Publications by authors named "Jingjing Qin"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Influence of Reading Texts on L2 Reading-to-Write Argumentative Writing.

Front Psychol 2021 19;12:655601. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of English, School of Foreign Languages, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China.

Reading-to-write is an essential skill in academic writing, and reading-writing tasks have been widely adopted in standardized English tests. Much more recent literature on integrated reading-writing tasks has focused on writers' use of source texts or the validity of integrated writing assessment, while little is known about whether the nature of the types of reading texts has any bearing on integrated reading-writing tasks. This study examines whether the types of reading texts (i.e., similar views or opposing views on a debatable issue) have any influence on second language (L2) students' argumentative writing in terms of the use of argument elements and its overall quality. Fifty-four Chinese second-year university students majoring in English language teaching were asked to write an argumentative essay after reading texts with either similar views or opposing views. Results show that students reading texts with opposing viewpoints presented more data and higher overall quality of argumentative essays than students reading texts with similar viewpoints, although the latter group presented more counterargument data. Pedagogical implications on teaching argumentative writing are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.655601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017206PMC
March 2021

Luteolin inhibits autophagy in allergic asthma by activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and inhibiting Beclin-1-PI3KC3 complex.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 20;94:107460. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China; Institutes of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Allergic asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and airway remodeling. Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells. There is growing evidence suggesting that dysregulation of autophagy is involved in the pathological process of asthma. Luteolin is a typical flavonoid compound with anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and immune-enhancing functions. Previous studies have shown that luteolin can attenuate airway inflammation and hypersensitivity in asthma. However, whether luteolin can play a role in treating asthma by regulating autophagy remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of luteolin on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice, observe its effect on the level of autophagy in lung tissues, and further elucidate its underlying mechanism. The results showed that OVA-induced mice developed airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus over-production and collagen deposition. The number of inflammatory cells, levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and OVA-specific IgE in serum were significantly increased. Furthermore, the infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed along with the activation of autophagy in lung tissues. Luteolin treatment significantly inhibited the OVA-induced inflammatory responses and the level of autophagy in lung tissues as well. Moreover, luteolin activated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and inhibited the Beclin-1-PI3KC3 protein complex in lung tissues of asthmatic mice. In conclusion, this study explored the regulatory mechanism of luteolin on autophagy in allergic asthma, providing biologic evidence for its clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107460DOI Listing
May 2021

RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Chronic Asthmatic Mice with Bu-Shen-Yi-Qi Formula Treatment and Prediction of Regulated Gene Targets of Anti-Airway Remodeling.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 18;2021:3524571. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Airway remodeling is one of the typical pathological characteristics of asthma, while the structural changes of the airways in asthma are complex, which impedes the development of novel asthma targeted therapy. Our previous study had shown that Bu-Shen-Yi-Qi formula (BSYQF) could ameliorate airway remodeling in chronic asthmatic mice by modulating airway inflammation and oxidative stress in the lung. In this study, we analysed the lung transcriptome of control mice and asthmatic mouse model with/without BSYQF treatment. Using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, we found that 264/1746 (15.1%) of transcripts showing abnormal expression in asthmatic mice were reverted back to completely or partially normal levels by BSYQF treatment. Additionally, based on previous results, we identified 21 differential expression genes (DEGs) with fold changes (FC) > (±) 2.0 related to inflammatory, oxidative stress, mitochondria, PI3K/AKT, and MAPK signal pathways which may play important roles in the mechanism of the anti-remodeling effect of BSYQF treatment. Through inputting 21 DEGs into the IPA database to construct a gene network, we inferred Adipoq, SPP1, and TNC which were located at critical nodes in the network may be key regulators of BSYQF's anti-remodeling effect. In addition, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) result for the selected four DEGs matched those of the RNA-seq analysis. Our results provide a preliminary clue to the molecular mechanism of the anti-remodeling effect of BSYQF in asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3524571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834776PMC
January 2021

TMT-based quantitative proteomics reveals suppression of SLC3A2 and ATP1A3 expression contributes to the inhibitory role of acupuncture on airway inflammation in an OVA-induced mouse asthma model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Feb 16;134:111001. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Institutes of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease and acupuncture is frequently used in patients suffering from asthma in clinic. However, the regulatory mechanism of acupuncture treatment in asthma is not fully elucidated. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture on asthma and the associated regulatory mechanism. An ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse asthma model was established and the effect of acupuncture on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), mucus hypersecretion and inflammation was assessed. Tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics analysis of lung tissue and bioinformatics analysis were performed. Our results revealed that the OVA-induced mouse asthma model was successfully established with the significantly elevated AHR to methacholine (Mch), and acupuncture was effective in attenuation of AHR to Mch, peribronchial and perivascular inflammation and mucus production. The inflammatory cells around the airways, mucous secretion as well as levels of IgE, CCL5, CCL11, IL-17A in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in serum were siginificantly inhibited by acupuncture. TMT-based quantitative proteomics analysis found that a total of 6078 quantifiable proteins were identified, and 564 (334 up-regulated and 230 down regulated) differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in OVA-induced asthma model group (A) versus normal control group (NC). Acupuncture treatment resulted in 667 DEPs (416 up-regulated and 251 down regulated) compared with A group, and 86 overlapping DEPs were identified in NC, A and AA groups. Among the 86 overlapping DEPs, we identified 41 DEPs regulated by acupuncture. Based on the above data, we performed a systematic bioinformatics analysis of the 41 DEPs, and results showed that these 41 DEPs were predominantly related to 4 KEGG pathways including SNARE interactions in vesicular transport, ferroptosis, endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption, and protein digestion and absorption. DEPs of SLC3A2 and ATP1A3 expression levels were verified by immumohistochemical staining. Mice in OVA-induced asthma model group had elevated SLC3A2 and ATP1A3 expression and acupuncture had the ability to downregulate SLC3A2 and ATP1A3 protein expression. Furthermore, acupuncture reduced the MDA level and increased the GSH and SOD levels in the lung tissue. Taken together, our data suggested that acupuncture was effective in treating asthma by attenuation of AHR, mucus secretion and airway inflammation, and the mechanism was associated with regulation of ferroptosis, SLC3A2 and ATP1A3 protein expression as well as oxidative stress. Results from our experiments revealed the anti-inflammatory effect of acupuncture in OVA-induced mouse asthma model, leading to a more effective approach to be chosen by patients in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111001DOI Listing
February 2021

Adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using novel activated carbon spheres derived from glucose and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 10;759:143457. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Institute of Environment, Resource, Soil and Fertilizer, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 298 Desheng Middle Road, Hangzhou 310021, China; Engineering Research Center of Biochar of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310021, China. Electronic address:

Cr(VI) is a common wastewater pollutant. Various adsorbents including carbon-based materials are used for the removal of Cr(VI) owing to their high adsorption capacity. Chemical activation is an effective method to increase the specific surface area of adsorbents and, thus, further improve their adsorption capacity. However, research on the adsorption and removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions by chemically activated carbon spheres is limited. Here, glucose and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate were used to produce carbon spheres (CSs) via hydrothermal synthesis. Activated carbon spheres (ACSs) were then derived using KOH. The adsorption of Cr(VI) in solution by CS and ACS was investigated through batch experiments. The results indicate that the specific surface area of the ACS was 1491.21 m g, which was much higher than that of the CS. The adsorption kinetics of the sorbent was consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir model. This indicated that the adsorption process of the ACS with respect to Cr(VI) was mainly via single molecular layer adsorption and chemisorption. In a 200 mg L Cr(VI) solution, the maximum amount of Cr(VI) adsorbed by the ACS was 230.15 mg g, and some of these adsorbed Cr(VI) were reduced to Cr(III). These results show that ACSs have strong potential for application in the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143457DOI Listing
March 2021

Formononetin Attenuates Airway Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Murine Allergic Asthma.

Front Pharmacol 2020 4;11:533841. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Allergic asthma has been considered as a respiratory disorder with pathological features of airway inflammation and remodeling, which involves oxidative stress. Formononetin (FMT) is a bioactive isoflavone obtained from Chinese herb Radix Astragali, and has been reported to have notable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in several diseases. The purpose of our study was to elaborate the effects of FMT on asthma and the underlying mechanisms. To establish allergic asthma model, BALB/c mice were given ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge, treated with FMT (10, 20, 40 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg). The effects of FMT on lung inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed. In OVA-induced asthmatic mice, FMT treatments significantly ameliorated lung function, alleviated lung inflammation including infiltration of inflammatory cells, the elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, immunoglobulin (Ig) E, C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5, also known as RANTES), CCL11 (also called Eotaxin-1), and IL-17A. In addition, FMT treatments eminently blunted goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition, and remarkably reduced oxidative stress as displayed by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased superoxide diamutase (SOD) activity. Furthermore, to clarify the potential mechanisms responsible for the effects, we determined the inflammation and oxidation-related signaling pathway including nuclear factor kappa β (NF-κB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). FMT treatments appeared to dramatically inhibit the activation of NF-κB and JNK, significantly elevated the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) but failed to activate expression of Nrf2. In conclusion, our study suggested that FMT had the therapeutic effects in attenuating airway inflammation and oxidative stress in asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.533841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500463PMC
September 2020

Quantitative proteomic profiling of targeted proteins associated with Loki Zupa Decoction Treatment in OVA-Induced asthmatic mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Feb 28;266:113343. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Loki Zupa (LKZP) decoction is one of the herbal prescriptions in traditional Uyghur medicine, which is commonly used for treating airway abnormality. However, underlying pathological mechanism and pathways involved has not been well studied.

Objectives: In this paper, we aim to further confirmed the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic role of LKZP decoction in airway, and uncover the passible mechanism involved via comprehensive quantitative proteomic DIA-MS analysis.

Materials And Methods: Mice asthmatic model was established with sensitizing and challenging with OVA. Lung function, pathological status, and inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Total of nine lung tissues were analyzed using proteomic DIA-MS analysis and 18 lung tissues were subjected to PRM validation.

Results: Total of 704 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) (363 up regulated, 341 down regulated) were quantified in comparison of asthmatic and healthy mice, while 152 DEPs (91 up regulated, 61 down regulated) were quantified in LKZP decoction treated compared to asthmatic mice. Total of 21 proteins were overlapped between three groups. ECM-receptor interaction was significantly enriched and commonly shared between downregulated DEPs in asthma and upregulated DEPs in LKZP decoction treated mice. Total of 20 proteins were subjected to parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analysis and 16 of which were quantified. At last, two proteins, RMB 10 and COL6A6, were validated with significant difference (P < 0.001) in protein abundance.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that attenuated airway inflammation and fibrosis caused by LKZP decoction may associated with ECM-receptor interaction and RMB 10 and COL6A6 may be targeted by LKZP decoction in OVA-induced asthmatic mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113343DOI Listing
February 2021

The Role of T Cells and Macrophages in Asthma Pathogenesis: A New Perspective on Mutual Crosstalk.

Mediators Inflamm 2020 19;2020:7835284. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

Asthma is associated with innate and adaptive immunity mediated by immune cells. T cell or macrophage dysfunction plays a particularly significant role in asthma pathogenesis. Furthermore, crosstalk between them continuously transmits proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory signals, causing the immune cell activation or repression in the immune response. Consequently, the imbalanced immune microenvironment is the major cause of the exacerbation of asthma. Here, we discuss the role of T cells, macrophages, and their interactions in asthma pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7835284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453253PMC
August 2020

Three-Phase Boundary in Cross-Coupled Micro-Mesoporous Networks Enabling 3D-Printed and Ionogel-Based Quasi-Solid-State Micro-Supercapacitors.

Adv Mater 2020 Oct 2;32(40):e2002474. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

The Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Biological Colloids, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, P. R. China.

The construction of advanced micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) with both wide working-voltage and high energy density is promising but still challenging. In this work, a series of nitrogen-doped, cross-coupled micro-mesoporous carbon-metal networks (N-STC/M O ) is developed as robust additives to 3D printing inks for MSCs fabrication. Taking the N-STC/Fe O nanocomposite as an example, both experimental results and theoretical simulations reveal that the well-developed hierarchical networks with abundantly decorated ultrafine Fe O nanoparticles not only significantly facilitate the ion adsorption at its three-phase boundaries (Fe O , N-STC, and electrolyte), but also greatly favor ionic diffusion/transport with shortened pathways. Consequently, the as-prepared N-STC/Fe O electrode delivers a high gravimetric capacitance (267 F g at 2 mV s ) and outstanding stability in a liquid-electrolyte-based symmetric device, as well as a record-high energy density of 114 Wh kg for an asymmetric supercapacitor. Particularly, the gravimetric capacitance of the ionogel-based quasi-solid-state MSCs by 3D printing reaches 377 F g and the device can operate under a wide temperature range (-10 to 60 °C).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002474DOI Listing
October 2020

New method for large-scale facial skin sebum quantification and skin type classification.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Feb 16;20(2):677-683. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Science, Inertia Shanghai Biotechnology Co., Ltd, Shanghai, PR China.

Background: The demand for personalized skin care is increasing rapidly in recent years. In order to provide suitable products for different customers, an accurate assessment of the skin condition is required. It is necessary to establish a remote and convenient method for quantifying skin condition.

Materials And Methods: We established a new method for quantifying the facial sebum excretion, using Sebutape as well as a model for objective skin type classification.

Results: In total, 2173 sebum quantification samples were collected and categorized into 4 skin types. We found good agreement between subjective and objective skin types. 60.33% of the detection is consistent, and the proportion of discrepancies is only 0.55%. The main mismatch is caused by broad criteria for combination type classification. Quantifying the sebum excretion will help to describe and analyze the skin state easily. We found sebum levels in Chinese women peak at the age between 20 and 30 and decrease dramatically after age 40s.

Conclusion: This new sebum quantitative method is well consistent to self-report skin type. In addition, it provides a powerful tool for the cosmetic industry to evaluate skin condition precisely and recommend personalized products accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13576DOI Listing
February 2021

The lipid transfer protein OsLTPL159 is involved in cold tolerance at the early seedling stage in rice.

Plant Biotechnol J 2020 03 11;18(3):756-769. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, National Center for Evaluation of Agricultural Wild Plants (Rice), MOE Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization, Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Department of Plant Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) play critical roles in plant development and response to abiotic stresses. Here, we found that a rice lipid transfer protein, OsLTPL159, was associated with cold tolerance at the early seedling stage. Overexpression of an OsLTPL159 allele from the cold-tolerant introgression line IL112 in either the japonica variety Zhonghua17 (ZH17) or the indica variety Teqing background dramatically enhanced cold tolerance. In addition, down-regulation of the expression of OsLTPL159 in the japonica variety ZH17 by RNA interference (RNAi) significantly decreased cold tolerance. Further transcriptomic, physiological and histological analysis showed that the OsLTPL159 allele likely enhanced the cold tolerance of rice at the early seedling stage by decreasing the toxic effect of reactive oxygen species, enhancing cellulose deposition in the cell wall and promoting osmolyte accumulation, thereby maintaining the integrity of the chloroplasts. Notably, overexpression of another allele, OsLTPL159 , from the recipient parent Guichao 2 (GC2), an indica variety, did not improve cold tolerance, indicating that the variations in the OsLTPL159 coding region of GC2 might disrupt its function for cold tolerance. Further sequence comparison found that all 22 japonica varieties surveyed had an OsLTPL159 haplotype identical to IL112 and were more cold-tolerant than the surveyed indica varieties, implying that the variations in OsLTPL159 might be associated with differential cold tolerance of japonica and indica rice. Therefore, our findings suggest that the OsLTPL159 allele of japonica rice could be used to improve cold tolerance of indica rice through a molecular breeding strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004919PMC
March 2020

Corrigendum to "Involvement of down-regulated E2F3 in Hirschsprung's disease" [J Pediatr Surg 48(4) (2013 Apr) 813-817].

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Aug;54(8):1728-1729

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology (Nanjing Medical University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.05.019DOI Listing
August 2019

Celastrol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human glioblastoma via the death receptor pathway.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2019 10 8;84(4):719-728. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Research Center of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 of Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Purpose: Glioblastoma is the most common, malignant and devastating type of primary brain tumor. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) is characterized by its lethality to precancerous and cancerous cells. However, many kinds of tumor cells, including most glioma cells, tend to evade TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Celastrol is a pleiotropic compound from a traditional Chinese medicine that has proven to be useful as a sensitizer for TRAIL treatment. However, the underlying mechanism and role of celastrol in the sensitization of glioma cells remain to be elucidated.

Methods: The viability of glioma cell lines was examined by the CCK-8 assay. The expression of DR5 was detected by reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression of DR5, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP were measured by western blot. The apoptosis rates and the sub-G1 population were detected by flow cytometry. The cellular morphological changes were assessed by TUNEL apoptosis and Hoechst 33258 staining assays. The knockdown of DR5 expression was conducted by siRNA.

Results: In this study, we observed that celastrol treatment inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, while glioma and normal human astroglial cell lines were resistant to TRAIL treatment. We also observed that the antiproliferative effects of TRAIL in combination with a noncytotoxic concentration of celastrol were significantly greater than those of celastrol or TRAIL alone. In addition, cell death induced by the combination treatment was apoptotic and occurred through the death receptor pathway via activation of caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP. Furthermore, celastrol upregulated death receptor 5 (DR5) at the mRNA and protein levels, and siRNA-mediated DR5 knockdown reduced the killing effect of the combination drug treatment on glioma cells and reduced the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and PARP.

Conclusions: Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate that celastrol sensitizes glioma cells to TRAIL via the death receptor pathway and that DR5 plays an important role in the effects of this cotreatment. The results indicate that this cotreatment is a promising tumor-killing therapeutic strategy with high efficacy and low toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-019-03900-8DOI Listing
October 2019

Corrigendum to "Down-regulation of MeCP2 in Hirschsprung's disease" [J Pediatr Surg 48(10) (2013 Oct) 2099-105].

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Jul;54(7):1516

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China; Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology (Nanjing Medical University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.04.006DOI Listing
July 2019

Theoretical and experimental investigation of broadband dispersion tailoring of high-order mode in the hybrid microsphere cavity.

Appl Opt 2019 Feb;58(6):1522-1529

The large normal dispersion of the fundamental mode (TE mode) in the whispering gallery modes (WGM) microsphere is detrimental to the visible comb generation. Herein, we demonstrate that this fundamental limitation can be removed by considering the high-order radial modes (TE mode) of the hybrid microsphere cavity (HMC). The studied HMC consists of a high-refractive-index coating (TiO or HfO) and silica microsphere. The simulated electric field energy distribution and measured Q value in our experiment show that optical confinement of the coating effectively excites the TE mode and reduces the free spectral range (FSR) and modal dispersion. In addition, the observed redshift of WGM and decreased trend of FSR are in accordance with simulations. The zero-dispersion wavelength can be linearly shifted to a shorter wavelength or even into the visible region with the reduction of coating thickness or refractive index and larger microcavity, which advances the visible comb generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.58.001522DOI Listing
February 2019

Complement C3a promotes proliferation, migration and stemness in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 05 1;23(5):3097-3107. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Complement C3 has been shown to be highly expressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) tumour tissues and is correlated with tumour cell growth. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of C3 in cSCC malignant transformation.

Methods: C3 expression was analysed in cSCC cell lines A431, Tca8113, SCC13, HSC-5 and HSC-1 and in immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. Proliferation and migration of cSCC were determined after C3a exposure. Expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), pro-matrix metalloproteinase 1 (pro-MMP1), pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2 (pro-MMP2), stemness factors, GSK-3β, and β-catenin were analyzed. Tumour growth was examined in a murine xenograft model.

Results: C3 expression was much more highly expressed in all cSCC cell lines than in HaCaT cells. C3a treatment significantly promoted cSCC cell proliferation and migration and upregulated cyclin D1, cyclin E, VEGF, pro-MMP1 and pro-MMP2 expression, which were impeded by the C3aR antagonist. Moreover, the expression of stemness factors Sox-2, Nanog, Oct-4, c-Myc and CD-44 was stimulated by C3a and slowed by C3aR disruption. Knockdown of Sox-2 by siRNA transfection suppressed cell proliferation and migration, constrained VEGF secretion and inhibited pro-MMP1 and pro-MMP2 expression. C3a also activated the Wnt and β-catenin pathway in cSCC cells. Disruption of C3aR expression dampened tumour growth and the expression of Wnt-1, β-catenin and Sox-2 in the xenograft model.

Conclusions: C3a enhanced cell proliferation, migration and stemness in cSCC, and this activity was correlated with activation of the Wnt and β-catenin pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6484302PMC
May 2019

Performance and microbial community of CIC anaerobic reactor treating food waste under different grease contents and inner circulation ratio.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Aug 21;25(22):21623-21634. Epub 2018 May 21.

Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection (Guangxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin, 541004, People's Republic of China.

High concentrations of grease easily inhibit anaerobic digestion. The stability of the process and microbial responses in the controlling internal circulation (CIC) reactor used for treating food waste were investigated under different grease contents and inner circulation ratios. Results showed that at the grease content of 1 g/L, the removal rates of 94% and 86-93% were achieved for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH-N, respectively. In contrast, when the grease content increased to 7 g/L, removal rates for COD and NH-N significantly decreased to 42.8 and 10%, respectively. In the three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) spectra of LB-EPS (loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances), the fluorescence intensity of coenzyme F was weakened in the granular sludge, and the fluorescence peak of aromatic protein disappeared in the TB-EPS (tightly bound EPS). The activity and stability of the granular sludge deteriorated with increasing grease content, in this case at 7 g/L. However, when the inner cycle ratio was increased to 4, the removal rate of COD and NH-N increased to about 70 and 76%, respectively. The adverse effects of grease could be decreased by increasing the inner cycle ratio. When the grease content increased from 1 to 7 g/L, the abundance of Methanofollis increased from 9.93 to 46.41%, while Methanothrix abundance was reduced from 18.4 to 3.07%. It could indicate that Methanothrix was sensitive to high grease content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2279-5DOI Listing
August 2018

Realization of an O-waveband laser based on cascaded stimulated Raman scattering of microspheres.

Appl Opt 2017 Sep;56(27):7572-7576

We report an experimental realization of five-order Stokes stimulated Raman scattering lasing in silica microspheres pumped by a 1030 nm continuous-wave laser. The wavelength of the Stokes Raman laser is extended to 1348.55 nm, which is located in the second low loss window of the optical fiber. It has potential applications in the wavelength converter and Raman amplifier in O-waveband optical communication. The minimum pump power is about 50 μW when the first-order Stokes Raman laser can be observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.56.007572DOI Listing
September 2017

Phenylalanine as a nitrogen source induces root growth and nitrogen-use efficiency in Populus × canescens.

Tree Physiol 2018 01;38(1):66-82

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Silviculture of the State Forestry Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, PR China.

To investigate the physiological responses of poplars to amino acids as sole nitrogen (N) sources, Populus × canescens (Ait.) Smith plants were supplied with one of three nitrogen fertilizers (NH4NO3, phenylalanine (Phe) or the mixture of NH4NO3 and Phe) in sand culture. A larger root system, and decreased leaf size and CO2 assimilation rate was observed in Phe- versus NH4NO3-treated poplars. Consistently, a greater root biomass and a decreased shoot growth were detected in Phe-supplied poplars. Decreased enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and elevated activities of nitrite reductase (NiR), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), glutamine synthetase (GS) and asparagine synthase (AS) were found in Phe-treated roots. Accordingly, reduced concentrations of NH4+, NO3- and total N, and enhanced N-use efficiencies (NUEs) were detected in Phe-supplied poplars. Moreover, the transcript levels of putative Phe transporters ANT1 and ANT3 were upregulated, and the mRNA levels of NR, glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2), NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT), GDH and asparagine synthetase 2 (ASN2) were downexpressed in Phe-treated roots and/or leaves. The 15N-labeled Phe was mainly allocated in the roots and only a small amount of 15N-Phe was translocated to poplar aerial parts. These results indicate that poplar roots can acquire Phe as an N source to support plant growth and that Phe-induced NUEs in the poplars are probably associated with NH4+ re-utilization after Phe deamination and the carbon bonus simultaneously obtained during Phe uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpx109DOI Listing
January 2018

SLIT2/ROBO1-miR-218-1-RET/PLAG1: a new disease pathway involved in Hirschsprung's disease.

J Cell Mol Med 2015 Jun 19;19(6):1197-207. Epub 2015 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a rare congenital disease caused by impaired proliferation and migration of neural crest cells. We investigated changes in expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and the genes they regulate in tissues of patients with HSCR. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses were used to measure levels of miRNA, mRNAs, and proteins in colon tissues from 69 patients with HSCR and 49 individuals without HSCR (controls). Direct interactions between miRNAs and specific mRNAs were indentified in vitro, while the function role of miR-218-1 was investigated by using miR-218 transgenic mice. An increased level of miR-218-1 correlated with increased levels of SLIT2 and decreased levels of RET and PLAG1 mRNA and protein. The reductions in RET and PLAG1 by miR-218-1 reduced proliferation and migration of SH-SY5Y cells. Overexpression of the secreted form of SLIT2 inhibited cell migration via binding to its receptor ROBO1. Bowel tissues from miR-218-1 transgenic mice had nerve fibre hyperplasia and reduced numbers of gangliocytes, compared with wild-type mice. Altered miR-218-1 regulation of SLIT2, RET and PLAG1 might be involved in the pathogenesis of HSCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.12454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4459835PMC
June 2015

Specific serum microRNA profile in the molecular diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease.

J Cell Mol Med 2014 Aug 28;18(8):1580-7. Epub 2014 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; Department of Pediatric Surgery, Nanjing Children's Hospital Affiliated Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), a congenital gastrointestinal disorder, is one of the most common causes of neonatal bowel obstruction. Without an early screening and diagnosis, some patients develop serious complications, such as toxic megacolon or acute enterocolitis. We sought to identify specific serum microRNAs (miRNAs) that can serve as novel early, non-invasive screening signature and then to test their specificity and sensitivity in diagnosing Hirschsprung's disease. We obtained serum samples from 95 HSCR cases and 104 matched controls. An initial screening of miRNA expression was performed through TaqMan Low Density Array. The candidate miRNAs were validated by individual reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR arranged in the training and a two-stage validation set. Additional double-blind testing was performed in 23 patients with clinically suspected HSCR to evaluate the diagnostic value and accuracy of the serum miRNA profile in predicting HSCR. Following a multi-stage evaluation approach, five miRNAs were significantly increased in HSCR cases compared with controls. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of this five-serum miRNA signature were 0.895, 0.893 and 0.925 in training set and two validation sets, respectively. The accuracy rate of the five-miRNA profile as HSCR signature was 82.6%, which, in the double-blind testing set, was markedly higher than that of contrast enema (70%), the most commonly used test performed to diagnose HSCR. Our results indicate that a five-serum miRNA signature may be linked to HSCR, representing a potential, novel, non-invasive diagnostic approach for early screening of HSCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.12348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4190904PMC
August 2014

Aberrant reduction of MiR-141 increased CD47/CUL3 in Hirschsprung's disease.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2013 5;32(6):1655-67. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: MiR-141 has been confirmed to be associated with various human diseases. However, whether miR-141 is involved in the pathogenesis of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) remains unknown. Here, we design the experiment to reveal the relationship between miR-141 and HSCR.

Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of miR-141 and its potential genes in 70 tissues of HSCR compared with 60 controls. Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) assay was applied to explain the possible mechanism of the aberrant expression level of miR-141. We employed a dual-luciferase reporter assay to validate the regulation relation between miR-141 and CD47/CUL3. Cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression were examined by transwell assay, MTT assay, and flow cytometry, respectively.

Results: MiR-141 was down-regulated whereas CD47 and CUL3 expression was increased in colon tissues from patients with HSCR compared with control group, The increased level of CD47 and CUL3 induced by miR-141 reduced proliferation and migration of 293T and SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, this suppression was reversed by reducing of CD47 and CUL3. Hypermethylation of a CpG Island in the promoter region of miR-141 gene was confirmed in HSCR tissues.

Conclusion: Aberrant reduction of miR-141 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HSCR with the inhibiting affection on cell migration and proliferation abilities. The present study demonstrates for the first time the role of miR-141 and its target genes in the occurrence of HSCR, and provides us a new direction for the study of the pathogenesis of Hirschsprung's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000356601DOI Listing
August 2014

Down-regulation of MeCP2 in Hirschsprung's disease.

J Pediatr Surg 2013 Oct;48(10):2099-105

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China; Department of General Surgery, Yixing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wuxi 214200, China.

Background/purpose: Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells which are highly associated with impaired proliferation and migration of neural crest cells. Whether methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is related with HSCR still remains unknown. This study investigates the involvement of MeCP2 in HSCR.

Methods: Quantitative real time PCR and western blot were used to detect the expression level of MeCP2 both in the aganglionic/diseased segment and the ganglionic/normal segment. In vitro assays we used siRNAs to knock-down the expression of MeCP2 in SH-SY5Y cell lines, and furthermore, MTT and transwell assays were used to detect the proliferation and migration ability, respectively. In addition, bisulfite sequencing (BSP) and miRNA analysis were used to examine why MeCP2 is decreased in HSCR samples.

Results: MeCP2 exhibited a lower expression level in tissues of HSCR patients compared with the controls. The down-regulation may also suppress the proliferative ability of the cells. However, there was no significant difference in the MeCP2 methylation level between cases and controls. Similarly, there was no difference between cases and controls in miRNA-34b (miR-34b) which is predicted to regulate MeCP2 through complementary binding to the 3'-untranslated region of MeCP2.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that an aberrant decreased level of MeCP2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HSCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2013.07.011DOI Listing
October 2013

Low-dose monobutyl phthalate stimulates steroidogenesis through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein regulated by SF-1, GATA-4 and C/EBP-beta in mouse Leydig tumor cells.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2013 Jul 26;11:72. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China.

Background: The ubiquitous use of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), one of the most widely used plasticizers, results in extensive exposure to humans and the environment. DBP and its major metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBP), may alter steroid biosynthesis and their exposure may lead to damage to male reproductive function. Low-doses of DBP/MBP may result in increased steroidogenesis in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms of possible effects of low-dose MBP on steroidogenesis remain unclear. The aim of present study was to elaborate the role of transcription factors and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in low-dose MBP-induced distruption of steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1 cells).

Methods: In the present study, MLTC-1 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 2 g/L sodium bicarbonate. Progesterone level was examined by I125-pregesterone Coat-A-Count radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. mRNA and protein levels were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot, respectively. DNA-binding of several transcription factors was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).

Results: In this study, various doses of MBP (0, 10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7), or 10(-6) M) were added to the medium followed by stimulation of MLTC-1 cells with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). The results showed that MBP increased progesterone production and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA and protein levels. However, the protein levels of cytochrome P450scc and 3 beta-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) were unchanged after MBP treatment. EMSA assay showed that DNA-binding of steroidogenic factors 1(SF-1), GATA-4 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBP-beta) was increased in a dose-dependent manner after MBP exposure. Western blot tests were next employed and confirmed that the protein levels of SF-1, GATA-4 and C/EBP-beta were also increased. Additionally, western blot tests confirmed the expression of DAX-1, negative factor of SF-1, was dose-dependently down regulated after MBP exposure, which further confirmed the role of SF-1 in MBP-stimulated steroid biosynthesis.

Conclusions: In conclusion, we firstly delineated the regulation of StAR by transcription factors including SF-1, GATA-4 and C/EBP-beta maybe critical mechanism involved in low-dose MBP-stimulated steroidogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-11-72DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3734203PMC
July 2013

Involvement of down-regulated E2F3 in Hirschsprung's disease.

J Pediatr Surg 2013 Apr;48(4):813-7

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background/purpose: Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a common cause of neonatal bowel obstruction characterized by the absence of ganglion cells in the colon. Impaired migration of the neural crest cells (NCCs) has been implicated as one of the main causes of HSCR. E2F3, a member in the E2F family, which plays a crucial role in the control of the cell cycle is correlated with neuron migration. However, the function of E2F3 in the development of the enteric nervous system still remains unknown. This study aims to reveal the correlation of E2F3 in the progress of HSCR.

Methods: By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay, we investigated levels of E2F3 expression in 58 HSCR patients, both in the aganglionic bowel segment and the normal ganglionic segment, and in 39 unrelated controls. By in vitro assays, we used the siRNA method to knock-down the level of E2F3 expression in 293T cell lines. Furthermore, transwell assay was used to detect cell migration ability.

Results: Aberrant lower expression level of E2F3 was detected in the HSCR-S segment compared with the control group by RT-PCR and western blot assay. Besides, down-regulated E2F3 could suppress the cell migration.

Conclusions: This is the first study showing the down-regulation of E2F3 in HSCR, bringing new insight to the mechanism of the impaired migration of neural crest cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.10.048DOI Listing
April 2013

Methylation analysis of EDNRB in human colon tissues of Hirschsprung's disease.

Pediatr Surg Int 2013 Jul 12;29(7):683-8. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.

Purpose: Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is characterized by absence of the enteric nervous system in a variable portion of the distal gut. The endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene has been localized to the chromosome 13q22 region and encodes a G-protein coupled receptor, is generally accepted as a crucial gene for HSCR. This study is to identify the epigenetic changes of EDNRB in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

Methods: We investigated the expression levels of EDNRB in 58 HSCR patients and 25 unrelated controls, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay. Moreover, using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, we examined the methylation status of the promoter region of EDNRB.

Results: Aberrant high expression level of EDNRB was detected in HSCR patients compared with the control group (P = 0.023). Besides, western blot assay confirmed the up-regulation of EDNRB in the post transcription level in the aganglionosis segment of HSCR patients. Furthermore, there was a significantly lower ratio of methylation level of EDNRB in HSCR.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that epigenetic inactivation of the EDNRB gene may play a role in the development of HSCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-013-3308-6DOI Listing
July 2013

Net fluxes of ammonium and nitrate in association with H+ fluxes in fine roots of Populus popularis.

Planta 2013 Apr 20;237(4):919-31. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

Poplar plants are cultivated as woody crops, which are often fertilized by addition of ammonium (NH4(+)) and/or nitrate (NO3(-)) to improve yields. However, little is known about net NH4(+)/NO3(-) fluxes and their relation with H(+) fluxes in poplar roots. In this study, net NH4(+)/NO3(-) fluxes in association with H(+) fluxes were measured non-invasively using scanning ion-selective electrode technique in fine roots of Populus popularis. Spatial variability of NH4(+) and NO3(-) fluxes was found along root tips of P. popularis. The maximal net uptake of NH4(+) and NO3(-) occurred, respectively, at 10 and 15 mm from poplar root tips. Net NH4(+) uptake was induced by ca. 48 % with provision of NO3(-) together, but net NO3(-) uptake was inhibited by ca. 39 % with the presence of NH4(+) in poplar roots. Furthermore, inactivation of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases by orthovanadate markedly inhibited net NH4(+)/NO3(-) uptake and even led to net NH4(+) release with NO3(-) co-provision. Linear correlations were observed between net NH4(+)/NO3(-) and H(+) fluxes in poplar roots except that no correlation was found between net NH4(+) and H(+) fluxes in roots exposed to NH4Cl and 0 mM vanadate. These results indicate that root tips play a key role in NH4(+)/NO3(-) uptake and that net NH4(+)/NO3(-) fluxes and the interaction of net fluxes of both ions are tightly associated with H(+) fluxes in poplar roots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-012-1807-7DOI Listing
April 2013

Aberrant high expression of NRG1 gene in Hirschsprung disease.

J Pediatr Surg 2012 Sep;47(9):1694-8

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.

Background/purpose: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells along with variable lengths of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies have indicated the potential function of neuregulin-1 (NRG1) in HSCR, which encodes the heregulins and other mitogenic ligands for the ErbB family. The purpose of this study was to further clarify the role of NRG1 in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

Methods: We examined the NRG1 messenger RNA (messenger RNA) and protein expression levels in gut tissues of 63 patients with sporadic HSCR (both stenotic and dilated gut tissues) and 35 controls. Moreover, using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, we examined the methylation pattern of exon 1 of the NRG1 gene.

Results: The mRNA expression levels of NRG1 were significantly higher in tissues of HSCR than those in controls, and the increased NRG1 protein levels in HSCR were consistent with the mRNA levels. However, no methylation pattern change was observed in exon 1 of the gene among different groups.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the aberrant expression of NRG1 may play an important role in the pathology of HSCR. DNA methylation of the gene seems not to be involved in the mechanism of such aberrant expression, and other factors should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.03.061DOI Listing
September 2012

Net cadmium flux and accumulation reveal tissue-specific oxidative stress and detoxification in Populus × canescens.

Physiol Plant 2011 Sep 15;143(1):50-63. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

To characterize the dynamics of Cd²⁺ flux in the rhizosphere and to study cadmium (Cd) plant-internal partitioning in roots, wood, bark and leaves in relation to energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and antioxidants, Populus × canescens plantlets were exposed to either 0 or 50 µM CdSO₄ for up to 20 days in the nutrient solution. A strong net Cd²⁺ influx in root apex was observed after Cd exposure for 24 h, even if net Cd²⁺ influx decreased gradually in roots. A large amount of Cd was accumulated in roots. Cd ions were uploaded via the xylem to leaves and further transported to the phloem where significant accumulation was detected. Cd accumulation led to decreased photosynthetic carbon assimilation but not to the depletion in soluble carbohydrates. Increased levels of ROS were present in all tissues, except the bark of Cd-exposed poplars. To combat Cd-induced superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, P. × canescens appeared to rely mainly on the formation of soluble phenolics as these compounds showed the highest accumulation in the bark and the lowest in wood. Other potential radical scavengers such as proline, sugar alcohols and antioxidant enzymes showed tissue- and exposure time-specific responses to Cd. These results indicate a complex pattern of internal Cd allocation in P. × canescens resulting in higher ROS stress in wood than in bark and intermediate responses in roots and leaves, probably because of differential capacities of these tissues for the production of protective phenolic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2011.01487.xDOI Listing
September 2011