Publications by authors named "Jing Jin"

1,393 Publications

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Impacts of continued exposure to a susceptible host genotype on aggressiveness of isolates adapted to multiple sources of partial resistance.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

North Carolina State University, 6798, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States;

Pathogen adaptation can threaten the durability of partial resistance. Mixed plantings of susceptible and partially resistant varieties may prolong the effectiveness of partial resistance, but little is known about how continued exposure to a susceptible genotype can change the aggressiveness of pathogen isolates adapted to a source of partial resistance. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of continued exposure to a highly susceptible tobacco genotype on isolates of that had been adapted to partial resistance. Isolates of previously adapted on two sources of partial resistance were continually exposed to either the original host of adaptation or a susceptible host. After six generations of host exposure, isolates obtained from the partially resistant and the susceptible hosts were compared for their aggressiveness on the resistant host and for differences in expression of genes associated with pathogenicity and aggressiveness. Results suggested exposure to the susceptible tobacco genotype reduced aggressiveness of isolates from partial resistance in K 326 Wz/--, but not of isolates from partial resistance from Fla 301. Quantification of pathogenicity-associated gene expression using qRT-PCR suggested the rapid change in aggressiveness of isolates adapted to Wz-sourced partial resistance may have resulted from modification in gene expression in multiple genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-20-1972-REDOI Listing
July 2021

Time-Frequency Decomposition of Scalp Electroencephalograms Improves Deep Learning-Based Epilepsy Diagnosis.

Int J Neural Syst 2021 Jul 16:2150032. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Epilepsy diagnosis based on Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs) in scalp electroencephalograms (EEGs) is laborious and often subjective. Therefore, it is necessary to build an effective IED detector and an automatic method to classify IED-free versus IED EEGs. In this study, we evaluate features that may provide reliable IED detection and EEG classification. Specifically, we investigate the IED detector based on convolutional neural network (ConvNet) with different input features (temporal, spectral, and wavelet features). We explore different ConvNet architectures and types, including 1D (one-dimensional) ConvNet, 2D (two-dimensional) ConvNet, and noise injection at various layers. We evaluate the EEG classification performance on five independent datasets. The 1D ConvNet with preprocessed full-frequency EEG signal and frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta) with Gaussian additive noise at the output layer achieved the best IED detection results with a false detection rate of 0.23/min at 90% sensitivity. The EEG classification system obtained a mean EEG classification Leave-One-Institution-Out (LOIO) cross-validation (CV) balanced accuracy (BAC) of 78.1% (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.839) and Leave-One-Subject-Out (LOSO) CV BAC of 79.5% (AUC of 0.856). Since the proposed classification system only takes a few seconds to analyze a 30-min routine EEG, it may help in reducing the human effort required for epilepsy diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0129065721500325DOI Listing
July 2021

Oral SMEDDS promotes lymphatic transport and mesenteric lymph nodes target of chlorogenic acid for effective T-cell antitumor immunity.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China

Background: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are critical draining lymph nodes of the immune system that accommodate more than half of the body's lymphocytes, suggesting their potential value as a cancer immunotherapy target. Therefore, efficient delivery of immunomodulators to the MLNs holds great potential for activating immune responses and enhancing the efficacy of antitumor immunotherapy. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) have attracted increasing attention to improving oral bioavailability by taking advantage of the intestinal lymphatic transport pathway. Relatively little focus has been given to the lymphatic transport advantage of SMEDDS for efficient immunomodulators delivery to the MLNs. In the present study, we aimed to change the intestinal lymphatic transport paradigm from increasing bioavailability to delivering high concentrations of immunomodulators to the MLNs.

Methods: Chlorogenic acid (CHA)-encapsulated SMEDDS (CHA-SME) were developed for targeted delivery of CHA to the MLNs. The intestinal lymphatic transport, immunoregulatory effects on immune cells, and overall antitumor immune efficacy of CHA-SME were investigated through in vitro and in vivo experiments.

Results: CHA-SME enhanced drug permeation through intestinal epithelial cells and promoted drug accumulation within the MLNs via the lymphatic transport pathway. Furthermore, CHA-SME inhibited tumor growth in subcutaneous and orthotopic glioma models by promoting dendritic cell maturation, priming the naive T cells into effector T cells, and inhibiting the immunosuppressive component. Notably, CHA-SME induced a long-term immune memory effect for immunotherapy.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that CHA-SME have great potential to enhance the immunotherapeutic efficacy of CHA by activating antitumor immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-002753DOI Listing
July 2021

Internal exposure of Chinese children from a typical coastal city to bisphenols and possible association with thyroid hormone levels.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 12;156:106759. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023, China.

Bisphenols (BPs) are widely used in consumer products, and human exposure to BPs is nearly ubiquitous. However, human biomonitoring data are scarce, especially for children. In this study, we quantified eight BPs in the serum of 345 children from a typical coastal city in China. Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol S (BPS) were frequently detected (63% BPA, 68% BPF, 43% BPS), with geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 1.6, 0.08, and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively. The other five BPs had low detection frequencies (<5%). The distribution of BPA, BPF, and BPS in children's serum samples was independent of sex whereas the concentrations of BPS and BPF both significantly increased with age (P < 0.01). The GM values of estimated daily intake for BPA and BPS were 0.61 and 0.014 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day, respectively, indicating a relatively higher exposure risk of BPA in comparison with BPS. Compared with the population with euthyroid or nonhyperthyroid thyroid dysfunction, children with hyperthyroidism suffered higher exposure to BPA. By multiple linear regression analysis, thyroid-stimulating hormone showed a significantly negative relationship with log-BPA concentration for euthyroid children (R = 0.477, P < 0.001), whereas a significantly positive correlation (R = 0.753, P = 0.033) was found for hyperthyroid children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106759DOI Listing
July 2021

Therapeutic Potential of a Novel Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, NLY01, in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by demyelination, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. While the currently available disease-modifying therapies effectively suppress the immune attack on the CNS, there are no therapies to date that directly mitigate neurodegeneration. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a small peptide hormone that maintains glucose homeostasis. A novel GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, NLY01, was recently shown to have neuroprotective effects in the animal models of Parkinson's disease and is now in a phase 2 clinical trial. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of NLY01 in a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our data show that NLY01 delays the onset and attenuates the severity of EAE in a prevention paradigm, when given before disease onset. NLY01 inhibits the activation of immune cells in the spleen and reduces their trafficking into the CNS. In addition, we show that NLY01 suppresses the production of chemokines that are involved in leukocyte recruitment to the site of inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of NLY01 at the early stage of EAE may block the expression of the genes associated with neurotoxic astrocytes in the optic nerves, thereby preventing retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in the progressive stage of EAE. In the therapeutic paradigm, NLY01 significantly decreases the clinical score and second attack in a model of relapsing-remitting EAE. GLP-1R agonists may have dual efficacy in MS by suppressing peripheral and CNS inflammation, thereby limiting neuronal loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-021-01088-5DOI Listing
July 2021

MicroRNA-29b regulates the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulating the BTG2-mediated cell cycle.

Strahlenther Onkol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Cancer Institute, Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No. 12, Jiankang Road, Zhongshan East Road Street, Shijiazhuang, Changan District, China.

Background: Many patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are inoperable due to old age or advanced stage; thus, radio- and chemotherapy are considered the standard treatments for these patients. However, due to the radiation resistance of tumor cells that may arise during radiotherapy, results are still not satisfactory. The authors' previous studies found that microRNA can affect radiosensitivity, and further microRNA research was conducted to improve the radiosensitivity of ESCC.

Methods: Cells were treated with silent miR-29b (si-miR-29b). Thereafter,proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were determined. The luciferase reporting assay was used to confirm the direct interaction between miR-29b and BTG2. Serum samples and clinical follow-up data of 75 elderly or advanced ESCC patients who could not tolerate surgery were collected.

Results: The expression level of miR-29 in ESCC serum was closely correlated to radiosensitivity (χ =8.36, p < 0.05) and correlated with overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.90). Function assays demonstrated that the number of cell clones increased after radiometry radiation, and the cell cycle was blocked in the G0/G1 phase (from 37.2 to 56.9%) in the si-miR-29b transfection group. Expression of BTG2 was upregulated and expression of cyclin D1 was downregulated (p < 0.05). Transfection of si-BTG2 can reverse this result and restore the expression level of cyclin D1 (p < 0.05). The target gene BTG2 of miR-29b was predicted using a bioinformatics tool and confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay.

Conclusion: Silencing of miR-29b in ESCC cells can increase expression of BTG2 and decrease the level of intracellular cyclin D1, resulting in cell cycle arrest and accumulation in the G0/G1 phase. Because G0/G1-phase cells are insensitive to radiotherapy, the sensitivity of radiotherapy is reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-021-01790-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Automated Annotation of Epileptiform Burden and Its Association with Outcomes.

Ann Neurol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the dose-response relation between epileptiform activity burden and outcomes in acutely ill patients.

Methods: A single center retrospective analysis was made of 1,967 neurologic, medical, and surgical patients who underwent >16 hours of continuous electroencephalography (EEG) between 2011 and 2017. We developed an artificial intelligence algorithm to annotate 11.02 terabytes of EEG and quantify epileptiform activity burden within 72 hours of recording. We evaluated burden (1) in the first 24 hours of recording, (2) in the 12-hours epoch with highest burden (peak burden), and (3) cumulatively through the first 72 hours of monitoring. Machine learning was applied to estimate the effect of epileptiform burden on outcome. Outcome measure was discharge modified Rankin Scale, dichotomized as good (0-4) versus poor (5-6).

Results: Peak epileptiform burden was independently associated with poor outcomes (p < 0.0001). Other independent associations included age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, seizure on presentation, and diagnosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Model calibration error was calculated across 3 strata based on the time interval between last EEG measurement (up to 72 hours of monitoring) and discharge: (1) <5 days between last measurement and discharge, 0.0941 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.0706-0.1191); 5 to 10 days between last measurement and discharge, 0.0946 (95% CI = 0.0631-0.1290); >10 days between last measurement and discharge, 0.0998 (95% CI = 0.0698-0.1335). After adjusting for covariates, increase in peak epileptiform activity burden from 0 to 100% increased the probability of poor outcome by 35%.

Interpretation: Automated measurement of peak epileptiform activity burden affords a convenient, consistent, and quantifiable target for future multicenter randomized trials investigating whether suppressing epileptiform activity improves outcomes. ANN NEUROL 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26161DOI Listing
July 2021

[Determination of myclobutanil enantiomers in wheat and its processed products by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on a chiral stationary phase].

Se Pu 2021 Jul;39(7):702-707

Shanxi Center for Testing of Functional Agro⁃Products, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taiyuan 030031, China.

A valid method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a chiral stationary phase was established for the determination of myclobutanil enantiomer residue in wheat grain and its processed products (flour, bran, pasta, steamed bun, noodle, and cooking water). The wheat grain and processed product samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified with primary secondary amine (PSA) and C18. The enantiomers of myclobutanil were separated by Chiral column Lux Cellulose-1 (150 mm×2.0 mm, 3 μm, Phenomenex). The column temperature, sample volume injected, and flow rate were 30 ℃, 5 μL, and 0.25 mL/min, respectively. The mobile phase consisted of phase A (25%), water with 0.1% formic acid and 4 mM ammonium acetate, and phase B (75%), methanol with 0.1% formic acid and 4 mM ammonium acetate. A Waters Xevo TQ-S Micro MS/MS system (Waters, USA) was used for mass spectrometric analysis. An electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in the positive ionization mode. MS analyses were performed in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative ions of myclobutanil were 288.9/69.9 and 288.9/124.9, and the quantitative ion of myclobutanil was 288.9/69.9. The source voltage was 3000 V, and the desolvation temperature was 400 ℃. The desolvation gas flow was 800 L/h, and the source temperature was 150 ℃. The matrix effect of wheat grains and their processed products on the determination of myclobutanil enantiomers by UPLC-MS/MS was investigated. -(+)-myclobutanil and -(-)-myclobutanil had a mid signal suppression effect on wheat grain, bran, pasta, steamed bun, and noodle, while -(+)-myclobutanil and -(-)-myclobutanil had a mid signal enhancement effect on flour and cooking water. Finally, the matrix-matched calibration method was effective in all matrices and was selected for the quantification of the myclobutanil enantiomer residue in the samples. The results showed that the two enantiomers of myclobutanil were well separated by this method. The first and second eluted enantiomers were -(+)-myclobutanil and -(-)-myclobutanil, respectively, with the corresponding retention times being 4.34 min and 5.13 min. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of -(+)-myclobutanil and -(-)-myclobutanil in wheat and its processed products were 0.2 μg/kg and 0.5 μg/kg, respectively. In the linear range of 0.5-25 μg/L, the peak areas of the myclobutanil enantiomers showed a good linear relationship with the concentration, and the values were all greater than 0.99. At fortification levels of 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg (enantiomer concentration), the average recoveries of -(+)-myclobutanil in wheat grain and its processed products ranged from 82% to 110%, with RSDs between 0.9% and 6.8%. The average recoveries of -(-)-myclobutanil in wheat grain and its processed products ranged from 80% to 109%, with RSDs between 0.9% and 6.8%. This method fulfils the requirements for pesticide residue analysis. The established method was applied to analyze five flour samples, two noodle samples, and two steamed bread samples. The results showed that -(+)-myclobutanil and -(-)-myclobutanil enantiomers were not detected in the samples. In this study, methods for the enantiomeric separation and residue analysis of myclobutanil in wheat were evaluated at the enantiomeric level, which enriched the methods of enantiomeric separation and residue analysis of chiral pesticide myclobutanil enantiomers in raw agricultural product (wheat grain) and its processed foods. This method is effective for the residue analysis of chiral pesticide myclobutanil enantiomers in raw agricultural commodities and its processed products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2021.03001DOI Listing
July 2021

Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Intussusception: A Multicenter, Noninferiority Study of Paired Diagnostic Tests.

Ann Emerg Med 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, NJ.

Study Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) performed by experienced clinician sonologists compared to radiology-performed ultrasound (RADUS) for detection of clinically important intussusception, defined as intussusception requiring radiographic or surgical reduction.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, noninferiority, observational study among a convenience sample of children aged 3 months to 6 years treated in tertiary care emergency departments across North and Central America, Europe, and Australia. The primary outcome was diagnostic accuracy of POCUS and RADUS with respect to clinically important intussusception. Sample size was determined using a 4-percentage-point noninferiority margin for the absolute difference in accuracy. Secondary outcomes included agreement between POCUS and RADUS for identification of secondary sonographic findings.

Results: The analysis included 256 children across 17 sites (35 sonologists). Of the 256 children, 58 (22.7%) had clinically important intussusception. POCUS identified 60 (23.4%) children with clinically important intussusception. The diagnostic accuracy of POCUS was 97.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.9% to 99.0%), compared to 99.3% (95% CI 96.8% to 99.9%) for RADUS. The absolute difference between the accuracy of RADUS and that of POCUS was 1.5 percentage points (95% CI -0.6 to 3.6). Sensitivity for POCUS was 96.6% (95% CI 87.2% to 99.1%), and specificity was 98.0% (95% CI 94.7% to 99.2%). Agreement was high between POCUS and RADUS for identification of trapped free fluid (83.3%, n=40/48) and decreased color Doppler signal (95.7%, n=22/23).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the diagnostic accuracy of POCUS performed by experienced clinician sonologists may be noninferior to that of RADUS for detection of clinically important intussusception. Given the limitations of convenience sampling and spectrum bias, a larger randomized controlled trial is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.04.033DOI Listing
July 2021

Reduced blood-stage malaria growth and immune correlates in humans following RH5 vaccination.

Med (N Y) 2021 Jun;2(6):701-719.e19

The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.

Background: Development of an effective vaccine against the pathogenic blood-stage infection of human malaria has proved challenging, and no candidate vaccine has affected blood-stage parasitemia following controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with blood-stage .

Methods: We undertook a phase I/IIa clinical trial in healthy adults in the United Kingdom of the RH5.1 recombinant protein vaccine, targeting the reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5), formulated in AS01 adjuvant. We assessed safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against blood-stage CHMI. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02927145.

Findings: The RH5.1/AS01 formulation was administered using a range of RH5.1 protein vaccine doses (2, 10, and 50 μg) and was found to be safe and well tolerated. A regimen using a delayed and fractional third dose, in contrast to three doses given at monthly intervals, led to significantly improved antibody response longevity over ∼2 years of follow-up. Following primary and secondary CHMI of vaccinees with blood-stage , a significant reduction in parasite growth rate was observed, defining a milestone for the blood-stage malaria vaccine field. We show that growth inhibition activity measured using purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody strongly correlates with reduction of the parasite growth rate and also identify other antibody feature sets by systems serology, including the plasma anti-RH5 IgA1 response, that are associated with challenge outcome.

Conclusions: Our data provide a new framework to guide rational design and delivery of next-generation vaccines to protect against malaria disease.

Funding: This study was supported by USAID, UK MRC, Wellcome Trust, NIAID, and the NIHR Oxford-BRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medj.2021.03.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240500PMC
June 2021

Predicting the impact of biochar on the saturated hydraulic conductivity of natural and engineered media.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 30;295:113143. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, USA. Electronic address:

If biochar is applied to soil or stormwater treatment media, the saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) may be altered, which is a critical property affecting media performance. While a significant number of studies document biochar's effect on a porous medium's K, predictive models are lacking. Herein models are advanced for predicting K for repacked natural soil and engineered media when amended with biochar of various particle sizes and application rates. Experiments were conducted using three repacked natural soils, two uniform sands, and a bioretention medium amended with a wood biochar sieved to seven different biochar particle size distributions and applied at three rates. Experimental measurements showed a strong positive correlation between the interporosity of each medium and K. Across all media, the classic Kozeny-Carman (K-C) model predicted K and the relative change in K because of biochar amendment for each medium best. For soils alone, a recently developed model based on existing pedotransfer functions was optimal. The K-C model error was improved if the particle specific surface area was increased for large biochar particles, which indicates the importance of biochar particle shape on pore structure and K. X-ray Computed Tomography was coupled with pore network modeling to explain the unexpected decrease in K for sands amended with medium and large biochar. While biochar increased interporosity, mean pore radii decreased by ~25% which reduced K. The X-ray measurements and pore network modeling help to explain anomalous results reported for biochar-amended sands in other studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113143DOI Listing
June 2021

[Advances in solid-phase extraction for bisphenols in environmental samples].

Se Pu 2021 Aug;39(8):835-844

Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110000, China.

Owing to the strict restrictions on the production and use of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol analogs (e. g., bisphenol S and bisphenol F) are gradually coming to use in many fields. BPA and these bisphenol analogs are so-called bisphenols (BPs). BPs as a class of endocrine disrupters are widely distributed in the environment (water, sediments, sludge, and aquatic products). BPs enter the human body through various routes, leading to endocrine disruption, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity. The Canadian government has identified BPs as substances for further scoping/problem formulation. Because of the widespread attention paid to BPs in the environmental field, research is being expanded to cover water, sediment, dust, and biological samples, and other media. Given the significant differences in the complexity and pollution concentration of environmental samples, the development of pretreatment methods that afford high extraction efficiency, good purification selectivity, strong universality, operational simplicity, and high-throughput extraction and purification, are necessary to realize the highly sensitive detection of BPs in environmental media. In recent years, solid-phase extraction (SPE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and dispersion liquid-liquid-microextraction (DLLME) as new pretreatment technologies have gradually replaced the traditional liquid-liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. SPE has seen rapid development for the extraction and purification of BPs in various environmental samples, overcoming the bottlenecks related to time, energy, and solvent consumption in traditional methods while extending technical support for the analysis of emerging pollutants. The physicochemical properties, usage, and environmental hazards of typical BPs were briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the application of SPE products, development of new adsorbents, and transformation of the SPE mode. Commercialized SPE products are universally applicable in the field of environmental monitoring, while products suitable for the pretreatment of BPs are limited. The development of new adsorbents mainly focused on their adsorption capacity and selectivity. For example, ordered mesoporous silicon, carbon nanomaterials, metal-organic frameworks, and cyclodextrins have large surface areas, good adsorption performance, and regular pore structures, which improve the adsorption capacity of BPs. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and mixed-mode ion-exchange polymers are mainly used to improve the selectivity of BPs in the purification process. In addition, MIPs have high chemical, mechanical, and thermal stabilities, which ensures their widespread application in the extraction, preconcentration, and separation of BPs. A variety of new SPE adsorbents can partially meet the diverse needs for detection. There is a consensus that the current challenges in analytical chemistry include the determination of contaminants at low concentration levels, but at the same time, more efficient and environment-friendly methodologies are required. With the introduction of high-sensitivity instruments in the market, the SPE model is seeing gradual development in terms of miniaturization, automation, and simplification. This in turn has minimized solvent consumption, analysis time, and labor cost, resulting in more efficient and affordable analytical methods such as QuEChERS, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) to adapt to the new development scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2021.02035DOI Listing
August 2021

Retrospective study on rib fractures: smoking and alcohol matter for mortality and complications.

Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2021 15;6(1):e000732. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

Background: Rib fractures and substance use are both common in trauma patients, but there is little data on how smoking and alcohol use may be associated with outcomes in these patients. We assessed the association between smoking or alcohol use disorder (AUD) and outcomes in patients with rib fractures.

Methods: We used institutional databases to conduct a retrospective review of patients with rib fractures at the only American College of Surgeons-verified adult level 1 trauma center in a rural state between 2015 and 2019. The key exposure variables were smoking and AUD. The key outcome variables were mortality and pulmonary complications (pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and pneumothorax). We used multivariable regression for analysis and directed acyclic graphs to identify variables for adjustment.

Results: We identified 1880 eligible patients with rib fractures, including 693 (37%) who were smokers and 204 (11%) who had AUD. Compared with non-smokers, smokers were younger, more often male, and had lower mortality rates. Regression showed that smokers had a lower likelihood of mortality (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.87; p=014). Likelihood of pneumonia, ARDS, and pneumothorax was not different between smokers and non-smokers. Compared with patients without AUD, patients with AUD were older, more often male, and had higher likelihood of pneumonia and lower likelihood of pneumothorax. Regression showed that patients with AUD had higher likelihood of pneumonia (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.68; p=0.002) and lower likelihood of pneumothorax (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.75; p=0.002).

Discussion: In trauma patients with rib fractures treated at a level 1 trauma center over 5 years, smoking was associated with decreased risk of mortality. These findings have implications for risk stratification and clinical decision-making for patients with rib fractures.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tsaco-2021-000732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207992PMC
June 2021

The Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO): Clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer, 2021.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150081, P. R. China.

There exist differences in the epidemiological characteristics, clinicopathological features, tumor biological characteristics, treatment patterns, and drug selections between gastric cancer patients from the Eastern and Western countries. The Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) has organized a panel of senior experts specializing in all sub-specialties of gastric cancer to compile a clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer since 2016 and renews it annually. Taking into account regional differences, giving full consideration to the accessibility of diagnosis and treatment resources, these experts have conducted expert consensus judgment on relevant evidence and made various grades of recommendations for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer to reflect the value of cancer treatment and meeting health economic indexes in China. The 2021 CSCO Clinical Practice Guidelines for Gastric Cancer covers the diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and screening of gastric cancer. Based on the 2020 version of the CSCO Chinese Gastric Cancer guidelines, this updated guideline integrates the results of major clinical studies from China and overseas for the past year, focused on the inclusion of research data from the Chinese population for more personalized and clinically relevant recommendations. For the comprehensive treatment of non-metastatic gastric cancer, attentions were paid to neoadjuvant treatment. The value of perioperative chemotherapy is gradually becoming clearer and its recommendation level has been updated. For the comprehensive treatment of metastatic gastric cancer, recommendations for immunotherapy were included, and immune checkpoint inhibitors from third-line to the first-line of treatment for different patient groups with detailed notes are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12193DOI Listing
July 2021

JMJ27-mediated histone H3K9 demethylation positively regulates drought-stress responses in Arabidopsis.

New Phytol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.

Dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) is associated with heterochromatinization and transcriptional gene silencing in plants. The activation of sets of genes by drought stress is correlated with reduced H3K9me2 levels, but the role of H3K9 methylation in the regulation of drought-stress responses remains elusive. Here, we show that the Jumonji domain-containing H3K9 demethylase JMJ27 positively regulates drought-stress responses through its histone demethylase activity. RNA-seq analysis identified JMJ27-regulated genes, including positive regulators of drought stress GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2 (GOLS2) and RESPONSE TO DESICCATION 20 (RD20). Genetic analysis demonstrated that JMJ27 positively regulates drought-stress responses at least partly through GOLS2 and RD20. JMJ27 directly associated with GOLS2 and RD20, and protected these loci from silencing by reducing H3K9me2 levels under normal conditions. REGULATORY PARTICLE NON-ATPASE 1a (RPN1a), a subunit of the 26S proteasome, interacted with JMJ27 and negatively regulated JMJ27 accumulation. Drought stress diminished RPN1a abundance, resulting in increased JMJ27 abundance. The drought stress-promoted occupancy of JMJ27 at GOLS2 and RD20 chromatin may reinforce their transcriptional induction by locally reducing the H3K9me2 levels. These results indicate that the RPN1a-JMJ27 module precisely regulates dynamic H3K9me2 deposition plasticity, ensuring proper adaptation to drought stress in Arabidopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17593DOI Listing
July 2021

A 3.4-Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the human coronavirus spike trimer computationally derived from vitrified NL63 virus particles.

QRB Discov 2020 Nov 17;1:e11. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Bioengineering and James H. Clark Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is an enveloped pathogen of the family that spreads worldwide and causes up to 10% of all annual respiratory diseases. HCoV-NL63 is typically associated with mild upper respiratory symptoms in children, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. It has also been shown to cause severe lower respiratory illness. NL63 shares ACE2 as a receptor for viral entry with SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Here, we present the structure of HCoV-NL63 spike (S) trimer at 3.4-Å resolution by single-particle cryo-EM imaging of vitrified virions without chemical fixative. It is structurally homologous to that obtained previously from the biochemically purified ectodomain of HCoV-NL63 S trimer, which displays a three-fold symmetric trimer in a single conformation. In addition to previously proposed and observed glycosylation sites, our map shows density at other sites, as well as different glycan structures. The domain arrangement within a protomer is strikingly different from that of the SARS-CoV-2 S and may explain their different requirements for activating binding to the receptor. This structure provides the basis for future studies of spike proteins with receptors, antibodies or drugs, in the native state of the coronavirus particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/qrd.2020.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737156PMC
November 2020

Potential liver damage due to co-exposure to As, Cd, and Pb in mining areas: Association analysis and research trends from a Chinese perspective.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 27;201:111598. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Dermatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

There is global concern regarding the public health hazards of environmental exposure to multiple toxic heavy metals. The effects of toxic heavy metals on liver function have been suggested in previous reports, but the association between exposure to multiple toxic heavy metals and liver function has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to multiple toxic heavy metals, arsenic(As), lead(Pb), and cadmium(Cd), on liver function through population-based and animal studies. A total of 3590 participants were enrolled from the mining areas in Western Hunan Province. The concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd in the urine and plasma samples were determined using quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) was employed for the joint association assay. An animal study was conducted to further verify the cumulative effects of metals on liver damage-related parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Research trends regarding toxic metals were also explored to obtain in-depth understanding of the current knowledge in this field. Typically, for single-exposure analysis, in most mines, Pb exhibited a significantly negative association with ALT levels, whereas for cumulative effects analysis, when As, Pb, and Cd concentrations were at the 50percentile, a significantly negative effect on liver ALT levels was observed. Furthermore, animal studies have shown that co-exposure to As, Pb, and Cd could aggravate liver dysfunction in mice compared to that in the single-metal treated group (p < 0.05). From 1990 to 2019, 1965 projects relating to As, Pb, and Cd research have been initiated, and the total RMB(RenMingBi) funded was approximately 800 million in China, as opposed to 2500 projects in the US with an approximate amount of US$ 1 billion, which is substantially greater than that of China. Finally, from a global viewpoint, scientists should continue to substantially contribute to the field of heavy metal contamination through more extensive academic investigation, global cooperation, and the development of novel control methods. Overall, this study identified that elevated combined concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd were significantly negatively associated with liver function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111598DOI Listing
June 2021

[Research on performance of motor-imagery-based brain-computer interface in different complexity of Chinese character patterns].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;38(3):417-424

Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, P.R. China.

The traditional paradigm of motor-imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is abstract, which cannot effectively guide users to modulate brain activity, thus limiting the activation degree of the sensorimotor cortex. It was found that the motor imagery task of Chinese characters writing was better accepted by users and helped guide them to modulate their sensorimotor rhythms. However, different Chinese characters have different writing complexity (number of strokes), and the effect of motor imagery tasks of Chinese characters with different writing complexity on the performance of motor-imagery-based BCI is still unclear. In this paper, a total of 12 healthy subjects were recruited for studying the effects of motor imagery tasks of Chinese characters with two different writing complexity (5 and 10 strokes) on the performance of motor-imagery-based BCI. The experimental results showed that, compared with Chinese characters with 5 strokes, motor imagery task of Chinese characters writing with 10 strokes obtained stronger sensorimotor rhythm and better recognition performance ( < 0.05). This study indicated that, appropriately increasing the complexity of the motor imagery task of Chinese characters writing can obtain stronger motor imagery potential and improve the recognition accuracy of motor-imagery-based BCI, which provides a reference for the design of the motor-imagery-based BCI paradigm in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202010031DOI Listing
June 2021

Optimization of Model Training Based on Iterative Minimum Covariance Determinant In Motor-Imagery BCI.

Int J Neural Syst 2021 Jul 26;31(7):2150030. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Skolkowo Institute of Science and Technology (SKOLTECH), 143026 Moscow, Russia.

The common spatial patterns (CSP) algorithm is one of the most frequently used and effective spatial filtering methods for extracting relevant features for use in motor imagery brain-computer interfaces (MI-BCIs). However, the inherent defect of the traditional CSP algorithm is that it is highly sensitive to potential outliers, which adversely affects its performance in practical applications. In this work, we propose a novel feature optimization and outlier detection method for the CSP algorithm. Specifically, we use the minimum covariance determinant (MCD) to detect and remove outliers in the dataset, then we use the Fisher score to evaluate and select features. In addition, in order to prevent the emergence of new outliers, we propose an iterative minimum covariance determinant (IMCD) algorithm. We evaluate our proposed algorithm in terms of iteration times, classification accuracy and feature distribution using two BCI competition datasets. The experimental results show that the average classification performance of our proposed method is 12% and 22.9% higher than that of the traditional CSP method in two datasets ([Formula: see text]), and our proposed method obtains better performance in comparison with other competing methods. The results show that our method improves the performance of MI-BCI systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0129065721500301DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between postpartum low-carbohydrate-diet scores and glucose levels in Chinese women.

Nutrition 2021 May 8;89:111305. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Views on the relationship between a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and glucose levels are controversial, and no study, to our knowledge, has examined this association in postpartum women. We aimed to explore the association between postpartum LCD scores and glucose levels.

Methods: We included 500 postpartum women from a prospective cohort study in Guangzhou, China, during 2017 and 2018. Dietary information during the first month after delivery was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. The overall, animal, and plant LCD scores were determined based on percentages of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Higher scores reflected higher intakes of fat and protein and lower intakes of carbohydrate. At 6 to 8 wk postpartum, women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus underwent oral glucose tolerance tests (n = 104), and the others had fasting plasma glucose (FPG) tests (n = 396). Multivariable linear, quantile, and logistic regressions were conducted.

Results: Of the 500 participants, 71 (14.20%) developed impaired fasting glucose. Animal LCD score was positively associated with FPG levels (β = 0.007, P = 0.017), but quantile regression showed that LCD scores were related to FPG only in women with lower FPG levels; they had no significant association in those with higher FPG levels. No significant interaction effect on FPG was found between LCD scores and history of gestational diabetes mellitus (P > 0.40). Furthermore, the relationships between the three LCD scores and risk of developing impaired fasting glucose were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Animal LCD score during puerperium may be positively associated with FPG levels in the early postpartum period in Chinese women, but no interactions with history of gestational diabetes mellitus were observed. Stronger associations were observed in women with lower FPG levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111305DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical Electroencephalography Findings and Considerations in Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Neurohospitalist 2021 Jul 3;11(3):204-213. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background And Purpose: Reports have suggested that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes neurologic manifestations including encephalopathy and seizures. However, there has been relatively limited electrophysiology data to contextualize these specific concerns and to understand their associated clinical factors. Our objective was to identify EEG abnormalities present in patients with SARS-CoV-2, and to determine whether they reflect new or preexisting brain pathology.

Methods: We studied a consecutive series of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 who received an EEG, obtained using tailored safety protocols. Data from EEG reports and clinical records were analyzed to identify EEG abnormalities and possible clinical associations, including neurologic symptoms, new or preexisting brain pathology, and sedation practices.

Results: We identified 37 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who underwent EEG, of whom 14 had epileptiform findings (38%). Patients with epileptiform findings were more likely to have preexisting brain pathology (6/14, 43%) than patients without epileptiform findings (2/23, 9%; p = 0.042). There were no clear differences in rates of acute brain pathology. One case of nonconvulsive status epilepticus was captured, but was not clearly a direct consequence of SARS-CoV-2. Abnormalities of background rhythms were common, as may be seen in systemic illness, and in part associated with recent sedation (p = 0.022).

Conclusions: Epileptiform abnormalities were common in patients with SARS-CoV-2 referred for EEG, but particularly in the context of preexisting brain pathology and sedation. These findings suggest that neurologic manifestations during SARS-CoV-2 infection may not solely relate to the infection itself, but rather may also reflect patients' broader, preexisting neurologic vulnerabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874420972237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8182395PMC
July 2021

Discovery of pan-ErbB inhibitors protecting from SARS-CoV-2 replication, inflammation, and lung injury by a drug repurposing screen.

bioRxiv 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Effective therapies are needed to combat emerging viruses. Seventeen candidates that rescue cells from SARS-CoV-2-induced lethality and target diverse functions emerged in a screen of 4,413 compounds. Among the hits was lapatinib, an approved inhibitor of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Lapatinib and other pan-ErbB inhibitors suppress replication of SARS-CoV-2 and unrelated viruses with a high barrier to resistance. ErbB4, but not lapatinib's cancer targets ErbB1 and ErbB2, is required for SARS-CoV-2 entry and encephalitis alphavirus infection and is a molecular target mediating lapatinib's antiviral effect. In human lung organoids, lapatinib protects from SARS-CoV-2-induced activation of pathways implicated in non-infectious acute lung injury and fibrosis downstream of ErbBs (p38-MAPK, MEK/ERK, and AKT/mTOR), pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and epithelial barrier injury. These findings reveal regulation of viral infection, inflammation, and lung injury via ErbBs and propose approved candidates to counteract these effects with implications for pandemic coronaviruses and unrelated viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.15.444128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219101PMC
June 2021

Maternal Dietary Protein Patterns During Pregnancy and the Risk of Infant Eczema: A Cohort Study.

Front Nutr 2021 2;8:608972. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Previous studies have suggested that maternal dietary protein was associated with allergic diseases in offspring, but few studies have evaluated the influence of dietary protein patterns. This study aimed to explore the prospective association between maternal dietary protein patterns during pregnancy and the risk of infant eczema. A total of 713 mother-child pairs from a prospective cohort in Guangzhou, China were recruited. Maternal dietary protein was estimated using a validated face-to-face food frequency questionnaire at 20-28 weeks' gestation from 2017 to 2018. Dietary protein patterns were calculated based on the sources of protein. The data of infant eczema was assessed at 6 months of age using the symptom questionnaire of eczema. Logistic regression was carried out to examine the associations between maternal dietary protein patterns and infant eczema. The cumulative incidence of infant eczema at 6 months of age was 51.19%. Mothers of infants with eczema consumed more protein from poultry source during pregnancy than mothers of infants without eczema, while no statistical differences were observed in maternal intakes of protein from cereals and tubers, vegetables, fruits, red meat, fish and seafood, eggs, dairy, soybean, and nuts and seeds. Four dietary protein patterns were identified and termed poultry, plant, dairy and eggs, and red meat and fish. The cumulative incidence of eczema was 61.2, 45.8, 48.0, 51.4% for these four patterns, respectively. Compared to the poultry dietary pattern, the plant pattern and the dairy and eggs pattern were associated with a reduced risk of infant eczema, and the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 0.572 (0.330-0.992), 0.478 (0.274-0.837), respectively. No such association was observed for the red meat and fish dietary protein pattern. This is the first study that focused on the association between maternal dietary protein during pregnancy from a whole-diet perspective and infant eczema. Compared with the poultry dietary protein pattern, the maternal plant pattern and the dairy and eggs pattern during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of infant eczema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.608972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206490PMC
June 2021

Establishment of a specific in vivo Cu(Ⅰ) reporting system based on metallothionein screening.

Metallomics 2021 Jul;13(7)

College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.

Copper is one of the indispensable trace metal elements in organisms, but excess copper means cytotoxicity. Cells protect themselves by storing excess copper in copper-binding proteins. Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins, which are well known for sensing and binding the overcharged Zn(Ⅱ), Cd(Ⅱ), and Cu(Ⅰ) in cells. However, there are only few reports on MTs that can specifically respond to intracellular copper ions in mammals in real-time. Here, we screened copper-response MTs in pancreatic cancer cells through data-mining, RNA-seq, and qPCR analysis. We found that MT1E, MT1F, and MT1X mRNA were significantly upregulated after exogenous copper ion induction. By constructing the stable cell lines with MT1E, MT1F, or MT1X promoter-driven EGFP as reporters, we found that only PMT1F-EGFP could specifically and stably report the intracellular Cu(Ⅰ) changes in multiple cell lines including Panc-1, 8988T, 293T, HepG2, and normal hepatic cells, indicating that PMT1F-EGFP is an ideal in vivo Cu(Ⅰ) reporter. Using the PMT1F-EGFP reporter, we found that MEK inhibitors (U0126) and Astragaloside IV could significantly increase intracellular copper ions. According to these results, PMT1F-EGFP reporter can sense intracellular copper change and can be used to screen copper-target drugs and study copper-related cellular physiology and pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mtomcs/mfab035DOI Listing
July 2021

Preparation of a water soluble aminated β-1,3-D-glucan for gene carrier: The in vitro study of the anti-inflammatory activity and transfection efficiency.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, China.

β-1,3-D-glucan has been reported to have a series of bioactivities including antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects; however, its insolubility in neutral aqueous solution significantly restricts the potential application in biological and medicine fields. Herein, a water-soluble aminated β-1,3-D-glucan (AG) was synthesized and the anti-inflammatory effect, cytotoxicity and plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding capacity of AG, serum stability, the particle sizes and zeta potentials of AG/pDNA nanocomposites, and the transfection efficiency and mechanism of action were studied. AG shows no obvious cytotoxicity within the range of working concentration (1-64 μg/ml) and it exerts potent anti-inflammatory effect independent on Dectin-1 and TLR2. AG/pDNA nanocomposites prepared by electrostatic interaction possess an appropriate particle size ranged from 192.8 to 118.4 nm and zeta potentials ranged from 20.880 to 27.16 mV with the N/P ratios from 5 to 100. AG/pDNA nanocomposites at the N/P ratios of 10 and 20 were able to show superior transfection efficiencies in RAW 264.7 cells as a result of their suitable particle size, zeta potential, anti-inflammatory effect, and the specific interaction with pattern recognition receptors (Dectin-1 and TLR2). These results indicate that AG is a potential candidate for DNA delivery system due to its potent anti-inflammatory effect and high transfection efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.37244DOI Listing
June 2021

The dose effect of dansyl chloride on the derivative products of bisphenols and its application for the determination of bisphenols in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Sep Sci 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning, P. R. China.

Human exposure to bisphenols has rarely been reported. The most important challenges in this regard are the sensitivity and accuracy of the analytical methods employed. Dansyl chloride derivatization prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been prevalently employed to improve sensitivity. However, the dose effect of the derivatization reagent on the reaction products is not well understood, especially for reactants with two or more active groups. This study investigated the mass ratio of dansyl chloride to bisphenols and found the mass ratio played a vital role in changing the composition of derivatives; further, the optimal ratio for obtaining di-substituted derivatives was confirmed. Under optimal conditions, solid-phase extraction followed by dansyl chloride derivatization coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect eight bisphenols in human serum samples. The method detection limits of the eight bisphenols were 0.025-0.28 ng/mL, and the recoveries were 72.9-121.7% by spiking bisphenols (2, 5, and 20 ng/mL) into bovine serum. The detection frequencies of bisphenol A and bisphenol F in 73 serum samples obtained from children from Guangzhou were 41.1% and 71.2%, respectively, while the detection frequencies of other bisphenols were below 20%. The concentrations of bisphenol A and bisphenol F were < 0.28-8.0 ng/mL and < 0.028-7.6 ng/mL, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100171DOI Listing
June 2021

Deep Spatial-angular Regularization for Light Field Imaging, Denoising, and Super-resolution.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jun 8;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based framework for the reconstruction of high-quality LFs from acquisitions via learned coded apertures. The proposed method incorporates the measurement observation into the deep learning framework elegantly to avoid relying entirely on data-driven priors for LF reconstruction. Specifically, we first formulate the compressive LF reconstruction as an inverse problem with an implicit regularization term. Then, we construct the regularization term with a deep efficient spatial-angular separable convolutional sub-network in the form of local and global residual learning to comprehensively explore the signal distribution free from the limited representation ability and inefficiency of deterministic mathematical modeling. Furthermore, we extend this pipeline to LF denoising and spatial super-resolution, which could be considered as variants of coded aperture imaging equipped different degradation matrices. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform state-of-the-art approaches to a significant extent both quantitatively and qualitatively, i.e., the reconstructed LFs not only achieve much higher PSNR/SSIM but also preserve the LF parallax structure better on both real and synthetic LF benchmarks. The code will be publicly available at https://github.com/MantangGuo/DRLF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3087485DOI Listing
June 2021

Phase II study of adjuvant radiotherapy following narrow-margin hepatectomy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatology 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, P. R. China.

Background & Aims: Surgical resection is the primary treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, it is associated with a high rate of recurrence and death. We conducted this phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for HCC after narrow-margin hepatectomy.

Approach & Results: We designed a single-arm, prospective phase II trial to evaluate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), recurrence patterns, and toxicity in patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. The eligibility criteria included the following: pathological diagnosis of HCC after hepatectomy, with narrow pathological margins (<1 cm); age >18 years; and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1. Patients received IMRT within 4-6 weeks after surgical resection. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (number: NCT01456156). Between 2008 and 2016, a total of 76 eligible patients who underwent narrow-margin resection were enrolled. The median follow-up duration was 70 months; the 3-year OS and DFS rates were 88.2% and 68.1%, respectively; and the 5-year OS and DFS rates were 72.2% and 51.6%, respectively. Intrahepatic recurrence was the primary recurrence pattern. No marginal recurrence was found. Intrahepatic, extrahepatic, and combined recurrences at the first relapse were found in 33, five, and one patient, respectively. The most common radiation-related grade-3 toxicities were leukopenia (7.9%), elevated alanine aminotransferase (3.9%) and aspartate aminotransferase (2.6%) levels, and thrombocytopenia (1.3%). Classical or non-classical radiation-induced liver disease was not noted.

Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy is an effective, well-tolerated, and promising adjuvant regimen in HCC patients who have undergone narrow-margin hepatectomy. Our trial provides evidence and a rationale for planning a future phase III trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31993DOI Listing
June 2021

Genome-Wide Screen and Validation of Microglia Pro-Inflammatory Mediators in Stroke.

Aging Dis 2021 Jun 1;12(3):786-800. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

1Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine and Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Stroke activates microglia pro-inflammatory response that not only induces the early neuronal injuries but also causes the secondary brain infarction. Yet, the underlying mechanisms for how microglia become activated in stroke are still unknown. Here, using the next-generation of RNA sequencing we find a total of 778 genes increasingly expressed in brain of stroke mice. Of these, we identified Hmgb2 as a microglia pro-inflammatory mediator by promoting the transcription of Ctss. Inhibition of either Hmgb2 or Ctss blocks microglia pro-inflammatory response and protects against brain damages and improves the neurological functions of stroke mice. This study uncovers Hmgb2 and Ctss as the major microglia inflammatory response mediators in stroke and hence warrants the promising targets for stroke therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2020.0926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139211PMC
June 2021