Publications by authors named "Jukka Gynther"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of hempseed and flaxseed oils on the profile of serum lipids, serum total and lipoprotein lipid concentrations and haemostatic factors.

Eur J Nutr 2006 Dec 10;45(8):470-7. Epub 2006 Nov 10.

Dept. of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Both hempseed oil (HO) and flaxseed oil (FO) contain high amounts of essential fatty acids (FAs); i.e. linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), but almost in opposite ratios. An excessive intake of one essential FA over the other may interfere with the metabolism of the other while the metabolisms of LA and ALA compete for the same enzymes. It is not known whether there is a difference between n-3 and n-6 FA of plant origin in the effects on serum lipid profile.

Aim Of The Study: To compare the effects of HO and FO on the profile of serum lipids and fasting concentrations of serum total and lipoprotein lipids, plasma glucose and insulin, and haemostatic factors in healthy humans.

Methods: Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. A randomised, double-blind crossover design was used. The volunteers consumed HO and FO (30 ml/day) for 4 weeks each. The periods were separated by a 4-week washout period.

Results: The HO period resulted in higher proportions of both LA and gamma-linolenic acid in serum cholesteryl esters (CE) and triglycerides (TG) as compared with the FO period (P < 0.001), whereas the FO period resulted in a higher proportion of ALA in both serum CE and TG as compared with the HO period (P < 0.001). The proportion of arachidonic acid in CE was lower after the FO period than after the HO period (P < 0.05). The HO period resulted in a lower total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio compared with the FO period (P = 0.065). No significant differences were found between the periods in measured values of fasting serum total or lipoprotein lipids, plasma glucose, insulin or hemostatic factors.

Conclusions: The effects of HO and FO on the profile of serum lipids differed significantly, with only minor effects on concentrations of fasting serum total or lipoprotein lipids, and no significant changes in concentrations of plasma glucose or insulin or in haemostatic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-006-0621-zDOI Listing
December 2006

3D-QSAR studies on cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists: G-protein activation as biological data.

J Med Chem 2006 Jan;49(2):554-66

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

G-protein activation via the CB1 receptor was determined for a group of various CB1 ligands and utilized as biological activity data in subsequent CoMFA and CoMSIA studies. Both manual techniques and automated docking at CB1 receptor models were used to obtain a common alignment of endocannabinoid and classical cannabinoid derivatives. In the final alignment models, the endocannabinoid headgroup occupies a unique region distinct from the classical cannabinoid structures, supporting the hypothesis that these structurally diverse molecules overlap only partially within the receptor binding site. Both CoMFA and CoMSIA produce statistically significant models based on the manual alignment and a docking alignment at one receptor conformer. Leave-half-out cross-validation and progressive scrambling were successfully used in assessing the predictivity of the QSAR models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm0505157DOI Listing
January 2006

Binding kinetics and duration of in vivo action of novel prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors.

Biochem Pharmacol 2006 Feb 6;71(5):683-92. Epub 2006 Jan 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio FI-70211, Finland.

Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine protease that specifically hydrolyses small peptides at the carboxyl end of the proline residue. POP has gained pharmaceutical interest, since its inhibitors have been shown to have antiamnesic properties in rat. We examined the effect of the 2(S)-substituents CN and COCH(2)OH at the P1 site of the parent inhibitors isophthalic acid 2(S)-(cyclopentanecarbonyl)pyrrolidine-l-prolyl-pyrrolidine amide and 4-phenylbutanoyl-l-prolyl-pyrrolidine and bulky 5-t-butyl group at the P2 site l-prolyl residue of the parent inhibitor 4-phenylbutanoyl-l-prolyl-pyrrolidine on the binding kinetics to the enzyme. In addition, we studied the duration of POP inhibition in the rat tissues in vivo after i.p. administration. CN and COCH(2)OH substituents at the P1 site pyrrolidine group were found to greatly increase the affinity of the inhibitor and the enzyme-inhibitor complex half-life. In addition, 5-t-butyl group at the P2 site l-prolyl residue increased the dissociation half-life of the enzyme-inhibitor complex, without much affecting the inhibitory potency. The duration of the inhibition in the rat tissues followed the inhibition kinetic properties in that the compounds with fast dissociation produced shorter inhibition in the rat tissues than the compounds with slow dissociation. The duration of POP inhibition of compounds was evidently not governed by their serum clearance. The fact that the in vivo pharmacodynamic behaviour of POP inhibitors can be predicted by their in vitro-properties may be of importance when designing therapeutically useful POP inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2005.11.029DOI Listing
February 2006

Dicarboxylic acid azacycle l-prolyl-pyrrolidine amides as prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship of the enzyme-inhibitor interactions.

J Med Chem 2005 Jul;48(15):4772-82

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

A series of dicarboxylic acid azacycle l-prolyl-pyrrolidine amides was synthesized, and their inhibitory activity against prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) from porcine brain was tested. Three different azacycles were tested at the position beyond P3 and six different dicarboxylic acids at the P3 position. l-Prolyl-pyrrolidine and l-prolyl-2(S)-cyanopyrrolidine were used at the P2-P1 positions. The IC(50) values ranged from 0.39 to 19000 nM. The most potent inhibitor was the 3,3-dimethylglutaric acid azepane l-prolyl-2(S)-cyanopyrrolidine amide. Molecular docking (GOLD) was used to analyze binding interactions between different POP inhibitors of this type and the POP enzyme. The data set consisted of the novel inhibitors, inhibitors published previously by our group, and well-known reference compounds. The alignments were further analyzed using comparative molecular similarity indices analysis. The binding of the inhibitors was consistent at the P1-P3 positions. Beyond the P3 position, two different binding modes were found, one that favors lipophilic structures and one that favors nonhydrophobic structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm0500020DOI Listing
July 2005

Prediction of contact angle for pharmaceutical solids from their molecular structure.

J Pharm Sci 2005 Apr;94(4):745-58

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.

Three methods for modeling and predicting water contact angle for a heterogeneous series of pharmaceuticals using computed molecular descriptors and statistical analysis were developed. A number of theoretical molecular descriptors that were related to the structure and physicochemical properties were computed for compounds (n=34) whose experimental water contact angle was known. Thereafter, the descriptors were subjected to partial least squares projections to latent structures analysis. Three multivariate models were derived that allowed theoretical prediction of water contact angle for structurally heterogeneous materials. The R2 and Q2 values of the models ranged from 0.57 to 0.80 and 0.42 to 0.66, respectively. The models had moderate predictive ability and provided useful information about the molecular and physicochemical properties that affect material water contact angle. Increases in the bulkiness and hydrophobic molecular surface area of a molecule increased material water contact angle, whereas the greater presence of hydrophilic surfaces, which are not capable for hydrogen bonding, decrease materials water contact angle. Water contact angle can be predicted well for pharmaceutical solids using theoretical molecular descriptors that reflect the interaction potential of crystal/particle surfaces with water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.20306DOI Listing
April 2005

A cyclopent-2-enecarbonyl group mimics proline at the P2 position of prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2004 Nov;47(23):5605-7

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

With the aim to replace the natural amino acid proline by a proline mimetic structure, a cyclopent-2-enecarbonyl moiety was studied at the P2 position of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibitors. The cyclopent-2-enecarbonyl moiety proved to be an excellent proline mimetic at the P2 position of POP inhibitors. The replacement is particularly useful when increased lipophilicity is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm049503wDOI Listing
November 2004

Slow-binding inhibitors of prolyl oligopeptidase with different functional groups at the P1 site.

Biochem J 2004 Sep;382(Pt 3):1003-8

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

POP (prolyl oligopeptidase) specifically hydrolyses a number of small proline-containing peptides at the carboxy end of the proline residue and POP inhibitors have been shown to have cognition-enhancing properties. It has been noted that certain functional groups at the P1 site of the inhibitor, which correspond to the substrate residue on the N-terminal side of the bond to be cleaved, increase the inhibitory potency. However, detailed mechanistic and kinetic analysis of the inhibition has not been studied. In the present study, we examined the effect of different functional groups at the P1 site of the parent inhibitor isophthalic acid bis-(L-prolylpyrrolidine) amide on the binding kinetics to POP. Addition of CHO, CN or COCH(2)OH groups to the P1 site increased the inhibitory potency by two orders of magnitude (K(i)=11.8-0.1 nM) and caused a clear slow-binding inhibition. The inhibitor containing a CHO group had the lowest association rate constant, k(on)=(2.43+/-0.12) x 10(5) M(-1) x s(-1), whereas the inhibitor with a CN group exhibited the fastest binding, k(on)=(12.0+/-0.08)x10(5) M(-1) x s(-1). In addition, the dissociation rate was found to be crucially dependent on the type of the functional group. Compounds with COCH(2)OH and CHO groups had much longer half-lives of dissociation (over 5 h) compared with the compound with the CN group (25 min), although the K(i) values of the compounds were relatively similar. A possibility to optimize the duration of inhibition by changing the functional group at the P1 site is important when planning therapeutically useful POP inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20040992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1133977PMC
September 2004

Development of a 3D model for the human cannabinoid CB1 receptor.

J Med Chem 2004 Jun;47(12):3048-57

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

A novel comparison model of the human cannabinoid CB1 receptor has been constructed using the bovine rhodopsin X-ray structure as a template. The model was subjected to a 500-ps molecular dynamics simulation, and thereafter new conformers of the receptor model were produced in a simulated annealing procedure. Using an automated docking procedure, well-known cannabimimetic ligands were docked into six different model conformers, of which one was chosen for a detailed study of receptor-ligand interactions. The docking results confirm, for example, the importance of lysine K3.28(192) in the binding of these ligands. Also, other experimental data are fairly consistent with the present model, though there are some differences when compared to other recent CB1 comparison models. The present model will serve as a tool to investigate the receptor-ligand interactions and facilitate the design of novel cannabimimetic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm031052cDOI Listing
June 2004

Synthesis and CB1 receptor activities of novel arachidonyl alcohol derivatives.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2004 Jun;14(12):3231-4

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Novel derivatives of arachidonyl alcohol were synthesized and evaluated for their CB1 receptor activity by [(35)S]GTP(gamma)S assay using rat cerebellar membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2004.03.093DOI Listing
June 2004

Molecular determinants of steroid inhibition for the mouse constitutive androstane receptor.

J Med Chem 2003 Oct;46(22):4687-95

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Kuopio, P.O.Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates drug and steroid metabolism through binding to cytochrome P450 2B, 2C, and 3A gene enhancers. Uniquely among nuclear receptors, mouse CAR (mCAR) can be suppressed by androstenol and activated by structurally diverse drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants. To gain insight into presently ill-defined structural requirements of mCAR ligands, we employed a mCAR inhibition assay in mammalian HEK293 cells to create a QSAR model that could well predict the inhibition by three unknown steroids. Two novel mCAR inhibitors were thus identified. Yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that steroids inhibit mCAR primarily by promoting association of mCAR with the corepressor NCoR, with only minor contribution from other mechanisms. Analysis of chimeric and mutant mCAR constructs suggested that androstenol sensitivity is controlled by residues between amino acids 201-263 (helices 5-7) and it does not depend on the residue 350 within helix 12, as previously suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm030861tDOI Listing
October 2003

New prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors developed from dicarboxylic acid bis(l-prolyl-pyrrolidine) amides.

J Med Chem 2003 Oct;46(21):4543-51

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Isophthalic acid bis(l-prolyl-pyrrolidine) amide is a very potent prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor, but it has a log P value of -0.2, which is very low for a compound targeted to the brain. Therefore, these types of compounds were further modified to improve the structure-activity relationships, with the focus on increasing the log P value. The inhibitory activity against prolyl oligopeptidase from pig brain was tested in vitro. The most promising compounds resulted from replacing the pyrrolidinyl group at the P5 site by cycloalkyl groups, such as cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl groups, and by a phenyl group. These compounds are slightly more potent, and they have a significantly higher log P value. The potency of these compounds was further increased by replacing the pyrrolidinyl group at the P1 site by 2(S)-cyanopyrrolidinyl and 2(S)-(hydroxyacetyl)pyrrolidinyl groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm030811oDOI Listing
October 2003

Conformationally rigid N-acyl-5-alkyl-L-prolyl-pyrrolidines as prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem 2003 Aug;11(17):3611-9

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211, Kuopio, Finland.

In the N-acyl-L-prolyl-pyrrolidine type of prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors the L-prolyl group was replaced by different 5-alkyl-L-prolyl groups, resulting in a series of N-acyl-5-alkyl-L-prolyl-pyrrolidines. Since N-amides of 5-alkyl-L-prolines are conformationally more rigid than those of L-proline, the main objective was to make more rigid prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors. In the series of compounds where the N-acyl group was a Boc group, the 5(R)-tert-butyl group increased the potency strongly. A similar effect was not observed for the 5(S)-tert-butyl group. In the series of compounds where the N-acyl group was a 4-phenylbutanoyl group, the 5(R)-tert-butyl, 5(R)-methyl and 5(S)-methyl groups did not have an effect on the potency [the 5(S)-tert-butyl group was not tested in this series]. As an additional effect, the 5-tert-butyl groups increased the log P of the compounds 1.5 log units, which might be beneficial when targeting the compounds to the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0968-0896(03)00363-8DOI Listing
August 2003

Pharmacodynamic response of entacapone in rats after administration of entacapone formulations and prodrugs with varying bioavailabilities.

Pharmacol Toxicol 2002 Jun;90(6):327-32

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kuopio, Finland.

The aim of this in vivo study was to assess the effect of improved oral bioavailability of entacapone on its actual pharmacodynamic response, COMT inhibition in erythrocytes. Rats were administered entacapone orally as a suspension, as a plain solution, an entacapone/HP-beta-CD solution, two N-alkyl-carbamate ester prodrugs and intravenously as a solution. Also the relationship between pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic responses of entacapone was investigated. The administration of entacapone as a solution (plain solution pH 7.4; F=34.8% or entacapone/HP-beta-CD solution pH 3.0; F = 18.5%) resulted in significantly higher degree of COMT inhibition in erythrocytes than could be achieved by administering entacapone as a suspension (pH 3.0; F=8.9%). The inhibitory Emax model did not reveal any significant differences in EC50 estimates of entacapone suspension, entacapone/HP-beta-CD solution or entacapone solution. The overall pharmacodynamic response of entacapone (AUE; area under effect-time curve) was dependent on the pharmacokinetic response (AUC; area under concentration-time curve) irrespective of the entacapone formulation and dosage form. However, this dependency did not extend to formulations producing very high peak concentrations of entacapone in plasma; high plasma concentrations reached transiently after administration of entacapone solution had only a minor effect on the overall pharmacodynamic response (AUE). The inhibitory Emax model revealed that a plateau of COMT inhibition near to Emax is attained by plasma concentrations under 2000 ng/ml, irrespective of the formulation. This supports the results concerning the dependence of AUE on AUC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0773.2002.900606.xDOI Listing
June 2002

Dicarboxylic acid bis(L-prolyl-pyrrolidine) amides as prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2002 Sep;45(20):4581-4

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

New dicarboxylic acid bis(L-prolyl-pyrrolidine) amides were synthesized, and their inhibitory activity against prolyl oligopeptidase from pig brain was tested in vitro. As compared with earlier described prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors, these new compounds have in common an L-prolyl-pyrrolidine moiety, but the typical lipophilic acyl end group is replaced by another L-prolyl-pyrrolidine moiety connected symmetrically with a short dicarboxylic acid linker. These compounds are a new type of peptidomimetic prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm020966gDOI Listing
September 2002

Substrate-dependent, non-hyperbolic kinetics of pig brain prolyl oligopeptidase and its tight binding inhibition by JTP-4819.

Biochem Pharmacol 2002 Aug;64(3):463-71

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a cytosolic serine protease that hydrolyses small peptides at the carboxyl end of the proline residue. It has raised pharmaceutical interest, since its inhibitors have been shown to have antiamnesic properties. We studied prolyl oligopeptidase kinetics with two 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin derivatives: Z-Gly-Pro-AMC and Suc-Gly-Pro-AMC. Z-Gly-Pro-AMC was found to obey standard Henri-Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K(m) of 30+/-3 microM, whereas Suc-Gly-Pro-AMC exhibited substrate inhibition kinetics with K(m) and K(is) of 510+/-150 and 270+/-90 microM, respectively. Autodock simulations revealed that either the succinyl or the AMC-end of Suc-Gly-Pro-AMC may bind to the S'1 subsite of the active site. We believe that non-specifically bound Suc-Gly-Pro-AMC allows the simultaneous binding of second substrate molecule to the active site and this leads in substrate inhibition. In addition, we demonstrated that the inhibition type of a well characterized prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor, JTP-4819, is competitive tight binding with a K(ic) of 0.045+/-0.008 nM. We suggest that due to the high concentration of prolyl oligopeptidase in the brain (0.12 nmol/g pig brain), the tight binding nature of the inhibition should be considered when using brain homogenate as the enzyme source in prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition measurements. This is of importance in studying structure-activity relationships of potent prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-2952(02)01184-xDOI Listing
August 2002

Modulation of mouse and human phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module by nuclear receptors.

Mol Pharmacol 2002 Aug;62(2):366-78

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates mouse and human CYP2B genes through binding to the direct repeat-4 (DR4) motifs present in the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM). The preference of PBREM elements for nuclear receptors and the extent of cross-talk between CAR and other nuclear receptors are currently unknown. Our transient transfection and DNA binding experiments indicate that binding to DR4 motifs does not correlate with the activation response and that mouse and human PBREM are efficiently 'insulated' from the effects of other nuclear receptors despite their substantial affinity for DR4 motifs. Certain nuclear receptors that do not bind to DR4 motifs, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and farnesoid X receptor, can suppress PBREM function via a coactivator-dependent process that may have relevance in vivo. In competition experiments, mouse PBREM is clearly more selective for CAR than human PBREM. Pregnane X, vitamin D, and thyroid hormone receptors can potentially compete with human CAR on human PBREM. In contrast to the selective nature of PBREM, CYP3A enhancers are highly and comparably responsive to CAR, pregnane X receptor, and vitamin D receptor. In addition, the ligand specificities of human and mouse CAR were defined by mammalian cotransfection and yeast two-hybrid techniques. Our results provide new mechanistic explanations to several previously unresolved aspects of CYP2B and CYP3A gene regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.62.2.366DOI Listing
August 2002

4-Phenylbutanoyl-2(S)-acylpyrrolidines and 4-phenylbutanoyl-L-prolyl-2(S)-acylpyrrolidines as prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem 2002 Jul;10(7):2199-206

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

New 4-phenylbutanoyl-2(S)-acylpyrrolidines and 4-phenylbutanoyl-L-prolyl-2(S)-acylpyrrolidines were synthesized. Their inhibitory activity against prolyl oligopeptidase from pig brain was tested in vitro. In the series of 4-phenylbutanoyl-2(S)-acylpyrrolidines, the cyclopentanecarbonyl and benzoyl derivatives were the best inhibitors having IC(50) values of 30 and 23 nM, respectively. This series of compounds shows that the P1 pyrrolidine ring, which is common in most POP inhibitors, can be replaced by either a cyclopentyl ring or a phenyl ring, causing only a slight decrease in the inhibitory activity. In the series of 4-phenylbutanoyl-L-prolyl-2(S)-acylpyrrolidines the cyclopentanecarbonyl and benzoyl derivatives were not as active as in the series of 4-phenylbutanoyl-2(S)-acylpyrrolidines. The hydroxyacetyl derivative did however show high inhibitory activity. This compound is structurally similar to JTP-4819, which is one of the most potent prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors. The acyl group in the two series of new compounds seems to bind to different sites of the enzyme, since the second series of new compounds did not show the same cyclopentanecarbonyl or benzoyl specificity as the first series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0968-0896(02)00061-5DOI Listing
July 2002

Design and synthesis of a novel L-dopa-entacapone codrug.

J Med Chem 2002 Mar;45(6):1379-82

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland, and Finncovery Ltd., Kuopio, Finland.

A novel codrug, in which L-Dopa and entacapone are linked via a biodegradable carbamate spacer to form a single chemical entity, was synthesized and studied kinetically. This carbamate codrug provides adequate stability [t(1/2) = 12.1 h (pH 1.2); 1.4 h (pH 5.0); 1.1 h (pH 7.4)] against chemical hydrolysis but rapidly hydrolyzes to L-Dopa and entacapone in liver homogenate (t(1/2) = 7 min; pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. The therapeutical potential of this novel codrug is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm010980dDOI Listing
March 2002
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