Publications by authors named "Joshua D Aaker"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phosphorylation State of ZFP24 Controls Oligodendrocyte Differentiation.

Cell Rep 2018 05;23(8):2254-2263

Department of Neurology, Center for Peripheral Neuropathy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

Zinc finger protein ZFP24, formerly known as ZFP191, is essential for oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which ZFP24 controls these processes is unknown. We demonstrate that ZFP24 binds to a consensus DNA sequence in proximity to genes important for oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelination, and we show that this binding enhances target gene expression. We also demonstrate that ZFP24 DNA binding is controlled by phosphorylation. Phosphorylated ZFP24, which does not bind DNA, is the predominant form in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. As these cells mature into oligodendrocytes, the non-phosphorylated, DNA-binding form accumulates. Interestingly, ZFP24 displays overlapping genomic binding sites with the transcription factors MYRF, SOX10, and OLIG2, which are known to control oligodendrocyte differentiation. Our findings provide a mechanism by which dephosphorylation of ZFP24 mediates its binding to regulatory regions of genes important for oligodendrocyte maturation, controls their expression, and thereby regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.04.089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6002757PMC
May 2018

Transcriptional Fingerprint of Hypomyelination in Zfp191null and Shiverer (Mbpshi) Mice.

ASN Neuro 2016 Oct 28;8(5). Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago Center for Peripheral Neuropathy, The University of Chicago, IL, USA

The transcriptional program that controls oligodendrocyte maturation and central nervous system (CNS) myelination has not been fully characterized. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze how the loss of a key transcription factor, zinc finger protein 191 (ZFP191), results in oligodendrocyte development abnormalities and CNS hypomyelination. Using a previously described mutant mouse that is deficient in ZFP191 protein expression (Zfp191), we demonstrate that key transcripts are reduced in the whole brain as well as within oligodendrocyte lineage cells cultured in vitro To determine whether the loss of myelin seen in Zfp191 mice contributes indirectly to these perturbations, we also examined the transcriptome of a well-characterized mouse model of hypomyelination, in which the myelin structural protein myelin basic protein (MBP) is deficient. Interestingly, Mbp (shiverer) mice had far fewer transcripts perturbed with the loss of myelin alone. This study demonstrates that the loss of ZFP191 disrupts expression of genes involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination, largely independent from the loss of myelin. Nevertheless, hypomyelination in both mouse mutants results in the perturbation of lipid synthesis pathways, suggesting that oligodendrocytes have a feedback system that allows them to regulate myelin lipid synthesis depending on their myelinating state. The data presented are of potential clinical relevance as the human orthologs of the Zfp191 and MBP genes reside on a region of Chromosome 18 that is deleted in childhood leukodystrophies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1759091416670749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5046175PMC
October 2016

Interaction of MTG family proteins with NEUROG2 and ASCL1 in the developing nervous system.

Neurosci Lett 2010 Apr 7;474(1):46-51. Epub 2010 Mar 7.

Department of Neuroscience, United States; Stem Cell Institute, United States.

During neural development, members of MTG family of transcriptional repressors are induced by proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and in turn inhibit the activity of the bHLH proteins, forming a negative feedback loop that regulates the normal progression of neurogenesis. Three MTG genes, MTG8, MTG16 and MTGR1, are expressed in distinct patterns in the developing nervous system. Various bHLH proteins are also expressed in distinct patterns. We asked whether there is a functional relationship between specific MTG and bHLH proteins in developing chick spinal cord. First, we examined if each MTG gene is induced by specific bHLH proteins. Although expression of NEUROG2, ASCL1 and MTG genes overlapped, the boundaries of gene expression did not match. Ectopic expression analysis showed that MTGR1 and NEUROD4, which show similar expression patterns, are regulated differently by NEUROG2 and ASCL1. Thus, our results show that expression of MTG genes is not regulated by a single upstream bHLH protein, but represents an integration of the activity of multiple regulators. Next, we asked if each MTG protein inhibits specific bHLH proteins. Transcription assay showed that NEUROG2 and ASCL1 are inhibited by MTGR1 and MTG16, and less efficiently by MTG8. Deletion mapping of MTGR1 showed that MTGR1 binds NEUROG2 and ASCL1 using multiple interaction surfaces, and all conserved domains are required for its repressor activity. These results support the model that MTG proteins form a higher-order repressor complex and modulate transcriptional activity of bHLH proteins during neurogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2010.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2862279PMC
April 2010

Feedback regulation of NEUROG2 activity by MTGR1 is required for progression of neurogenesis.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2009 Dec 28;42(4):267-77. Epub 2009 Jul 28.

Department of Neuroscience and Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, 6-145 Jackson Hall, 321 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

The sequential steps of neurogenesis are characterized by highly choreographed changes in transcription factor activity. In contrast to the well-studied mechanisms of transcription factor activation during neurogenesis, much less is understood regarding how such activity is terminated. We previously showed that MTGR1, a member of the MTG family of transcriptional repressors, is strongly induced by a proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NEUROG2 in developing nervous system. In this study, we describe a novel feedback regulation of NEUROG2 activity by MTGR1. We show that MTGR1 physically interacts with NEUROG2 and represses transcriptional activity of NEUROG2. MTGR1 also prevents DNA binding of the NEUROG2/E47 complex. In addition, we provide evidence that proper termination of NEUROG2 activity by MTGR1 is necessary for normal progression of neurogenesis in the developing spinal cord. These results highlight the importance of feedback regulation of proneural gene activity in neurodevelopment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2009.07.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2783839PMC
December 2009

Attenuation of IL-7 receptor signaling is not required for allelic exclusion.

J Immunol 2006 Mar;176(6):3350-5

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, The Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Allelic exclusion prevents pre-B cells from generating more than one functional H chain, thereby ensuring the formation of a unique pre-BCR. The signaling processes underlying allelic exclusion are not clearly understood. IL-7R-dependent signals have been clearly shown to regulate the accessibility of the Ig H chain locus. More recent work has suggested that pre-BCR-dependent attenuation of IL-7R signaling returns the H chain loci to an inaccessible state; this process has been proposed to underlie allelic exclusion. Importantly, this model predicts that preventing pre-BCR-dependent down-regulation of IL-7R signaling should interfere with allelic exclusion. To test this hypothesis, we made use of transgenic mice that express a constitutively active form of STAT5b (STAT5b-CA). STAT5b-CA expression restores V(D)J recombination in IL-7R(-/-) B cells, demonstrating that IL-7 regulates H chain locus accessibility and V(D)J recombination via STAT5 activation. To examine the effects of constitutively active STAT5b on allelic exclusion, we crossed STAT5b-CA mice (which express the IgM(b) allotype) to IgM(a) allotype congenic mice. We found no difference in the percentage of IgM(a)/IgM(b)-coexpressing B cells in STAT5b-CA vs littermate control mice; identical results were observed when crossing STAT5b-CA mice with hen egg lysozyme (HEL) H chain transgenic mice. The HEL transgene enforces allelic exclusion, preventing rearrangement of endogenous H chain genes; importantly, rearrangement of endogenous H chain genes was suppressed to a similar degree in STAT5b-CA vs HEL mice. Thus, attenuation of IL-7R/STAT5 signaling is not required for allelic exclusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.176.6.3350DOI Listing
March 2006
-->