Publications by authors named "Johanna F Lindahl"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Improved Sample Selection and Preparation Methods for Sampling Plans Used to Facilitate Rapid and Reliable Estimation of Aflatoxin in Chicken Feed.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxic fungal metabolite associated with human and animal diseases, is a natural contaminant encountered in agricultural commodities, food and feed. Heterogeneity of AFB1 makes risk estimation a challenge. To overcome this, novel sample selection, preparation and extraction steps were designed for representative sampling of chicken feed. Accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantification, linearity, robustness and ruggedness were used as performance criteria to validate this modification and Horwitz function for evaluating precision. A modified sampling protocol that ensured representativeness is documented, including sample selection, sampling tools, random procedures, minimum size of field-collected aggregate samples (primary sampling), procedures for mass reduction to 2 kg laboratory (secondary sampling), 25 g test portion (tertiary sampling) and 1.3 g analytical samples (quaternary sampling). The improved coning and quartering procedure described herein (for secondary and tertiary sampling) has acceptable precision, with a Horwitz ratio (HorRat = 0.3) suitable for splitting of 25 g feed aliquots from laboratory samples (tertiary sampling). The water slurring innovation (quaternary sampling) increased aflatoxin extraction efficiency to 95.1% through reduction of both bias (-4.95) and variability of recovery (1.2-1.4) and improved both intra-laboratory precision (HorRat = 1.2-1.5) and within-laboratory reproducibility (HorRat = 0.9-1.3). Optimal extraction conditions are documented. The improved procedure showed satisfactory performance, good field applicability and reduced sample analysis turnaround time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002447PMC
March 2021

Live and Wet Markets: Food Access versus the Risk of Disease Emergence.

Trends Microbiol 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75237, Sweden; International Livestock Research Institute, Department of Biosciences, Nairobi 00100, Kenya; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Emerging zoonotic diseases exert a significant burden on human health and have considerable socioeconomic impact worldwide. In Asia, live animals as well as animal products are commonly sold in informal markets. The interaction of humans, live domestic animals for sale, food products, and wild and scavenging animals, creates a risk for emerging infectious diseases. Such markets have been in the spotlight as sources of zoonotic viruses, for example, avian influenza viruses and coronaviruses, Here, we bring data together on the global impact of live and wet markets on the emergence of zoonotic diseases. We discuss how benefits can be maximized and risks minimized and conclude that current regulations should be implemented or revised, to mitigate the risk of new diseases emerging in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2021.02.007DOI Listing
March 2021

Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle and Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Machakos Town, Kenya.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 12 3;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. P.O. Box 29053, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.

Mycotoxins are common in grains in sub-Saharan Africa and negatively impact human and animal health and production. This study assessed occurrences of mycotoxins, some plant, and bacterial metabolites in 16 dairy and 27 poultry feeds, and 24 feed ingredients from Machakos town, Kenya, in February and August 2019. We analyzed the samples using a validated multi-toxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. A total of 153 mycotoxins, plant, and bacterial toxins, were detected in the samples. All the samples were co-contaminated with 21 to 116 different mycotoxins and/or metabolites. The commonly occurring and EU regulated mycotoxins reported were; aflatoxins (AFs) (70%; range 0.2-318.5 μg/kg), deoxynivalenol (82%; range 22.2-1037 μg/kg), ergot alkaloids (70%; range 0.4-285.7 μg/kg), fumonisins (90%; range 32.4-14,346 μg/kg), HT-2 toxin (3%; range 11.9-13.8 μg/kg), ochratoxin A (24%; range 1.1-24.3 μg/kg), T-2 toxin (4%; range 2.7-5.2 μg/kg) and zearalenone (94%; range 0.3-910.4 μg/kg). Other unregulated emerging mycotoxins and metabolites including toxins, toxins, bacterial metabolites, cytochalasins, depsipeptides, metabolites, metabolites from other fungi, toxins, phytoestrogens, plant metabolites, and unspecific metabolites were also detected at varying levels. Except for total AFs, where the average contamination level was above the EU regulatory limit, all the other mycotoxins detected had average contamination levels below the limits. Ninety-six percent of all the samples were contaminated with more than one of the EU regulated mycotoxins. These co-occurrences may cause synergistic and additive health effects thereby hindering the growth of the Kenyan livestock sector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12120762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761711PMC
December 2020

Evaluating farm-level livestock interventions in low-income countries: a scoping review of what works, how, and why.

Anim Health Res Rev 2020 12 2;21(2):108-121. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, P. O. Box 30709, 00100Nairobi, Kenya.

Livestock interventions can improve nutrition, health, and economic well-being of communities. The objectives of this review were to identify and characterize livestock interventions in developing countries and to assess their effectiveness in achieving development outcomes. A scoping review, guided by a search strategy, was conducted. Papers needed to be written in English, published in peer-reviewed journals, and describe interventions in animal health and production. Out of 2739 publications systematically screened at the title, abstract, and full publication levels, 70 met our inclusion criteria and were considered in the study. Eight relatively high-quality papers were identified and added, resulting in 78 reviewed publications. Only 15 studies used randomized controlled trial designs making it possible to confidently link interventions with the resulting outcomes. Eight studies had human nutrition or health as outcomes, 11 focused on disease control, and four were on livestock production. Eight interventions were considered successful, but only four were scalable. We found good evidence that livestock-transfer programs, leveraging livestock products for nutrition, and helping farmers manage priority diseases, can improve human well-being. Our report highlights challenges in garnering evidence for livestock interventions in developing countries and provides suggestions on how to improve the quantity and quality of future evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466252320000146DOI Listing
December 2020

Knowledge and practices of dairy farmers relating to brucellosis in urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Assam and Bihar, India.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020 May 31;10(1):1769531. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in the world. This study aimed at assessing farmers' knowledge about brucellosis as well as practices relevant to transmission of brucellosis and their associated determinants.

Results: Few farmers knew about brucellosis (3.4%, = 18) and its zoonotic importance (0.8%, = 4). Knowledge about brucellosis was higher for farmers with a larger herd size ( < 0.001) and fully using a stall-fed system ( < 0.001). Training on dairy cattle management ( < 0.001), training on animal disease ( < 0.01), consultation with veterinarians ( < 0.001) and farms being in urban areas ( < 0.01) were also significantly positively associated with knowledge about brucellosis. No significant association was observed between farmers' knowledge about brucellosis and state, family size, education, age or gender of the farmers. Farmers knowledge about brucellosis was significantly associated with certain practices that include use of disinfectant while cleaning farms ( < 0.05), animal movement ( < 0.01), introduction of new animals ( < 0.05) and raw milk consumption ( < 0.05). The study did not find any association between knowledge about brucellosis and method of disposal of aborted materials, personal hygiene and quarantine practices.

Conclusion: More interaction with veterinarians and training on animal management may be an important tool for generating awareness among the farming community for reducing transmission of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1769531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655058PMC
May 2020

Risk factors for spp. and infection among small ruminants in Eastern India.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020 Jun 23;10(1):1783091. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

International Livestock Research Institute, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Small ruminants are the main reservoirs for brucellosis and coxiellosis, two zoonotic diseases affecting livestock production, and posing a public health threat in India. Understanding disease prevalence and risk factors associated with small ruminant infection can help mitigate disease transmission. We report a cross-sectional survey in the states of Assam and Odisha in Eastern India. We interviewed 244 farmers to assess knowledge, attitude and practices relevant to brucellosis and coxiellosis infection. Serum samples from 411 goats and 21 sheep were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Rose-Bengal agglutination plate test. Higher and seroprevalence were found in Odisha (22% and 11.5%, respectively) than Assam (9.8% and 1.6%, respectively), and certain districts in Odisha were at higher risk. No association was found between seropositive animals and clinical signs, a challenge when attempting to identify seropositive animals in the herd. None of the farmers interviewed were aware of brucellosis, its aetiology, clinical form, or zoonotic risk. This study acts as a first indication of the extent of these diseases among small ruminants in these Indian states, highlighting how farming practices are associated with increased risk of infection. More research is urgently needed to mitigate zoonoses transmission in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1783091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480416PMC
June 2020

High seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in elderly care employees in Sweden.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020 Aug 5;10(1):1789036. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Zoonosis Science Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

The COVID-19 pandemic is growing and spread in the Swedish elderly care system during April 2020. The increasing number of employees on sick-leave due to COVID-19 created severe logistic problems. Some elderly care homes therefore started to screen their personnel to secure the safety of the elderly and to avoid unnecessary quarantine of potentially immune employees. Secondary data from a screening with a COVID-19 rapid test for detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG of 1,005 employees in 22 elderly care homes in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed. Seropositive employees were found in 21 out of the 22 care homes. In total, 23% (231/1,005) of the employees tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and 14.3% (144/1,005) were found positive for IgM (either alone or combined with IgG), indicating recent or present infection. Of those that tested seropositive, 46.5% did not report any clinical symptoms, indicating pre- or asymptomatic infections. Reported symptoms with the highest correlation with seropositivity were fever and loss of smell and taste. These results suggest that antibody testing of employees in elderly care homes is valuable for surveillance of disease development and a crucial screening tool in the effort to decrease the death toll in this pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1789036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480625PMC
August 2020

Spatio-Temporal Mutational Profile Appearances of Swedish SARS-CoV-2 during the Early Pandemic.

Viruses 2020 09 14;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the virus evolved, and we therefore aimed to provide an insight into which genetic variants were enriched, and how they spread in Sweden.

Methods: We analyzed 348 Swedish SARS-CoV-2 sequences freely available from GISAID obtained from 7 February 2020 until 14 May 2020.

Results: We identified 14 variant sites ≥5% frequency in the population. Among those sites, the D936Y substitution in the viral Spike protein was under positive selection. The variant sites can distinguish 11 mutational profiles in Sweden. Nine of the profiles appeared in Stockholm in March 2020. Mutational profiles 3 (B.1.1) and 6 (B.1), which contain the D936Y mutation, became the predominant profiles over time, spreading from Stockholm to other Swedish regions during April and the beginning of May. Furthermore, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis indicated that SARS-CoV-2 could have emerged in Sweden on 27 December 2019, and community transmission started on February 1st with an evolutionary rate of 1.5425 × 10 substitutions per year.

Conclusions: Our study provides novel knowledge on the spatio-temporal dynamics of Swedish SARS-CoV-2 variants during the early pandemic. Characterization of these viral variants can provide precious insights on viral pathogenesis and can be valuable for diagnostic and drug development approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12091026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551444PMC
September 2020

COVID-19-a very visible pandemic.

Lancet 2020 08;396(10248):e16

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Zoonosis Science Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 23, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31674-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833711PMC
August 2020

The Extent and Structure of Peri-urban Smallholder Dairy Farming in Five Cities in India.

Front Vet Sci 2020 3;7:359. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Public Health Foundation India, Gurgaon, India.

Livestock keeping is common in many cities in India, driven by the demand for animal-source foods, particularly perishable milk. We selected five cities from different regions of the country and conducted a census in 34 randomly selected peri-urban villages to identify and describe all smallholder dairy farms. In total 1,690 smallholder dairy farms were identified, keeping on average 2.2 milking cows and 0.7 milking buffaloes. In Bhubaneswar, the proportion of cows milking was only 50%, but in other cities it was 63-73%. In two of the five cities, more than 90% of the farmers stated that dairy production was their main source of income, while <50% in the other cities reported this. In one of the cities, only 36% of the households kept milk for themselves. Market channels varied considerably; in one city about 90% of farms sold milk to traders, in another, 90% sold to the dairy cooperative, and in another around 90% sold directly to consumers. In conclusion, peri-urban dairy systems in India are important but also varying between different cities, with only one city, Bengaluru, having a well-developed cooperative system, and the northeastern poorer region being more dependent on traders. Further studies may be needed to elucidate the importance and to design appropriate developmental interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7348999PMC
July 2020

Spatiotemporal and Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Dengue at the Province Level in Vietnam, 2013-2015: Clustering Analysis and Regression Model.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2020 May 19;5(2). Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, UK.

Dengue is a serious infectious disease threat in Vietnam, but its spatiotemporal and socioeconomic risk factors are not currently well understood at the province level across the country and on a multiannual scale. We explore spatial trends, clusters and outliers in dengue case counts at the province level from 2011-2015 and use this to extract spatiotemporal variables for regression analysis of the association between dengue case counts and selected spatiotemporal and socioeconomic variables from 2013-2015. Dengue in Vietnam follows anticipated spatial trends, with a potential two-year cycle of high-high clusters in some southern provinces. Small but significant associations are observed between dengue case counts and mobility, population density, a province's dengue rates the previous year, and average dengue rates two years previous in first and second order contiguous neighbours. Significant associations were not found between dengue case counts and housing pressure, access to electricity, clinician density, province-adjusted poverty rate, percentage of children below one vaccinated, or percentage of population in urban settings. These findings challenge assumptions about socioeconomic and spatiotemporal risk factors for dengue, and support national prevention targeting in Vietnam at the province level. They may also be of wider relevance for the study of other arboviruses, including Japanese encephalitis, Zika, and Chikungunya.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345007PMC
May 2020

A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Knowledge of Mosquito-Borne Infections and Barriers for Protection in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2020 May 1;5(2). Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 05, Sweden.

Dengue is a growing problem in Hanoi, with cyclical epidemics of increasing frequency and magnitude. In June 2019, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using mixed methods to investigate how inhabitants of Hanoi perceive and respond to the risk of mosquito-borne diseases (MBD). A total of 117 participants recruited using a stratified random sampling method were interviewed in three districts of Hanoi. Knowledge and practices (KP) regarding MBDs were assessed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Inferential statistics were used to identify factors associated with KP scores and describe the relationship between variables. Additionally, a "risk-mapping" exercise was conducted in a subsample through semi-structured interviews and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using the System Effects platform. Factors significantly associated with knowledge scores were education and family history of MBDs. While knowledge and practice scores were found to be positively correlated in the statistical analysis, this was not corroborated by our observations on the field. The results also revealed gaps in knowledge about MBDs and vectors and highlighted a general feeling of powerlessness which prevented the adoption of protective behaviors. Therefore, educational interventions which provide concrete tools to empower communities should have a positive impact on improving vector control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345065PMC
May 2020

A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 04 2;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Pathology, Parasitology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya.

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed and have a significant negative impact on human and animal health and productivity. The tropical condition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) together with poor storage of feed promotes fungal growth and subsequent mycotoxin production. Aflatoxins (AF) produced by species, fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by species, and ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by and species are well-known mycotoxins of agricultural importance. Consumption of feed contaminated with these toxins may cause mycotoxicoses in animals, characterized by a range of clinical signs depending on the toxin, and losses in the animal industry. In SSA, contamination of dairy feed with mycotoxins has been frequently reported, which poses a serious constraint to animal health and productivity, and is also a hazard to human health since some mycotoxins and their metabolites are excreted in milk, especially aflatoxin M1. This review describes the major mycotoxins, their occurrence, and impact in dairy cattle diets in SSA highlighting the problems related to animal health, productivity, and food safety and the up-to-date post-harvest mitigation strategies for the prevention and reduction of contamination of dairy feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232242PMC
April 2020

The extent and structure of pig rearing system in urban and peri-urban areas of Guwahati.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020 8;10(1):1711576. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Livestock is common in Indian cities and contribute to food security as well as livelihoods. Urban livestock keeping has been neglected, and in India, little is known about the topic. Therefore, urban and peri-urban pig farms of Guwahati, Assam, India, were surveyed in order to understand more about the pig rearing systems and risks of diseases. A total of 34 urban and 66 peri-urbanpig farms were selected randomly. All reared cross-bred pigs. Free-range pig rearing was common in both urban (58.8%) and peri-urban (45.45%) farms. Artificial insemination was used by around half of the pig farmers. Disinfection in pig farms was practiced in 26.5% of urban and 28.8% of peri-urban farms. More urban pig farms were observed to be moderately clean in (82.4%) compared to peri-urban (69.7%). However, more urban (67.7%) than peri-urban farms (57.6%) reported ahighrodent burden. Pig sheds were mostly basic, with bricked floors in 18.2% farms in peri-urban areas, and more than 80% had corrugated iron roofing sheets. In conclusion, free-roaming pigs in both urban and peri-urban areas of Guwahati can contribute to disease transmission, and the low standard of hygiene and buildings may further increase the risk of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1711576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968384PMC
January 2020

Urban livestock-keeping and dengue in urban and peri-urban Hanoi, Vietnam.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 11 26;13(11):e0007774. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Uppsala University, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala, Sweden.

Urban livestock provides an important source of food and income, but it may increase the risks for disease transmission. Vectors, such as mosquitoes, might increase and thereby cause an enhanced transmission of infectious diseases, such as dengue fever; considered the most important mosquito-borne viral disease globally. This cross-sectional study evaluated the awareness of dengue fever and investigated how the presence of dengue vectors is affected by the keeping of livestock in urban households in the city of Hanoi, Vietnam. From February to March 2018, during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue in Hanoi, 140 households were interviewed, of which 69 kept livestock. A general trend was observed; respondents living in the Dan Phuong district, a peri-urban district, had better knowledge and practice regarding dengue as compared to the urban Ha Dong district. In total, 3899 mosquitoes were collected and identified, of which 52 (1.33%) were Aedes species. A significant difference between the two districts was observed, with more households in Ha Dong having Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.02) and a higher incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.001). There was no significant association between livestock-rearing and the presence of Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.955), or between livestock-rearing and the incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.08). In conclusion, this study could not find any indication that households keeping livestock were at higher risk of dengue virus infections in Hanoi during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue, but clearly indicated the need of more information provided to urban inhabitants, particularly on personal protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6879131PMC
November 2019

Brucellosis in India: results of a collaborative workshop to define One Health priorities.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Jan 15;52(1):387-396. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

South Asia Regional Office, NASC Complex, International Livestock Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi, 110012, India.

Brucellosis is an important zoonosis worldwide. In livestock, it frequently causes chronic disease with reproductive failures that contribute to production losses, and in humans, it causes an often-chronic febrile illness that is frequently underdiagnosed in many low- and middle-income countries, including India. India has one of the largest ruminant populations in the world, and brucellosis is endemic in the country in both humans and animals. In November 2017, the International Livestock Research Institute invited experts from government, national research institutes, universities, and different international organizations to a one-day meeting to set priorities towards a "One Health" control strategy for brucellosis in India. Using a risk prioritization exercise followed by discussions, the meeting agreed on the following priorities: collaboration (transboundary and transdisciplinary); collection of more epidemiological evidence in humans, cattle, and in small ruminants (which have been neglected in past research); Economic impact studies, including cost effectiveness of control programmes; livestock vaccination, including national facilities for securing vaccines for the cattle population; management of infected animals (with the ban on bovine slaughter, alternatives such as sanctuaries must be explored); laboratory capacities and diagnostics (quality must be assured and better rapid tests developed); and increased awareness, making farmers, health workers, and the general public more aware of risks of brucellosis and zoonoses in general. Overall, the meeting participants agreed that brucellosis control will be challenging in India, but with collaboration to address the priority areas listed here, it could be possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-02029-3DOI Listing
January 2020

Aflatoxin Exposure from Milk in Rural Kenya and the Contribution to the Risk of Liver Cancer.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 08 10;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.

Milk is an important commodity in Kenya; the country has the largest dairy herd and highest per capita milk consumption in East Africa. As such, hazards in milk are of concern. Aflatoxin M (AFM) is a toxic metabolite of aflatoxin B (AFB) excreted in milk by lactating animals after ingesting AFB-contaminated feeds. This metabolite is injurious to human health, but there is little information on the risk to human health posed by AFM in milk in rural Kenya. To fill this gap, a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) applying probabilistic statistical tools to quantify risks was conducted. This assessed the risk of liver cancer posed by AFM in milk, assuming 10-fold lower carcinogenicity than AFB. Data from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya (semi-arid, temperate, sub-humid and humid) were used. We estimated that people were exposed to between 0.3 and 1 ng AFM per kg body weight per day through the consumption of milk. The annual incidence rates of cancer attributed to the consumption of AFM in milk were 3.5 × 10 (95% CI: 3 × 10-3.9 × 10), 2.9 × 10 (95% CI: 2.5 × 10-3.3 × 10), 1.4 × 10 (95% CI: 1.2 × 10-1.5 × 10) and 2.7 × 10 (95% CI: 2.3 × 10-3 × 10) cancers per 100,000 in adult females, adult males, children 6-18 years old, and in children less than five years old, respectively. Our results show that aflatoxin exposure from milk contributes relatively little to the incidence of liver cancer. Nonetheless, risk managers should take action based on cumulative exposure from all sources of aflatoxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722829PMC
August 2019

Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk traded in peri-urban Nairobi, and the effect of boiling and fermentation.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2019 17;9(1):1625703. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Dairy production in Kenya is important and dominated by small-holder farmers who market their produce through small-scale traders in the informal sector. : This study aimed to determine the prevalence of aflatoxin (AFM1) in informally marketed milk in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess knowledge of milk traders on aflatoxins using questionnaires. A total of 96 samples were analyzed for AFM1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, boiling and fermentation experiments were carried out in the laboratory. : All samples had AFM1 above the limit of detection (5 ng/kg) (mean of 290.3 ± 663.4 ng/kg). Two-thirds of the samples had AFM1 levels above 50 ng/kg and 7.5% of the samples exceeded 500 ng/kg. Most of the traders had low (69.8%) or medium (30.2%) knowledge. Educated ( = 0.01) and female traders (= 0.04) were more knowledgeable. Experimentally, fermenting milk to  (a traditional fermented drink) and yogurt significantly reduced AFM1 levels (< 0.01) (71.8% reduction in lala after incubation at room temperature for 15 h, and 73.6% reduction in yogurt after incubation at 45ºC for 4h). Boiling had no effect. : The study concluded that the prevalence of raw milk with AFM1 was high, while knowledge was low. Fermentation reduced the AFM1 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2019.1625703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586110PMC
June 2019

Effect of Education on Improving Knowledge and Behavior for Arboviral Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 08;101(2):441-447

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Arboviral diseases are responsible for a high burden of disease in humans, and a significant part of disease risk reduction efforts relies on vector control methods. The elimination of potential breeding sites for the mosquito vectors and a higher level of literacy by the populations at risk could present a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution. This review aims to assess the efficacy of educational interventions for arboviral diseases on knowledge and self-reported behavior. A systematic literature search was performed using Cochrane, EMBASE, Global Health, and PubMed. References of articles retrieved were searched manually for further studies. Critical appraisal of the selected articles was performed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool, and studies with a control group were further assessed through the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. A summary narrative of the results and a meta-analysis was conducted. Fourteen studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Overall, there was an increase in knowledge and in self-reported adoption of protective measures. No effect was found using solely printed material. A meta-analysis was performed separately for the two outcomes measured, which produced a mean standardized difference of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.33-2.39) in knowledge scores compared with the control groups. Regarding the self-reported protective behavior, the results show a summary value of odds ratio of 5.23 (95% CI: 3.09-7.36). Most of the educational interventions had a positive impact on knowledge and self-reported adoption of protective measures. More research producing stronger evidence and evaluating long-term impact is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685569PMC
August 2019

Seroprevalence of hemorrhagic septicemia in dairy cows in Assam, India.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2019 1;9(1):1604064. Epub 2019 May 1.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) is a highly fatal disease caused by that often cause outbreaks in buffalo and cattle in India, and thus is a major cause of production losses. It is one of the livestock diseases with the highest mortality, and despite available vaccines, outbreaks still occur. To assess the seroprevalence in the state of Assam, Northeast India, 346 serum samples from cows from 224 randomly selected households, from both urban and rural areas of three districts, were tested with a commercial ELISA. In total 88 cows were seropositive (25.4%), and indigenous cattle were significantly more seropositive (33.5%) compared to the crossbred cattle (18.5%) (p = 0.002). Herd prevalence was 35.7%, and more rural farms (47.4%) were positive compared to the urban farms (23.6%) (p < 0.001). No other risk factors were identified in this study. Only one farm had vaccinated against HS, but there were no seropositive animals detected in that herd. This study shows that HS is highly prevalent in Assam. Considering the importance of dairy production in India, and the dependence of the rural Assam population on farming and livestock keeping, more extensive vaccination campaigns would be important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2019.1604064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6507812PMC
May 2019

Risk Factors for Seroprevalence in Peri-Urban Dairy Farms in Five Indian Cities.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 22;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Public Health Foundation India, Gurgaon 122002, India.

Brucellosis is endemic among dairy animals in India, contributing to production losses and posing a health risk to people, especially farmers and others in close contact with dairy animals or their products. Growing urban populations demand increased milk supplies, resulting in intensifying dairy production at the peri-urban fringe. Peri-urban dairying is under-studied but has implications for disease transmission, both positive and negative. In this cross-sectional study, five Indian cities were selected to represent different geographies and urbanization extent. Around each, we randomly selected 34 peri-urban villages, and in each village three smallholder dairy farms (defined as having a maximum of 10 dairy animals) were randomly selected. The farmers were interviewed, and milk samples were taken from up to three animals. These were tested using a commercial ELISA for antibodies against , and factors associated with herd seroprevalence were identified. In all, 164 out of 1163 cows (14.1%, 95% CI 12.2-16.2%) were seropositive for . In total, 91 out of 510 farms (17.8%, 95% CI 14.6-21.4%) had at least one positive animal, and out of these, just seven farmers stated that they had vaccinated against brucellosis. In four cities, the farm-level seroprevalence ranged between 1.4-5.2%, while the fifth city had a seroprevalence of 72.5%. This city had larger, zero-grazing herds, used artificial insemination to a much higher degree, replaced their animals by purchasing from their neighbors, were less likely to contact a veterinarian in case of sick animals, and were also judged to be less clean. Within the high-prevalence city, farms were at higher risk of being infected if they had a young owner and if they were judged less clean. In the low-prevalence cities, no risk factors could be identified. In conclusion, this study has identified that a city can have a high burden of infected animals in the peri-urban areas, but that seroprevalence is strongly influenced by the husbandry system. Increased intensification can be associated with increased risk, and thus the practices associated with this, such as artificial insemination, are also associated with increased risk. These results may be important to identify high-risk areas for prioritizing interventions and for policy decisions influencing the structure and development of the dairy industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6630281PMC
April 2019

A multiplex fluorescence microsphere immunoassay for increased understanding of Rift Valley fever immune responses in ruminants in Kenya.

J Virol Methods 2019 07 8;269:70-76. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Manhattan, KS, USA.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important mosquito-borne pathogen with devastating impacts on agriculture and public health. With outbreaks being reported beyond the continent of Africa to the Middle East, there is great concern that RVFV will continue to spread to non-endemic areas such as the Americas and Europe. There is a need for safe and high throughput serological assays for rapid detection of RVFV during outbreaks and for surveillance. We evaluated a multiplexing fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in ruminant sera against the RVFV nucleocapsid Np, glycoprotein Gn, and non-structural protein NSs. Sheep and cattle sera from a region in Kenya with previous outbreaks were tested by FMIA and two commercially available competitive ELISAs (BDSL and IDvet). Our results revealed strong detection of RVFV antibodies against the Np, Gn and NSs antigen targets. Additionally, testing of samples with FMIA Np and Gn had 100% agreement with the IDvet ELISA. The targets developed in the FMIA assay provided a basis for a larger ruminant disease panel that can simultaneously screen several abortive and zoonotic pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.04.011DOI Listing
July 2019

Coxiella seroprevalence and risk factors in large ruminants in Bihar and Assam, India.

Acta Trop 2019 Jun 19;194:41-46. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

International Livestock Research Institute, Southeast Asia Regional Office, 298 Kim Ma, 100000 Hanoi, Viet Nam; Zoonosis Science Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Coxiellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ubiquitous bacteria Coxiella burnetii, which can be spread either through ticks or through body fluids. In humans the infection is characterized by a febrile disease; ruminants may abort and reduce their milk yield, causing serious production losses for the farmer. In India, the disease has been known to be present since the 1970s, but little is known about the epidemiology in most states. In this cross-sectional survey in the two states of Assam and Bihar, 520 households were interviewed for risk factors, and serum samples from 744 dairy animals were analyzed using ELISA as well as PCR. Out of the farms, 17.4% had at least one seropositive animal, with significantly higher seroprevalence in Bihar (27.1%) than Assam (5.8%); and significantly more sero-positive farms in urban areas (23.1%) than rural (12.2%). On an individual animal level, 14.1% were seropositive, with higher prevalence among buffaloes than cows (28.0% versus 13.6%). Out of the seropositive animals, 10.6% had aborted during the last three years, and 37.5% had experienced problems with repeat breeding: both higher than in non-seropositive animals. In conclusion, this study indicates that coxiellosis is potentially an important cause of reproductive failures and production losses in dairy animals. The high prevalence, especially in urban areas, is a public health risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology and identify mitigation options that could work in the different settings of different Indian states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.03.022DOI Listing
June 2019

Students' and supervisors' knowledge and attitudes regarding plagiarism and referencing.

Res Integr Peer Rev 2018 23;3:10. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

4Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, Po Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100 Kenya.

Background: Referencing is an integral part of scientific writing and professional research conduct that requires appropriate acknowledgement of others' work and avoidance of plagiarism. University students should understand and apply this as part of their academic development, but for this, it is essential that supervisors also display proper research integrity and support.

Methods: This study used an online educative questionnaire to understand the knowledge and attitudes of students and supervisors at two institutes in Europe and Africa. The results were then used to create discussion around education of students and faculty in workshops and lectures.

Results: Overall, 138 students and 14 supervisors participated: most were Swedish (89) and Kenyan (11). Overall, 98% had heard about plagiarism, and 35% believed it was common. Only 45% had heard about self-plagiarism, and when explained what it was, 44.5% considered it morally wrong. Europeans and North Americans had more knowledge than other nationalities. Most (85%) had received some training on referencing, but there was little consensus about principles, with more than 30% considering it acceptable to cite a reference in a paper they had not read. Discussing these results and the questions in workshops was helpful; it was also clear that there was no consensus among supervisors on what constituted correct behavior.

Conclusions: This survey shows a need for greater consensus on appropriate referencing, and that there is need for more discussions and training on the topic for both students and faculty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41073-018-0054-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198419PMC
October 2018

Do vaccination interventions have effects? A study on how poultry vaccination interventions change smallholder farmer knowledge, attitudes, and practice in villages in Kenya and Tanzania.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Jan 17;51(1):213-220. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

International Livestock Research Institute, PO Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100, Kenya.

Poultry are important for many poor households in developing countries, but there are many constraints to poultry production, including disease. One of the most important diseases of chickens is Newcastle disease (ND). Even though there are effective vaccines against this disease available in most countries, uptake by small-scale poultry keepers is often low. In this study, two areas in Kenya and Tanzania were studied, where some villages had received additional support to get vaccination and other villages had not. In Kenya, 320 households from 10 villages were interviewed, of which half of the villages had active promotion of vaccination through village-based advisors. In Tanzania, 457 households were interviewed, of which 241 came from villages that have had active support through either a project or government extension services. Knowledge about vaccines and the attitudes towards vaccinating against ND was evaluated using mixed multivariable logistic models. Results indicate that in Kenya, the most important determinants for understanding the function of a vaccine were having had support in the village and to have knowledge about ND signs, while in Tanzania gender and previous vaccine use were important in addition to having had support. Attitudes towards vaccination were mainly determined by knowledge, where more knowledge about how vaccines work in general or about ND contributed to more positive attitudes. Among Kenyan farmers that had never used the vaccine before, the amount of birds they lost to disease and predators also influenced attitudes. In conclusion, this study supports the notion that knowledge is a very important component of extension support and that simply making vaccines available may not be sufficient for high levels of uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1679-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347585PMC
January 2019

Brucella seroprevalence in cattle near a wildlife reserve in Kenya.

BMC Res Notes 2017 Nov 25;10(1):615. Epub 2017 Nov 25.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objectives: Brucellosis is caused by bacteria from the genus Brucella which infect human and domestic animals as well as wildlife. The Maasai Mara National Reserve has vast populations of wild ruminants such as buffaloes and wildebeest which could contribute to the risk of brucellosis in livestock, and the surrounding pastoralist communities grazing cattle in and around the reserve may be exposed to a higher risk of zoonotic diseases like brucellosis due to the close contact with livestock. In this study, cattle from three villages at varying distance from the reserve, were screened for antibodies against Brucella abortus.

Results: In total, 12.44% of 225 sampled animals were seropositive, with more females (15%) infected than males (5%). Seroprevalence was higher in livestock closer to Maasai Mara with the cattle in the village Mara Rianta having an odds ratio of 7.03 compared to Endoinyo Narasha further away (95% CI 1.4-11.1, p = 0.003), suggesting that a closer contact with wildlife may increase the circulation of infectious diseases between livestock and wildlife. Symptoms consistent with brucellosis were reported to occur in both humans and animals, and we thus conclude that brucellosis may be an important problem, both for the health and the economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2941-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5702115PMC
November 2017

The consequences of human actions on risks for infectious diseases: a review.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2015 27;5:30048. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

The human population is growing, requiring more space for food production, and needing more animals to feed it. Emerging infectious diseases are increasing, causing losses in both human and animal lives, as well as large costs to society. Many factors are contributing to disease emergence, including climate change, globalization and urbanization, and most of these factors are to some extent caused by humans. Pathogens may be more or less prone to emergence in themselves, and rapidly mutating viruses are more common among the emerging pathogens. The climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases are likely to be emerging due to climate changes and environmental changes, such as increased irrigation. This review lists the factors within pathogens that make them prone to emergence, and the modes of transmission that are affected. The anthropogenic changes contributing to disease emergence are described, as well as how they directly and indirectly cause either increased numbers of susceptible or exposed individuals, or cause increased infectivity. Many actions may have multiple direct or indirect effects, and it may be difficult to assess what the consequences may be. In addition, most anthropogenic drivers are related to desired activities, such as logging, irrigation, trade, and travelling, which the society is requiring. It is important to research more about the indirect and direct effects of the different actions to understand both the benefits and the risks.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4663196PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/iee.v5.30048DOI Listing
November 2015

Circulation of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs and mosquito vectors within Can Tho city, Vietnam.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 4;7(4):e2153. Epub 2013 Apr 4.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Reproduction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in pigs. JEV is present in large parts of Asia, where urbanization is high. Households within and outside Can Tho city, South Vietnam, were selected to monitor circulation of JEV. A nested RT-PCR was established to detect the presence of JEV in mosquitoes whereas sera from pigs belonging to households within the province were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to JEV. A total of 7885 mosquitoes were collected and divided into 352 pools whereof seven were JEV-positive, six of which were collected within the city. Fragments from four pools clustered with JEV genotype III and three with genotype I. Of the 43 pigs sampled inside the city 100% had JEV antibodies. Our study demonstrates exposure to JEV in pigs, and co-circulation of JEV genotype I and III in mosquitoes within an urban environment in South Vietnam. Thus, although JEV has mainly been considered a rural disease, the potential for transmission in urban areas cannot be ignored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3617195PMC
November 2013