gene expression increased. Altogether, cinnamic acid shows potential to be a natural alternative to commercial fungicides or a lead compound to develop new fungicides for the control of Sclerotinia stem rot. The biological characteristics contribute to the understanding of the action mechanism of cinnamic acid against .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-18-1355-REDOI Listing
May 2019

Contralateral C7 transfer to lower trunk via a subcutaneous tunnel across the anterior surface of the chest and neck for total brachial plexus root avulsion: a cadaveric study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2019 Jan 23;14(1):27. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Zhong Road, Shanghai, China.

Background: Restoration of hand function after total brachial plexus root avulsion (tBPRA) is a difficult problem in surgical management. A new modified approach in repairing tBPRA is to use a subcutaneous tunnel across the anterior surface of the chest and neck, and then transfer the contralateral C7 root (cC7) to the lower trunk. However, the anatomical details of this method have not yet been fully described and assessed. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe the nerve transfer using a cadaveric surgical simulation.

Materials And Methods: Brachial plexuses were dissected from 12 adult cadavers, producing 24 sides of brachial plexuses for nerve transfer experiments. We performed simulated cC7 transfers to the lower trunk via a subcutaneous tunnel across the anterior surface of the chest and neck. Measurements of the nerves were made and transfers quantitatively documented.

Results: With the affected shoulder and arm in a neutral position, cC7 and C8-T1 could be sutured directly together in 75% of the cadavers. A nerve graft length of 4.6 ± 1.18 cm was needed to bridge the gap in the remaining cadavers. For cadavers where distal cC7 was directly connected with the lower trunk, 54.17% could be sutured, and an average nerve graft length of 3.9 cm was needed in the remains.

Conclusions: For surgical management of total tBPRA, transfer of the cC7 nerve to the C8-T1 or lower trunk via a subcutaneous tunnel across the chest and neck will likely be superior to a conventional cC7 root transfer in the clinic. This approach shortens the nerve graft needed and nerve regeneration distance, decreases the number of neurorrhaphy sites, and makes full use of the donor nerves, which may benefit hand flexion restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-019-1068-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343341PMC
January 2019

Anaphylatoxins Enhance Recruitment of Nonclassical Monocytes via Chemokines Produced by Pleural Mesothelial Cells in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2019 04;60(4):454-464

1 Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Key Site of National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; and.

In the present study, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which monocytes migrate into the pleural space in the presence of anaphylatoxins in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). Monocytes in both pleural effusion and blood were counted, and their phenotypic characteristics were analyzed. Activation of the complement system was detected in TPE. The effects of Mpt64 and anaphylatoxins on the production of chemokines in pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) were measured. The chemoattractant activity of chemokines produced by PMCs for monocytes was observed. Levels of CD14CD16 monocytes were significantly higher in TPE than in blood. Three pathways of the complement system were activated in TPE. C3a-C3aR1, C5a-C5aR1, CCL2-CCR2, CCL7-CCR2, and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 were coexpressed in PMCs and monocytes isolated from TPE. Moreover, we initially found that Mpt64 stimulated the expression of C3a and C5a in PMCs. C3a and C5a not only induced CCL2, CCL7, and CX3CL1 expression in PMCs but also stimulated production of IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-27 in monocytes. C3a and C5a stimulated PMCs to secrete CCL2, CCL7, and CX3CL1, which recruited CD14CD16 monocytes to the pleural cavity. As a result, the infiltration of CD14CD16 monocytes engaged in the pathogenesis of TPE by excessive production of inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2018-0075OCDOI Listing
April 2019
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