Publications by authors named "Jorma Halttunen"

34 Publications

Transpancreatic biliary sphincterotomy versus double guidewire in difficult biliary cannulation: a randomized controlled trial.

Endoscopy 2021 10 13;53(10):1011-1019. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Division of Digestive Surgery and Urology, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Difficult biliary cannulation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) increases the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). The purpose of this prospective, randomized, multicenter study was to compare two advanced rescue methods, transpancreatic biliary sphincterotomy (TPBS) and a double-guidewire (DGW) technique, in difficult common bile duct (CBD) cannulation.

Methods: Patients with native papilla and planned CBD cannulation were recruited at eight Scandinavian hospitals. An experienced endoscopist attempted CBD cannulation with wire-guided cannulation. If the procedure fulfilled the definition of difficult cannulation and a guidewire entered the pancreatic duct, randomization to either TPBS or to DGW was performed. If the randomized method failed, any method available was performed. The primary end point was the frequency of PEP and the secondary end points included successful cannulation with the randomized method.

Results: In total, 1190 patients were recruited and 203 (17.1 %) were randomized according to the study protocol (TPBS 104 and DGW 99). PEP developed in 14/104 patients (13.5 %) in the TPBS group and 16/99 patients (16.2 %) in the DGW group ( = 0.69). No difference existed in PEP severity between the groups. The rate of successful deep biliary cannulation was significantly higher with TPBS (84.6 % [88/104]) than with DGW (69.7 % [69/99];  = 0.01).

Conclusions: In difficult biliary cannulation, there was no difference in PEP rate between TPBS and DGW techniques. TPBS is a good alternative in cases of difficult cannulation when the guidewire is in the pancreatic duct.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1327-2025DOI Listing
October 2021

Transpancreatic biliary sphincterotomy for biliary access is safe also on a long-term scale.

Surg Endosc 2021 01 28;35(1):104-112. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Abdominal Center, Helsinki University Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Transpancreatic biliary sphincterotomy (TPBS) is an advanced cannulation method for accessing common bile duct (CBD) in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). If CBD cannulation is difficult, an endoscopist can open the septum between the pancreatic and biliary duct with a sphincterotome to gain access. Long-term results of this procedure are unclear. We wanted to evaluate the short- and long-term complications of TPBS on patients with native papilla and benign indication for ERCP.

Patients And Methods: ERCPs performed in Helsinki University Hospital between 2007 and 2013 were reviewed. The study group comprised 143 consecutive patients with TPBS and 140 controls (CG). Data were collected from patient records and a phone survey was performed as a follow-up ≥ 4 years after the index ERCP.

Results: Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) developed in seven patients (4.9%) in TPBS and one patient (0.7%) in CG (p = 0.067). The rates of other acute complications were similar between the groups. ERCP ended with no access to CBD in four cases (2.8%) in TPBS. The median length of follow-up was 6 years in TPBS and 7 years in CG. During this period, three patients (2.1%) in TPBS and six patients (4.3%) in CG suffered from acute pancreatitis (AP) (p = 0.238). One (0.7%) patient in CG and none in TPBS developed chronic pancreatitis (CP). Abdominal pain was suffered by ten patients (6.9%) in TPBS and twelve patients (8.6%) in CG daily, whereas by six patients (4.2%) in TPBS and twelve patients (8.6%) in CG weekly.

Conclusion: TPBS is a useful procedure, with acceptable complication rates. No significant difference occurred between the groups when evaluating the short-term or long-term complications with a follow-up period of four to 10 years. Additionally, no significant differences occurred in upper abdominal pain, episodes of AP, or development of CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07364-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746558PMC
January 2021

Dysphagia aortica in a young patient with Behcet's Disease: Case report.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2019 Sep 24;20(3):145-147. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Dysphagia aortica is a rare aetiology of dysphagia resulting from an abnormality in thoracic aorta that causes extrinsic compression on the oesophagus. Dysphagia aortica includes aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection or even tortuous aorta and is seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of dysphagia. Herein, we report a 30-year-old man with Behcet's disease who presented with rapid progressive dysphagia and diagnosed as dysphagia aortica caused by saccular aortic aneurysm complicated by large para-aortic haematoma compressing the oesophagus. The case reveals the importance of early and proper identification of the rare causes of dysphagia in young adults with complaint of dysphagia and history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers in absence of obvious cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2019.07.001DOI Listing
September 2019

Criteria for difficult biliary cannulation: start to count.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Oct;31(10):1200-1205

Department of Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: In European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines, biliary cannulation of native papilla is defined as difficult in the presence of >5 papilla contacts, >5 min cannulation time or >1 unintended pancreatic duct cannulation (5-5-2). The aim is to test 5-5-2-criteria in a single-center practice predicting the risk of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP), and to study the efficacy of transpancreatic biliary sphincterotomy (TPBS) as an advanced method for biliary cannulation.

Methods: Prospectively collected data of 821 patients with native papilla were analyzed. Primary cannulation was the first method chosen for cannulation (sphincterotome and a guidewire). Advanced cannulation method was endoscopist-chosen cannulation method after failed primary cannulation.

Results: Primary cannulation succeeded in 599 (73%) patients in a median of 2 min. TPBS ± needle knife resulted in a 90% success rate. The final cannulation success was 814 (99.1%) cases in a median of 5.3 min. PEP risk was 4.0%. When primary cannulation succeeded, the PEP rate was 2.3%. When advanced methods were needed, the PEP rate increased to 13.5%. Altogether 311 (37.9%) patients fulfilled at least one 5-5-2-criterion. In patients without 5-5-2-criteria, the primary cannulation succeeded in 79.6% (n = 477), compared to 20.4% (n = 122) with the criteria, P < 0.001, indicating the need to exchange the cannulation method instead of persistence. If all the 5-5-2-criteria were present, the risk of PEP was 12.7%.

Conclusion: The results support the use of the 5-5-2-criteria for difficult cannulation. TPBS is an effective advanced cannulation method with an acceptable complication rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001515DOI Listing
October 2019

How patient-controlled sedation is adopted in clinical practice of sedation for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography? A prospective study of 1196 cases.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2017 Feb 31;52(2):166-172. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

a Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine , Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki Finland , Haartmaninkatu 4 , Helsinki , Finland.

Objective: Patient-controlled sedation (PCS) has been shown to be a valid choice for sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in randomized studies. However, large-scale studies are lacking.

Material And Methods: A single center, prospective observational study to determine how sedation for ERCP is administered in clinical setting. All 956 patients undergoing 1196 ERCPs in the endoscopy unit of Helsinki University Central Hospital 2012-2013, methods of sedation and adverse events associated with different sedations were recorded.

Results: PCS was attempted a total of 685 times (57%), successful use of PCS was achieved with 526 patients (77% of attempts). PCS device was operated by the anesthesiologist or anesthesia nurse 268 times (22%). PCS was more likely chosen for younger (80.6% for < =60 years vs. 63.8% for >60 years, p<.001) patients and by trainee anesthetists. Anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation was used 240 times (20%). The risk of failure of PCS was increased, if systolic arterial pressure was <90 mmHg, dosage of PCS >17 ml, duration of procedure exceeded 23 min. The risk of failure was lower in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and if sedation was deeper RASS < =-2. Uneventful PCS was associated with less respiratory and cardiovascular depression than other methods. There were no statistically significant differences in safety profiles with all the methods of sedation.

Conclusions: PCS is readily implemented in clinical practice, is suitable for younger and low-risk patients and is associated with less cardiorespiratory adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2016.1242024DOI Listing
February 2017

Papillary cannulation and sphincterotomy techniques at ERCP: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

Endoscopy 2016 Jul 14;48(7):657-83. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Bournemouth, UK.

This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It provides practical advice on how to achieve successful cannulation and sphincterotomy at minimum risk to the patient. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations 1 ESGE suggests that difficult biliary cannulation is defined by the presence of one or more of the following: more than 5 contacts with the papilla whilst attempting to cannulate; more than 5 minutes spent attempting to cannulate following visualization of the papilla; more than one unintended pancreatic duct cannulation or opacification (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 2 ESGE recommends the guidewire-assisted technique for primary biliary cannulation, since it reduces the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 3 ESGE recommends using pancreatic guidewire (PGW)-assisted biliary cannulation in patients where biliary cannulation is difficult and repeated unintentional access to the main pancreatic duct occurs (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE recommends attempting prophylactic pancreatic stenting in all patients with PGW-assisted attempts at biliary cannulation (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 4 ESGE recommends needle-knife fistulotomy as the preferred technique for precutting (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE suggests that precutting should be used only by endoscopists who achieve selective biliary cannulation in more than 80 % of cases using standard cannulation techniques (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). When access to the pancreatic duct is easy to obtain, ESGE suggests placement of a pancreatic stent prior to precutting (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation). 5 ESGE recommends that in patients with a small papilla that is difficult to cannulate, transpancreatic biliary sphincterotomy should be considered if unintentional insertion of a guidewire into the pancreatic duct occurs (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation).In patients who have had transpancreatic sphincterotomy, ESGE suggests prophylactic pancreatic stenting (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 6 ESGE recommends that mixed current is used for sphincterotomy rather than pure cut current alone, as there is a decreased risk of mild bleeding with the former (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 7 ESGE suggests endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) as an alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for extracting CBD stones < 8 mm in patients without anatomical or clinical contraindications, especially in the presence of coagulopathy or altered anatomy (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 8 ESGE does not recommend routine biliary sphincterotomy for patients undergoing pancreatic sphincterotomy, and suggests that it is reserved for patients in whom there is evidence of coexisting bile duct obstruction or biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation). 9 In patients with periampullary diverticulum (PAD) and difficult cannulation, ESGE suggests that pancreatic duct stent placement followed by precut sphincterotomy or needle-knife fistulotomy are suitable options to achieve cannulation (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE suggests that EST is safe in patients with PAD. In cases where EST is technically difficult to complete as a result of a PAD, large stone removal can be facilitated by a small EST combined with EPBD or use of EPBD alone (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 10 For cannulation of the minor papilla, ESGE suggests using wire-guided cannulation, with or without contrast, and sphincterotomy with a pull-type sphincterotome or a needle-knife over a plastic stent (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).When cannulation of the minor papilla is difficult, ESGE suggests secretin injection, which can be preceded by methylene blue spray in the duodenum (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 11 In patients with choledocholithiasis who are scheduled for elective cholecystectomy, ESGE suggests intraoperative ERCP with laparoendoscopic rendezvous (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation). ESGE suggests that when biliary cannulation is unsuccessful with a standard retrograde approach, anterograde guidewire insertion either by a percutaneous or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided approach can be used to achieve biliary access (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 12 ESGE suggests that in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy ERCP should be performed in referral centers, with the side-viewing endoscope as a first option; forward-viewing endoscopes are the second choice in cases of failure (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). A straight standard ERCP catheter or an inverted sphincterotome, with or without the guidewire, is recommended by ESGE for biliopancreatic cannulation in patients who have undergone Billroth II gastrectomy (low quality evidence, strong recommendation). Endoscopic papillary ballon dilation (EPBD) is suggested as an alternative to sphincterotomy for stone extraction in the setting of patients with Billroth II gastrectomy (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).In patients with complex post-surgical anatomy ESGE suggests referral to a center where device-assisted enteroscopy techniques are available (very low quality evidence, weak recommendation).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-108641DOI Listing
July 2016

Long-term results of combined ESWL and ERCP treatment of chronic calcific pancreatitis.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2016 Jul 25;51(7):866-71. Epub 2016 Feb 25.

a Department of Surgery , Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki , Helsinki , Finland ;

Objective: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) combined with endotherapy (ET) is the standard treatment for pancreatic duct stones (PDS) in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Our aim was to report the short- and long-term results of ESWL and ET.

Material And Methods: Consecutively treated 83 patients with symptomatic PDS using ESWL and ET. Success was defined (i) technically: PDS fragmentation and clearance obtained and (ii) clinically: improvement/resolution of pain. To get information on quality of life, we conducted a phone survey whereby we contacted 64 (89%) patients. The long-term results are presented in those patients with ≥2 years follow-up.

Results: Treated PDS with median size of 10 (5-25) mm were located in the head, body, or the tail of the pancreas in 78, 4, and 1 patients, respectively. The primary results were that technical success was achieved in 69 patients (83%) and clinical success in 66 patients (80%). Fourteen patients had technical failure, but eight of them became free of pain. Thus, clinical success can be considered to have been achieved in 74 of 83 patients (89%). In patients with persistent pseudocyst (PC) at the time of ESWL (n = 19), the PC disappeared in a year in 14 patients (74%). The long-term results were obtained from 61 (73%) ESWL- and ET-treated patients. The median follow-up for them was 53 months (range: 24-124) and 57 patients (93%) became pain-free or had less pain.

Conclusions: For patients with CP and PDS ESWL combined with ET is an effective and safe treatment giving favorable long-term results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2016.1150502DOI Listing
July 2016

A prospective randomised study of dense Infinity cytological brush versus regularly used brush in pancreaticobiliary malignancy.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2016 7;51(5):590-3. Epub 2015 Dec 7.

a Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery , Helsinki University Central Hospital, HUS Abdominal Center , Helsinki , Finland ;

Background And Study Aims: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a cytological sample is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of the aetiology of biliary stricture. Our aim was to evaluate whether a more dense Infinity® cytological brush is more sensitive in diagnosing malignancy than the regularly used brush.

Patients And Methods: We recruited 60 patients with a biliary stricture suspicious for malignancy for a randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to an Infinity® brush group (n = 30) and a regularly used cytology brush group (n = 30). All the patients had verified cancer during follow-up.

Results: Crossing the brush over the stricture was possible in each case without dilatation of the biliary duct. Brush cytology yield was good or excellent in 86.7% of cases with the Infinity® brush and 96.7% with the regular brush (p = 0.161). The cytological sample showed clear malignancy in three patients (10.0%) in the Infinity® group and in 12 (40.0%) patients of the regular brush group (p = 0.007). The cytological diagnosis was highly suspicious for malignancy or malignant in 14 patients (46.7%) in the Infinity® group and in 23 patients (76.7%) in the regular brush group (p = 0.017). The result was benign in 10 patients (33.3%) in the Infinity® group and in four patients (13.6%) in the regular brush group (p = 0.067).

Conclusions: With the standardised technique, the sensitivity of brush cytology is fairly good. The dense Infinity® brush does not show any advantage regarding sensitivity compared with the conventional cytology brush.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2015.1121514DOI Listing
November 2016

Best practice in placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with jejunal extension tube for continuous infusion of levodopa carbidopa intestinal gel in the treatment of selected patients with Parkinson's disease in the Nordic region.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2015 17;50(12):1500-7. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

Medical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical Department, Koege Hospital , Koege , Denmark.

Objective: Continuous infusion of levodopa carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is associated with a significant improvement in the symptoms and quality of life of selected patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with jejunal extension (PEG/J) was first described in 1998 and has become the most common and standard technique for fixing the tubing in place for LCIG infusion.

Material And Methods: A workshop was held in Stockholm, Sweden, to discuss the PEG/J placement for the delivery of LCIG in Parkinson's disease patients with the primary goal of providing guidance on best practice for the Nordic countries.

Results: Suggested procedures for preparation of patients for PEG/J placement, aftercare, troubleshooting and redo-procedures for use in the Nordic region are described and discussed.

Conclusions: LCIG treatment administered through PEG/J-tubes gives a significant increase in quality of life for selected patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Although minor complications are common, serious complications are infrequent, and the tube insertion procedures have a good safety record. Further development of delivery systems and evaluation of approaches designed to reduce the demand for redo endoscopy are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2015.1055793DOI Listing
May 2016

Randomized multicenter study of multiple plastic stents vs. covered self-expandable metallic stent in the treatment of biliary stricture in chronic pancreatitis.

Endoscopy 2015 Jul 15;47(7):605-10. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background And Study Aims: The use of covered self-expandable metallic stents (cSEMS) in benign biliary indications is evolving. The aim of the study was to assess the safety and feasibility of cSEMS compared with multiple plastic stents in the treatment of benign biliary stricture (BBS) caused by chronic pancreatitis.

Patients And Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized study of 60 patients with BBS caused by chronic pancreatitis. All patients received an initial plastic stent before randomization. At randomization, the stent was replaced either with a single cSEMS or three plastic stents. After 3 months, the position of the cSEMS was checked or another three plastic stents were added. At 6 months after randomization, all stents were removed. Clinical follow-up including abdominal ultrasound and laboratory tests were performed at 6 months and 2 years after stent removal.

Results: Two patients dropped out of the cSEMS group before stent removal. In April 2014, the median follow-up was 40 months (range 1 - 66 months). The 2-year, stricture-free success rate was 90 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 72 % - 97 %) in the plastic stent group and 92 % (95 %CI 70 % - 98 %) in the cSEMS group (P = 0.405). There was one late recurrence in the plastic stent group 50 months after stent removal. Stent migration occurred three times (10 %) in the plastic stent group and twice in the cSEMS group (7 %; P = 1.000).

Conclusion: A 6-month treatment with either six 10-Fr plastic stents or with one 10-mm cSEMS produced good long-term relief of biliary stricture caused by chronic pancreatitis.Study registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01085747).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1391331DOI Listing
July 2015

Assessment of indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy--development of a predictive model.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2015 Feb 26;50(2):245-52. Epub 2014 Dec 26.

Department of Gastroenterological and General Surgery, Unit of Therapeutic Endoscopy, Helsinki University Central Hospital and Helsinki University , Helsinki , Finland.

Objective: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is used for long-term enteral nutrition in neurological patients with dysphagia (NEUR), in head and neck cancer patients prior to chemoradiation therapy (head and neck malignancy group [HNM]), or in cases of oropharyngeal or esophageal tumor obstruction or stricture (OBSTR). Considerable morbidity and overall mortality is reported. Aim was to analyze the complication rates and mortality with PEG and to identify subgroups with poor outcomes.

Material And Methods: Patients underwent PEG (n = 401) in a single tertiary care center. Indications, characteristics, and causes of death were recorded.

Results: Number of patients in groups: HNM 135 (34%), OBSTR 74 (18%), and NEUR 192 (48%); follow-up time median (interquartile range): 17 (39) months; the time PEG used for feeding: 4 (7) months. A total of 91 patients (23%) had 110 complications, 31 patients (8%) had early (≤30 days) complications, and 49 patients (12%) major complications. Two deaths (0.5%, 2 peritonitis) were related to PEG. The 30-day mortality was 11% (n = 47). According to multivariate analysis, an increased 30-day mortality was associated with ≥75 years of age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class IV, a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) ≥4, body mass index (BMI) <18.5, and ongoing antibiotic therapy. With this model, 95% specificity was obtained in the 30-day survival figures.

Conclusion: The presented predictive model derived from our analysis may recognize patients with poor outcome when referred for PEG. The parameters in the present model (age, ASA class, CCI score, BMI, and data of ongoing antibiotic treatment) are easily measurable, and it is possible to integrate them into everyday work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2014.927914DOI Listing
February 2015

Endoscopic papillectomy, single-centre experience.

Surg Endosc 2014 Nov 14;28(11):3234-9. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Endoscopic removal of benign tumours of papilla is increasing. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of endoscopic resection of papillary tumours.

Methods: In the years 2000-2012, 61 papillectomies were performed in Helsinki University Central Hospital. The cases were analysed retrospectively.

Results: There were 35 patients with benign tumour of papilla without familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), 16 patients with FAP and 10 patients with ampullary cancer. Jaundice and bile duct dilation were risk factors for malignancy (p < 0.001). In benign tumours, the recurrence rate was 25.5 %. In 5/51 benign tumour cases (9.8 %), a pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The remaining cases were treated endoscopically. Neither tumour size, resection in one piece or piecemeal technique, nor coagulation of resection margins had an effect on the development of residual tumour. The total complication rate was 24.6 %. Pancreatitis developed in six patients (9.8 %, 3 mild and 3 moderate). In benign tumour cases, pancreatic stent decreased pancreatitis rate (p = 0.045). In cases where only a pancreatic sphincterotomy was performed, the risk of pancreatitis was high 4/7 (57 %). Bleeding was the most common complication (18 %). Only one patient was operated due to complication, a post-papillectomy bleeding. In six out of seven non-operated cancer patients, the disease progressed.

Conclusion: Endoscopic papillectomy is an effective procedure for treating benign papillary tumours. Jaundice and bile duct dilation are more common in malignant tumours. Pancreatic stent decreases the risk of post-papillectomy pancreatitis. Pancreatic sphincterotomy without stenting carries a high risk of pancreatitis. For papillary cancer, surgery is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-014-3596-5DOI Listing
November 2014

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement by otorhinolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons.

Acta Otolaryngol 2014 Jul 5;134(7):760-7. Epub 2014 May 5.

Departments of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery.

Conclusion: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement by an otorhinolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon is a feasible procedure with logistical advantages for the patient. Patient selection, co-morbidities, and the prognosis of the underlying disease are factors determining the outcome. Patient evaluation by a multidisciplinary team, with a gastroenterologist surgeon as a technical adviser, is proposed.

Objective: PEG tube placement offers an alternative to enteral nutrition. We aimed to analyze complication rates after PEG tube placement in order to evaluate the changed management policy.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of complication rates in two patient cohorts with consecutive PEG tube placement at the Departments of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (group I, n = 120) and Surgery (group II, n = 172) at Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Data were collected on the patients' age, sex, preoperative condition, tumor site and stage, preoperative laboratory parameters, coexisting medical diagnoses, indication and date for PEG tube placement, complications, time of PEG use, follow-up time, and clinical status at the last follow-up.

Results: The only baseline differences between the cohorts were a higher ASA classification and fewer prophylactic PEG tubes in group II. The rate of major complications was 7.5% in group I and 13.9% in group II; in group I the rate of minor complications was 25%, compared with 15% in group II; and the procedure-related mortality rate was 0.8% in group I and 0.5% in group II. The differences were not significant (p = 0.105-0.795).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00016489.2014.895040DOI Listing
July 2014

Difficult cannulation as defined by a prospective study of the Scandinavian Association for Digestive Endoscopy (SADE) in 907 ERCPs.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2014 Jun 14;49(6):752-8. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.

Background: The definition of a "difficult" cannulation varies considerably in reports of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Aims: To define a difficult cannulation, which translates into higher risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis.

Patients And Methods: Prospective consecutive recording of 907 cannulations in Scandinavian centers done by experienced endoscopists. Inclusion: indication for biliary access in patients with intact papilla. Exclusion: acute non-biliary and chronic pancreatitis at time of procedure.

Results: The primary cannulation succeeded in 74.9%, with median values for time 0.88 min (53 s), with two attempts and with zero pancreatic passages or injections. The overall cannulation success was 97.4% and post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) rate was 5.3%. The median time for all successful cannulations was 1.55 min (range 0.02-94.2). If the primary cannulation succeeded, the pancreatitis rate was 2.8%; after secondary methods, it rose to 11.5%. Procedures lasting less than 5 min had a PEP rate of 2.6% versus 11.8% in those lasting longer. With one attempt, the PEP rate was 0.6%, with two 3.1%, with three to four 6.1%, and with five and more 11.9%. With one accidental pancreatic guide-wire passage, the risk of the PEP was 3.7%, and with two passages, it was 13.1%.

Conclusions: If the increasing rate of PEP is taken as defining factor, the wire-guided cannulation of a native papilla can be considered difficult after 5 min, five attempts, and two pancreatic guide-wire passages when any of those limits is exceeded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2014.894120DOI Listing
June 2014

Gastric outlet obstruction in gastric cancer: a comparison of three palliative methods.

J Surg Oncol 2013 Dec 21;108(8):537-41. Epub 2013 Sep 21.

Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, HUS, Finland.

Background: Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) commonly occurs in advanced gastric cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the results of endoscopic stenting (ES), palliative resection (PR), and gastrojejunostomy (GJ) as palliation of GOO.

Methods: A total of 97 patients (50 ES, 26 PR, 21 GJ) were included in this retrospective study. All the patients had primary gastric cancer and symptoms of GOO.

Results: Compared to surgery, ES resulted in a faster improvement on oral intake and symptom relief (P < 0.001) and a shorter hospitalization (P < 0.001). Complication rates, hospital re-admissions, occurrence of biliary obstruction, and the number of patients receiving chemotherapy were similar. The median symptom-free and overall survival were longest in the PR group (P < 0.001). In multivariate survival analysis, independent prognostic factors were age, BMI, pre-procedure GOOSS, palliative resection as treatment modality, and chemotherapy.

Conclusions: In gastric cancer and GOO, the clinical condition of the patient before treatment affects survival and should be taken into account in determining the treatment. PR seems to provide a survival benefit and should be considered as treatment option for patients suitable for surgery. For patients unfit for surgery, ES provides rapid and efficient palliation. Chemotherapy also seems to improve survival in gastric cancer and GOO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.23442DOI Listing
December 2013

A randomized comparison of target-controlled propofol infusion and patient-controlled sedation during ERCP.

Endoscopy 2013 Nov 8;45(11):915-9. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background And Study Aims: Propofol is widely used during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) but high doses are recognized as a risk factor for sedation-related complications. The aim of this study was to compare target-controlled infusion (TCI) with patient self-administration (patient-controlled sedation, PCS) of propofol during ERCP. Propofol consumption, the ease of ERCP performance, and speed of recovery were recorded.

Patients And Methods: A total of 82 patients undergoing elective ERCP were randomized 1:1 to receive propofol 10 mg/mL using TCI (initial targeted effect-site concentration 2 μg/mL) or PCS (single bolus 1 mL, lockout time set at zero). Alfentanil was administered if signs of insufficient analgesia occurred. Consumption of propofol and alfentanil was recorded, sedation levels and vital signs were monitored, the ease of ERCP performance, speed of recovery, and satisfaction with sedation were evaluated.

Results: All procedures were performed without interruptions or major sedation-related complications. The mean (± SD) consumption of propofol was 306 ± 124 mg in the TCI group and 224 ± 101 mg in the PCS group (P = 0.002). Patients in the PCS group recovered faster (P = 0.035). The mean (± SD) consumption of alfentanil was 0.5 ± 0.4 mg in both groups. The combination of propofol and alfentanil was associated with an increased risk of sedation-related adverse events (P = 0.031).

Conclusions: No benefits of TCI over PCS could be demonstrated in this study. We recommend considering PCS as a feasible option for propofol administration during ERCP because of its ease of use, high success rate, reduced consumption of propofol, and faster recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1344712DOI Listing
November 2013

Dexmedetomidine impairs success of patient-controlled sedation in alcoholics during ERCP: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Surg Endosc 2013 Jun 26;27(6):2163-8. Epub 2013 Jan 26.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4, PL 340, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: There is a lack of studies about procedural sedation of alcoholics. Dexmedetomidine is recommended for procedural sedation and reported effective for alcohol withdrawal. We evaluated the suitability of dexmedetomidine for sedation of alcoholics during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Methods: Fifty patients with chronic alcoholism scheduled for elective ERCP were randomized 1:1 to receive dexmedetomidine (Dex group) (loading dose 1 μg kg(-1) over 10 min, followed by constant intravenous infusion 0.7 μg kg(-1) h(-1)) or saline placebo (P group). Patient-controlled sedation with propofol-alfentanil was used by patients as a rescue method. Sedation was considered as successful if no intervention of an anesthesiologist was needed. Consumption of sedatives was registered, and sedation levels and vital signs were monitored.

Results: Dexmedetomidine alone was insufficient in all patients. The mean ± SD consumption of propofol was 159 ± 72 mg in the P group, and 116 ± 61 mg in the Dex group (p = 0.028). Sedation was successful in 19 of 25 (76 %) patients in the Dex group and in all patients in the P group (p = 0.022). The incidence of sedation adverse events did not differ between the groups. Dexmedetomidine was associated with delayed recovery.

Conclusions: Patient-controlled sedation with propofol and alfentanil but not dexmedetomidine can be recommended for sedation of alcoholics during ERCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-012-2734-1DOI Listing
June 2013

A prospective randomized study of thin versus regular-sized guide wire in wire-guided cannulation.

Surg Endosc 2013 May 13;27(5):1662-7. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4, PL340, 00029 Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of various pancreatobiliary disorders. Our aim was to evaluate whether the combination of a thin guide wire and a thin sphincterotome would facilitate selective cannulation of the bile duct and reduce the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) by reducing papillary trauma when compared with a regular-sized hydrophilic guide wire.

Methods: Between June 2011 and February 2012, we performed 100 biliary cannulations for a native papilla in a randomized controlled trial. Having given their written informed consent, patients were randomly assigned to a 0.025-inch guide wire and sphincterotome group (n = 50) or to a 0.035-inch guide wire and sphincterotome group (n = 50). Number of cannulation attempts, number of accidental guide wire passages into the pancreatic duct, secondary cannulation techniques after failed primary cannulation, time to change the technique, and time for successful cannulation were collected in a database. Patients were followed up after ERCP, and all post-ERCP complications were recorded.

Results: Primary cannulation was successful in 80 %. With accessory techniques, cannulation of the biliary duct was achieved in every case except one. There was no difference in primary cannulation rate between the 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch wire groups (n = 40 in each group). PEP was diagnosed in two patients (2.0 %), one in each study group. Postsphincterotomy bleeding occurred in one patient (1.0 %).

Conclusions: The thickness of the hydrophilic guide wire does not appear to affect either the success rate of primary cannulation or the risk of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-012-2653-1DOI Listing
May 2013

How to cannulate? A survey of the Scandinavian Association for Digestive Endoscopy (SADE) in 141 endoscopists.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2012 Jul 19;47(7):861-9. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Gastrocentrum Kirurgi, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.

Cannulation of the papilla vateri represents an enigmatic first step in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). In light of falling numbers of (diagnostic) ERCP and novel techniques, e.g. short-wire system, we were interested in the approach novice and experienced endoscopist are taking; especially, what makes a papilla difficult to cannulate and how to approach this. We devised a structured online questionnaire, sent to all endoscopists registered with SADE, the Scandinavian Association for Digestive Endoscopy. A total of 141 responded. Of those, 49 were experienced ERCP-endoscopists (>900 ERCPs). The first choice of cannulation is with a sphincterotome and a preinserted wire. Both less experienced and more experienced endoscopists agreed on the criteria to describe a papilla difficult to cannulate and both would choose the needle-knife sphincterotomy (NKS) to get access to the bile duct. The less experienced used more "upward" NKS, whereas the more experienced also used the "downward" NKS technique. This survey provides us with a database allowing now for a more differentiated view on cannulation techniques, success, and outcome in terms of pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2012.672588DOI Listing
July 2012

Endoscopic treatment of anastomotic biliary complications after liver transplantation using removable, covered, self-expandable metallic stents.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2012 Jan 8;47(1):116-21. Epub 2011 Dec 8.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: Anastomotic bile duct complications after liver transplantation (LT) have been treated endoscopically by dilation and plastic tube stenting, with the stent therapy having moved toward using covered, self-expandable metallic stents (cSEMS) in recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze therapy outcome of post-LT anastomotic complications using cSEMS.

Material And Methods: Seventeen post-LT patients had 29 cSEMS (Allium stent, n = 23; Wallstent, n = 4; Micro-Tech, n = 2) placed during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The fully covered stents (Allium, Micro-Tech) were placed entirely inside the common bile duct. Data were collected and analyzed in a retrospective manner.

Results: These 17 patients had 19 stent treatment periods. Resolution was eventually established in all patients. There were four (14%) stent migrations. Pancreatitis was seen after one ERCP procedure, whereas five cases of cholangitis were seen.

Conclusion: Treatment of post-LT anastomotic complications with cSEMS seems to be both safe and efficient. Further assessment regarding indications, stent types and stenting time is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2011.639082DOI Listing
January 2012

Stenting for malignant colorectal obstruction: a single-center experience with 101 patients.

Surg Endosc 2012 Feb 10;26(2):423-30. Epub 2011 Sep 10.

Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 340, 00029, HUS, Finland.

Background: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are used for colorectal obstruction preoperatively and palliatively. Limited data on the use of stents for obstruction caused by extracolonic malignancies exist, and the results are unclear. Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SEMS for patients stented as a bridge to surgery and as palliation for colorectal cancer or extracolonic malignancies.

Methods: Between 1998 and 2009, a total of 101 patients underwent 108 stenting procedures for malignant colorectal obstruction. The results were studied retrospectively.

Results: Of the study cohort, 11 patients were stented as a bridge to surgery. For palliatively stented patients, the etiology of obstruction was colorectal cancer in 66 patients and extracolonic malignancy in 24. Overall technical success was 99% and clinical success 88%. Complications occurred for 20 (20%) patients in 22 of 108 procedures. Complications included perforation (n = 6), recurrent obstruction (n = 8), and stent migration (n = 4). A median time to complication was 81.5 days. The overall stent placement-related mortality was 2/101 (2%). For patients stented as a bridge to surgery, a primary anastomosis in elective operations was achieved for 90% (9/10). In the palliation groups, patients with colorectal cancer had significantly higher clinical success rates than patients with extracolonic malignancies (94% vs. 65%, P = 0.0005). There was no difference in complications, operation, and stoma rates between the palliation groups.

Conclusions: SEMS is a safe and effective treatment for patients stented as a bridge to surgery or as palliation due to colorectal cancer. Stents are also useful in relieving obstruction due to extracolonic malignancies, but the clinical failure rate is higher than for colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-011-1890-zDOI Listing
February 2012

Patient-controlled sedation with propofol and remifentanil for ERCP: a randomized, controlled study.

Gastrointest Endosc 2011 Feb;73(2):260-6

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Deep sedation with propofol and an opioid is commonly used for ERCP but is associated with increased risk and may require the presence of an anesthesiologist. Delivery of propofol and a short-acting, potent opioid analgesic remifentanil by patients to themselves (patient-controlled sedation, PCS) could be another option. Comparative studies with propofol PCS for ERCP are lacking.

Objective: To compare PCS with propofol/remifentanil to anesthesiologist-managed propofol sedation.

Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled human trial.

Setting: University hospital.

Patients: This study involved 80 patients presenting for elective ERCP.

Intervention: Patients were randomized to PCS with propofol/remifentanil (PCS group) or anesthesiologist-managed propofol sedation (propofol infusion group). Sedation level was estimated every 5 minutes throughout the procedure by using Ramsay and Gillham sedation scores. The total amount of propofol was calculated at the end of the procedure. Endoscopist and patient satisfaction with the procedures was evaluated with a structured questionnaire.

Main Outcome Measurements: Patient vital signs, amount of consumed propofol, sedation levels, and degree of endoscopist and patient satisfaction.

Results: PCS was successful with 38 of 40 (95%) ERCP patients. In the PCS group, the mean (±standard deviation) level of sedation was markedly lighter and propofol consumption significantly smaller (175±98 mg) than in the propofol infusion group (249±138 mg) (P<.01). Degrees of patient and endoscopist satisfaction were equally high in both groups. All of the patients preferred the same sedation method should a repeat ERCP be required.

Limitations: Single-center study.

Conclusion: PCS with propofol/remifentanil is a suitable and well-accepted sedation method for ERCP. Anesthesiologist-managed propofol sedation with constant propofol infusion is associated with unnecessary deep sedation without any impact on the degree of patient or endoscopist satisfaction. Further larger-scale studies are needed to assess the safety of PCS in ERCP patients. (

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01079312.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2010.10.005DOI Listing
February 2011

Management of difficult bile duct cannulation in ERCP.

World J Gastrointest Endosc 2010 Mar;2(3):97-103

Marianne Udd, Leena Kylänpää, Jorma Halttunen, Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340, HUS 00029, Helsinki, Finland.

In Encoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), the main concern is to gain access into the bile duct while avoiding the pancreatic duct because of the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Difficult cannulation is defined as a situation where the endoscopist, using his/her regularly used cannulation technique, fails within a certain time limit or after a certain number of unsuccessful attempts. Different methods have been developed to manage difficult cannulation. The most common solution is to perform a precut papillotomy either with a needle knife or with a sphincterotome with or without a guide wire. This review describes different methods to overcome cases of difficult cannulation. We will discuss the success rate and complication rates associated with different methods of reaching the biliary tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4253/wjge.v2.i3.97DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2999064PMC
March 2010

Outcome of patients after endoluminal stent placement for benign colorectal obstruction.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2010 Jun;45(6):725-31

Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Meilahti Hospital, HUS, Finland.

Objective: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have been successfully used as a "bridge to surgery" or as palliation for acute malignant colorectal obstruction. Little data on the use of stents for benign obstruction exists and the results vary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SEMS in benign colorectal obstruction.

Material And Methods: A total of 21 patients with 23 SEMS procedures between the years 1998 and 2008 were retrospectively studied. Eight patients had an obstruction in the surgical anastomosis. In addition, there were two patients with anastomotic strictures due to Crohn's disease. In 10 patients the obstruction was caused by diverticular disease and one patient had a stricture after radiation therapy.

Results: Technical success was achieved for all the patients. Clinical success was achieved for 76% (16/21) of the patients. The anastomotic strictures were resolved with SEMS in 5 out of 8 cases (63%). Three patients with diverticular stricture (30%) were eventually resolved with SEMS. Nine (43%) patients in 10 out of 23 procedures (43%) had a complication, the majority being in patients with diverticular stricture.

Conclusions: SEMS is a good treatment option for patients with anastomotic stricture of the colon and for patients with benign colonic stricture who are unfit for surgery. SEMS can be used as a bridge to surgery in diverticular obstruction but there seems to be a considerable risk of complications. If a SEMS is placed into a diverticular stricture, the planned bowel resection should be performed within a month.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521003663696DOI Listing
June 2010

Outcome for self-expandable metal stents in malignant gastroduodenal obstruction: single-center experience with 104 patients.

Surg Endosc 2010 Apr;24(4):891-6

Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Meilahti Hospital, University of Helsinki, PO Box 340, 00029, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) leads to malnutrition and limits quality of life. Gastrojejunostomy has been the traditional treatment for GOO. Recently, the results of releasing duodenal obstruction with self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) have been encouraging.

Methods: After the exclusion of 13 patients with gastrojejunal or jejunal strictures and 1 patient with intraabdominal lymphoma, the authors palliated the malignant GOO in 104 patients with 130 SEMS at a single center during the years 1999-2007.

Results: The GOO was caused by pancreatic (n = 51), gastric (n = 24), duodenal (n = 7), biliary (n = 5), and other (n = 17) malignancies. Of the 104 patients, 76 (73%) did well with only one enteral stent placement, 21 (20.2%) required two stent placements, 4 (3.8%) required three stent placements, and 1 required four stent placements. The median dysphagia score was 0 before stenting and 2 after treatment (p < 0.001). Immediate failure occurred after 10 procedures (7.7%). Among the 104 patients, 6 (5.8%) died of stent placement-related reasons. Complications occurred for 13 patients (12.5%). The median hospital stay was 3 days, and the overall survival time was 62 days (range, 1-933 days). Of 11 patients with concomitant biliary obstruction and GOO, 10 (91%) underwent successful enteral and biliary stent placement within the same session. Of 15 patients experiencing jaundice after enteral stent placement, 6 (40%) underwent endoscopic biliary drainage successfully.

Conclusion: Enteral stenting is a safe and effective way to treat GOO. Gastrojejunostomy should be preserved for cases in which endoscopic stenting is not successful or possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-009-0686-xDOI Listing
April 2010

Pancreatic sphincterotomy versus needle knife precut in difficult biliary cannulation.

Surg Endosc 2009 Apr 23;23(4):745-9. Epub 2008 Jul 23.

Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: In endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) difficult cannulation is an independent risk factor for complications.

Methods: Altogether 6,209 ERCPs were performed in Helsinki University Central Hospital in the period 1996-2006. In 558 cases (9%) without a previous sphincterotomy, direct access into the biliary duct could not be achieved. In this group access was attempted by first performing a pancreatic sphincterotomy in 351 difficult cannulation cases (63%). A needle knife precut without a pancreatic sphincterotomy was performed in 178 cases (32%). All the necessary clinical and laboratory information was available for 262 of the 351 patients who had undergone a pancreatic sphincterotomy and for 157 of the 178 patients who had been subjected to needle knife precutting, and these data were further evaluated in this study.

Results: The pancreatic sphincterotomy technique was successful in 255 cases (97.3%). Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in 8.8% of the pancreatic sphincterotomy group. In 147 patients, biliary cannulation was successful following a pancreatic sphincterotomy, and the post-ERCP pancreatitis rate for those patients was 9.3%. In 108 patients, a needle knife papillotomy, in addition to a pancreatic sphincterotomy, was necessary and resulted in a post-ERCP pancreatitis rate of 8.2%. In the needle knife precut group only, post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in 5.1% of cases. Biliary cannulation succeeded less frequently following needle knife precutting than following the pancreatic sphincterotomy technique (71.3% versus 97.3%, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the post-ERCP pancreatitis rate between the precut and pancreatic sphincterotomy techniques (p=0.16).

Conclusions: In difficult cannulation, a pancreatic sphincterotomy to achieve deep biliary duct cannulation can be performed with a high success rate (failure rate less than 3%). The corresponding success rate using the needle knife precut technique is 71%. In both methods the risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis is comparable to that of a standard biliary sphincterotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-008-0056-0DOI Listing
April 2009

Treatment of Pancreatic Fistulas.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2007 Jun 30;33(3):227-30. Epub 2007 May 30.

Department of Gastrointestinal and General Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Pancreatic fistula is usually a complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis but can also occur postoperatively or after abdominal trauma. Conservative treatment of pancreatic fistula is time-consuming and often fails. Endoscopic treatment has become the preferred first-line treatment in many centres. Surgery is necessary in few cases when endoscopy fails or is not technically possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00068-007-7067-8DOI Listing
June 2007

Early sequential changes in serum markers of acute pancreatitis induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

Pancreatology 2005 21;5(2-3):157-64. Epub 2005 Apr 21.

Second Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background/aims: Trypsinogen activation is thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Our aim was to characterize the very early sequential changes of trypsinogen-1, trypsinogen-2, the trypsin-2-alpha1-antitrypsin complex (T2-AAT), and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) in serum from patients with pancreatitis induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), a model for studying the early phase of the disease in humans.

Patients And Methods: The study population consisted of 659 consecutive patients with 897 ERCP procedures. Blood samples were obtained before and at different time points after the procedure. The serum concentrations of trypsinogen-1 and trypsinogen-2, PSTI and T2-AAT were determined by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays.

Results: ERCP-induced pancreatitis developed after 50 of the 897 ERCP procedures (5.6%). Sixty-one randomly selected ERCP patients without post-ERCP pancreatitis served as controls. Trypsinogen-1 and trypsinogen-2 showed an equally steep increase during the two first hours after ERCP in patients developing AP, but trypsinogen-1 decreased more rapidly than trypsinogen-2, which remained elevated during the 5-day study period. Serum PSTI also increased rapidly whereas T2-AAT increased more slowly peaking at 24 h. In patients developing post-ERCP pancreatitis the median concentration of trypsinogen-1 was markedly higher than in the controls already before the ERCP procedure. In the control group the concentrations of trypsinogen-1, trypsinogen-2, PSTI and T2-AAT did not change significantly.

Conclusions: The rapid increase of trypsinogen-1 and trypsinogen-2 and PSTI in the early phase of AP suggests that release of pancreatic enzymes is the initial event while the delayed increase of T2-AAT may reflect that the capacity of the intrapancreatic PSTI-based inhibitory mechanism has been exhausted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000085267DOI Listing
June 2005

Mucosal expression of p21, p27, p53, Bcl-2, and bax after small bowel resection and autotransplantation in pigs.

Pediatr Surg Int 2005 May 13;21(5):351-5. Epub 2005 Apr 13.

Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, P.O. Box 21, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Massive small bowel resection increases ileal villus height as part of normal adaptation. However, despite no gut loss, autotransplantation of the entire small intestine also increases ileal villus height. Our aim was to test whether similar modulation of enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis underpin these comparable increases in villus height. Fifteen pigs were randomly assigned for laparotomy (n=5), 75% proximal small bowel resection (n=5), or jejunoileal autotransplantation (n=5). Eight weeks postoperatively, full-thickness small bowel sections underwent routine immunohistochemistry for cell cycle inhibitors (p53, p21, and p27), antiapoptotic Bcl-2, and proapoptotic bax. The specimens were analyzed semiquantitatively, and the number of intensively positive epithelial cells for each group was compared from 20 digital images (0.32 mm(2)/image). Compared with laparotomy, small bowel resection decreased the number of p27-positive enterocytes in both jejunum and ileum, increased the number of bax-expressing cells in ileum, but decreased the number of bax-expressing cells in jejunum. In contrast, compared with laparotomy, jejunoileal autotransplantation altered neither mucosal bax nor p27 expression. In all groups, Bcl-2 expression was similarly confined to inflammatory cells of the lamina propria, while both p53 and p21 were negative. We conclude that long-term alterations in the enterocytic expression of certain cell cycle and apoptosis markers (p27 and bax) accompany small bowel resection. These changes differ between the jejunum and the ileum and are not seen after whole small bowel autotransplantation. Therefore, increased ileal villus height after autotransplantation, despite resembling postresectional intestinal adaptation, is underpinned by different regulation of enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-005-1411-zDOI Listing
May 2005

Octreotide in the treatment of small intestinal dysfunction after a model of jejunoileal autotransplantation in the pig.

Pediatr Surg Int 2004 Oct;20(10):791-6

Section of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki, Stenbäckinkatu 11, P.O. Box 281, 00029 Helsinki, Finland.

Enteric denervation and ischemic injury contribute to dysmotility and malabsorption following intestinal transplantation. We hypothesized that, by prolonging bowel transit and by ameliorating dysmotility, octreotide (OT) may improve cholesterol and bile acid absorption after jejunoileal autotransplantation. Seventeen pigs with fixed food intake underwent either jejunal transection (n = 6), or jejunoileal autotransplantation, which includes extrinsic autonomic denervation, lymphatic interruption, and in situ cold ischemia (n = 11). Five randomly chosen autotransplanted animals received intramuscular long-acting OT (10 mg) once a month. After 8 weeks, weight gain, intestinal transit time, fecal excretion of bile acids and cholesterol, and fractional cholesterol absorption were determined. Jejunal and ileal specimens were collected for histochemical analyses. Plasma cholestenol and campesterol, respective markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, were measured after 2 and 8 weeks. Following jejunoileal autotransplantation, octreotide treatment significantly increased the median intestinal transit time from 22.8 to 24.8 h and the median body weight gain from 166 to 187%. Jejunoileal autotransplantation significantly increased fecal bile acid excretion, plasma cholestenol, and bacterially modified fecal neutral sterols, and decreased absorption of cholesterol, plasma campesterol, and biliary cholesterol secretion. These changes were not significantly modified by OT treatment. Bowel wall and mucosal structure, mucosal proliferation, and weight or microvilli showed no statistically significant differences between autotransplanted animals with or without OT treatment. Findings of the present study suggest that octreotide prolongs intestinal transit time and improves weight gain after jejunoileal autotransplantation, but has no effect on malabsorption of cholesterol and bile acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-004-1167-xDOI Listing
October 2004
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