Publications by authors named "Jie Chen"

5,029 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Secretory Galectin-3 promotes hepatic steatosis via regulation of the PPARγ/CD36 signaling pathway.

Cell Signal 2021 May 12:110043. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Huadong Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Gerontology, Huadong Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Clinical Geriatric Medicine, Shanghai, China; Research Center on Aging and Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Galectin-3 (Gal3) is an essential regulator of a number of metabolic disorders. Previous studies have established that Gal3 is a positive regulator of inflammation, fibrosis, and insulin resistance. However, its function in the early pathogenesis of hepatic lipid accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unresolved. Here, we demonstrate the presence of significantly upregulated extracellular concentrations of Gal3 in the fatty livers of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mice. Systemic inhibition of Gal3 by injection of TD139 reduced the accumulation of lipid in the livers of HFD-fed mice, accompanied by the decreased expression of CD36 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). Treatment with Gal3 protein elicited the opposite response in palmitic acid (PA)-induced HepG2 hepatocytes. It was additionally discovered that Gal3 positively regulates CD36 transcription by increased activation of PPARγ, thereby increasing fatty acid uptake, resulting in hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the roles of Gal3 in hepatic lipid metabolism in both in vitro and in vivo studies and revealed that Gal3 is a secretory protein that promotes hepatic steatosis through the PPARγ-CD36-dependent pathway, suggesting that targeting Gal3 may represent a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of NAFLD and related metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2021.110043DOI Listing
May 2021

Processing and characterization of thermoplastic corn starch-based film/paper composites containing microcrystalline cellulose.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Background: Different thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared with or without the addition of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) obtained via melt-extrusion method, then hot-press method was used to produce environmentally friendly TPS-based film/paper composites to replace petroleum-based materials.

Results: The paper-plastic composites exhibited good interfacial adhesion from the SEM images. It was seen that 5wt.% MCC was added to reinforce the mechanical properties of TPS films, so that it also improved the barrier properties of MCC@TPS/Paper composites and extended the path of water vapor through TPS films, which decreased the water vapor transmission rate of MCC@TPS/Paper composites. TPS/Paper composites and MCC@TPS/Paper composites have better physical properties (i.e. smoothness, flexibility and folding resistance) than only paper. In particular, it was found that the water contact angle of MCC@TPS/Paper composites and TPS/Paper composites were higher than single-layer paper. Furthermore, MCC reinforced paper-plastic composites demonstrated good barrier properties which can meet the requirement of lower water sensitive materials in food packaging industry.

Conclusion: Thermoplastic corn starch-based film/paper composites have good application properties as a potential source of bioplastic materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11315DOI Listing
May 2021

HSP90-dependent PUS7 overexpression facilitates the metastasis of colorectal cancer cells by regulating LASP1 abundance.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 14;40(1):170. Epub 2021 May 14.

State key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Diseases and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background: Pseudouridine synthase (PUS) 7 is a member of the PUS family that catalyses pseudouridine formation. It has been shown to be involved in intellectual development and haematological malignancies. Nevertheless, the role and the underlying molecular mechanisms of PUS7 in solid tumours, such as colorectal cancer (CRC), remain unexplored. This study elucidated, for the first time, the role of PUS7 in CRC cell metastasis and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: We conducted immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and western blotting to quantify the expression of PUS7 in CRC tissues as well as cell lines. Besides, diverse in vivo and in vitro functional tests were employed to establish the function of PUS7 in CRC. RNA-seq and proteome profiling analysis were also applied to identify the targets of PUS7. PUS7-interacting proteins were further uncovered using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry.

Results: Overexpression of PUS7 was observed in CRC tissues and was linked to advanced clinical stages and shorter overall survival. PUS7 silencing effectively repressed CRC cell metastasis, while its upregulation promoted metastasis, independently of the PUS7 catalytic activity. LASP1 was identified as a downstream effector of PUS7. Forced LASP1 expression abolished the metastasis suppression triggered by PUS7 silencing. Furthermore, HSP90 was identified as a client protein of PUS7, associated with the increased PUS7 abundance in CRC. NMS-E973, a specific HSP90 inhibitor, also showed higher anti-metastatic activity when combined with PUS7 repression. Importantly, in line with these results, in human CRC tissues, the expression of PUS7 was positively linked to the expression of HSP90 and LASP1, and patients co-expressing HSP90/PUS7/LASP1 showed a worse prognosis.

Conclusions: The HSP90-dependent PUS7 upregulation promotes CRC cell metastasis via the regulation of LASP1. Thus, targeting the HSP90/PUS7/LASP1 axis may be a novel approach for the treatment of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01951-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Laparoscopic repair of giant hiatal hernia for elderly patients.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):704

Department of Hernia and Abdominal Wall Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Giant hiatal hernias are more common in older patients and can significantly reduce their quality of life. However, open surgery for patients of advanced age is thought to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the safety of laparoscopic giant hiatal hernia repair for elderly patients as compared to younger patients.

Methods: From January 2015 to January 2020, 152 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of giant hiatal hernia. Two cases of missing follow up were excluded. Patients were divided into an elderly group (N=62, age ≥75) and a younger group (N=88, age <75). Interrupted non-absorbable suture was applied for crus closure and as an additional reinforcement, the mesh was fixed with absorbable tacks or medical glue. Procedure-related complications, score-based variation tendency of symptoms, gastrointestinal quality of life index (GIQLI), mortality, recurrence rate, hemoglobin, and the use of PPI were investigated.

Results: All patients underwent the procedure uneventfully. Dor fundoplication was used in 39 patients (62.9%) in the elderly group and 44 (50.0%) in the younger group and no case was converted to open. While the elderly group had a significantly higher percentage of ASA Class level 3 and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases as compared to the younger group, the two groups had similar operative times, intraoperative blood loss, and percentage of intrathoracic stomach. Elderly group patients tended to have higher perioperative complications including pneumonia (3.2%) and atelectasis (3.2%) without statistical significance, as well as transfer to the intensive care unit compared, to younger patients (9.7% . 3.2%; P=0.144). The mean post-operative hospital stay was also significantly shorter in the younger group (2.8 days) compared with the elderly group (3.5 days; P=0.001). There was no mortality, recurrence, mesh-related complications such as visceral erosion, adhesion, or severe dysphagia during follow up in the two groups, and both groups demonstrated significant improvement in GIQLI scores and hemoglobin. The percentage of patients who needed PPI was also reduced in both groups.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic mesh repair of giant hiatal hernia for elderly patients is safe and effective when performed at experienced centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-1495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106099PMC
April 2021

Changes in Vitamin A Levels and the Effect of Early Vitamin A Supplementation on Vitamin A Levels in Infants Throughout the First 6 Months of Life: A Prospective Cohort Study in Chongqing, China.

Front Public Health 2021 27;9:650823. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Child Nutrition and Health, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Children's Nutrition Research Center, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorder, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

This study aimed to explore the changes in infant vitamin A (VA) status and the effect of early VA supplementation on VA level throughout the first 6 months of life. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 1,016 healthy infants were enrolled at birth. Then, 930, 882, 854 and 822 healthy infants were followed up at postnatal day 7 and postnatal months 1, 3, and 6, respectively. Blood samples and dietary survey and physical development data were collected. Serum VA was measured by chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry and was classified according to the VA deficiency (VAD) criteria for older children aged 6-70 months (<0.70, 0.70-1.05, ≥1.05 μmol/L). Normally distributed continuous variables are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. The categorical variables are described by the frequency and percentage (%). The reference interval for the VA level was the 2.5th-97.5th percentile. Changes in VA status with age and the relationship of VA supplementation with VA level were investigated by generalized estimating equations followed by Bonferroni test, controlling for the effects of feeding pattern and sex. Infant VA levels increased significantly from 0.499 ± 0.146 to 1.061 ± 0.414 μmol/L with age at 6 months, even without VA supplementation ( < 0.05). From birth to 6 months, the percentage of infants with a VA level <0.70 μmol/L decreased from 88.6 to 19.5%. During follow-up, no infant demonstrated clinical VAD conditions, such as night blindness, conjunctival xerosis or Bitot's spots. Less than 7.0% of infants were underdeveloped in terms of weight, length and head circumference. The VA status of infants with VA≥0.588 μmol/L at birth gradually increased to adequate VA (VA ≥ 1.05 μmol/L) at 6 months. For these infants, there was no significant difference in VA level between the VA supplementation and non-supplementation groups ( > 0.05). Infants with VA <0.430 μmol/L at birth still had VA <0.70 μmol/L at 6 months; in this group, VA levels increased by 0.08 μmol/L more among supplemented infants than among non-supplemented infants ( < 0.05). A low VA level among neonates at birth may be a normal physiological state and may increase with age; thus, not all neonates may need early VA supplementation. More multicenter studies are needed to determine a new cutoff point for the diagnosis of neonatal VAD and the administration of nutritional intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.650823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110732PMC
April 2021

How Well Do Simulation Studies Inform Decisions About Multistage Testing?

J Appl Meas 2020 ;21(3):271-281

Wenhao Wang, Center for Accessible Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Systems, University of Kansas, 1122 West Campus Road, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA,

Most research on multistage testing (MST) uses simulated data. This study adds to the literature by using both operational test data and simulated data to compare two different MST designs with regard to proficiency estimation accuracy and module exposure rates and by investigating whether simulation studies and operational test studies yield similar results. Two MST designs (1-2 and 1-3-4 designs) from one state's sixth-grade summative mathematics assessment across two years were compared in this study. Both simulation and operational test studies demonstrate similar results: the two MST designs yield no significant performance differences with regard to estimation accuracy and module exposure. These results provide evidence that simulation studies can provide adequate results to inform decisions about MST designs.
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January 2020

Effects of climate change and crop management on changes in rice phenology in China from 1981 to 2010.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Background: Crop phenology change is co-determined by climate change and adaptation strategies, such as crop management, but their combined and isolated impacts on rice phenology are still unclear. Quantifying the impacts and identifying the main contributors are critical to food security under climate change. Thus, we distinguished and quantified the relative contribution of climate change and crop management to rice (Oryza sativa L.) phenological changes in China from 1981 to 2010, using a first-difference multivariate regression method.

Results: Rice phenology has changed over the past 30 years in China. The mean length of the phenological stage from emergence to transplanting was shortened, whereas the mean length of the stage from transplanting to heading, from heading to maturity was prolonged. The relative contribution of crop management was greater than that of climate change for single and late rice, which took up over 90% of the total change in certain phenology stages. Among the climatic factors, temperature was the dominant contributor for which accounted for more than 50% of the change of rice phenology. The stage from transplanting to heading of early rice and late rice had strongly negative sensitivities to the increasing temperature.

Conclusions: Crop management has offset the adverse effects of climate change on single and early rice phenology in China over the past 30 years to some extent, while further adaptation measures such as adjusting sowing date, shifting rice varieties, applying nitrogen fertilizer, and irrigation, should be applied to late rice in southern China, especially in a warmer future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11300DOI Listing
May 2021

Early detection of change patterns in COVID-19 incidence and the implementation of public health policies: A multi-national study.

Public Health Pract (Oxf) 2021 Nov 10;2:100064. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Division of Biostatistics and Data Science, Department of Population Health Sciences, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has drastically altered the global realities. Harnessing national scale data from the COVID-19 pandemic may better inform policy makers in decision making surrounding the reopening of society. We examined country-level, daily-confirmed, COVID-19 case data from the World Health Organization (WHO) to better understand the comparative dynamics associated with the ongoing global pandemic at a national scale.

Study Design: Observational study.

Methods: We included data from 20 countries in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Eastern Mediterranean and West Pacific regions, and obtained the aggregated daily new case data for the European Union including 27 countries. We utilized an innovative analytic approach by applying statistical change point models, which have been previously employed to model volatility in stock markets, changes in genomic data, and data dynamics in other scientific disciplines, to segment the transformed case data. This allowed us to identify possible change or turning points as indicated by the dynamics of daily COVID-19 incidences. We also employed B-spline regression models to express the estimated (predicted) trend of daily new incidences for each country's COVID-19 disease burden with the identified key change points in the model.

Results: We identified subtle, yet different change points (translated to actual calendar days) by either the mean and variance change point model with small p-values or by a Bayesian online change point algorithm with large posterior probability in the trend of COVID-19 incidences for different countries. We correlated these statistically identified change points with evidence from the literature surrounding these countries' policies regarding opening and closing of their societies in an effort to slow the spread of COVID-19. The days when change points were detected were ahead of the actual policy implementation days, and in most of the countries included in this study the decision lagged the change point days too long to prevent potential widespread extension of the pandemic.

Conclusions: Our models describe the behavior of COVID-19 prevalence at a national scale and identify changes in national disease burden as relating to chronological changes in restrictive societal activity. Globally, social distancing measures may have been most effective in smaller countries with single governmental and public health organizational structures. Further research examining the impact of heterogeneous governmental responses to pandemic management appears warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhip.2020.100064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754913PMC
November 2021

Molecular characterization of cathelicidin in tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus): Antimicrobial activity and immunomodulatory activity.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 7;247:109072. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui 323000, China. Electronic address:

Cathelicidins are an important antimicrobial peptide family and are expressed in many different vertebrates. They play an important role in the innate immune system of the host. However, amphibian cathelicidins are poorly understood. In this study, the cDNA of the cathelicidin gene was obtained from the skin transcriptome of tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus). The predicted amino acid sequence of tiger frog cathelicidin (HR-CATH) comprises a signal peptide, a cathelin domain, and a mature peptide. The HR-CATH amino acid sequence alignment with other frog cathelicidins showed that the functional mature peptide is highly variable in amphibians, whereas the cathelin domain is conserved. A phylogenetic tree analysis showed that HR-CATH is most closely related to cathelicidin-NV from Nanorana ventripunctata. HR-CATH was chemically synthesized and its in vitro activity was determined. It had high antibacterial activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. HR-CATH damaged the cell membrane integrity of A. hydrophila according to a lactate dehydrogenase release assay and was able to hydrolyze the genomic DNA from A. hydrophila in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in RAW264.7 cells (mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cell line), HR-CATH induced chemotaxis and enhanced respiratory burst. Our study shows that amphibian cathelicidin has antimicrobial activity and an immunomodulatory effect on immune cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2021.109072DOI Listing
May 2021

Incidence and risk factors associated with the development of epilepsy in patients with intracranial alveolar echinococcosis.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Apr 27;174:106643. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxue Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Parasitic infection remains a critical health problem in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of China. The association of epilepsy and intracranial alveolar echinococcosis (IAE) is still largely unclear. This study primarily aimed to assess both the incidence and possible risk factors of epilepsy in patients with IAE. According to the occurrence of seizures, patients were separated into two different groups consisting of patients with epilepsy and those without epilepsy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the potential risk factors associated with the development of epilepsy in patients with IAE. A total of 97 patients (42 women, 55 men; age 19-76 years) were enrolled. Epilepsy was observed in almost 20 % of patients with IAE. The use of anti-seizure medications was not standardized, as 83.3 % of female patients of childbearing age used sodium valproate. It was observed that cortical lesions (hazard ratio (HR) = 29.740, P = 0.006) were significantly associated with development of epilepsy. In addition, epilepsy had no significant effect on the overall survival rate of patients with IAE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2021.106643DOI Listing
April 2021

Coproduction of polymalic acid and liamocins from two waste by-products from the xylitol and gluconate industries by Aureobasidium pullulans.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, 2 Tian Sheng Road, Beibei, Chongqing, 400715, People's Republic of China.

The coproduction of polymalic acid (PMA) and liamocins, two important metabolites secreted by Aureobasidium pullulans, from two waste by-products from the xylitol and gluconate industries was investigated in shake flasks and fermentors, confirming that waste xylose mother liquor (WXML) could be utilized as an economical feedstock without any pretreatment. Gluconate could strengthen carbon flux and NADPH supply for the synergetic biosynthesis of PMA and liamocins. High PMA and liamocin titers of 82.9 ± 2.1 and 28.3 ± 2.7 g/L, respectively, were obtained from the coupled WXML and waste gluconate mother liquor (WGML) in batch fermentation, with yields of 0.84 and 0.25 g/g, respectively. These results are comparable to those obtained from renewable feedstocks. Economic assessment of the process revealed that PMA and liamocins could be coproduced from two by-products at costs of $1.48/kg or $0.67/kg (with liamocins credit), offering an economic and sustainable process for the application of waste by-products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-021-02578-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Reduction-responsive Dehydroepiandrosterone Prodrug Nanoparticles Loaded with Camptothecin for Cancer Therapy by Enhancing Oxidation Therapy and Cell Replication Inhibition.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 4:120671. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) plays a critical role by providing ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P) and NADPH for nucleotide synthesis and reduction energy, respectively. Accordingly, blocking the PPP process may be an effective strategy for enhancing oxidation therapy and inhibiting cell replication. Here, we designed a novel reduction-responsive PEGylated prodrug and constructed nanoparticles PsD@CPT to simultaneously deliver a PPP blocker, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CPT) to integrate amplification of oxidation therapy and enhance cell replication inhibition. Following cellular uptake, DHEA and CPT were released from PsD@CPT in the presence of high glutathione (GSH) levels. As expected, DHEA-mediated reduction level decreases and CPT-induced oxidation level increases synergistically, breaking the redox balance to aggravate cancer oxidative stress. In addition, suppressing nucleotide synthesis by DHEA through the reduction of Ru5P and blocking DNA replication by CPT further motivates a synergistic inhibition effect on tumor cell proliferation. The results showed that PsD@CPT featuring multimodal treatment has satisfactory antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. This study provides a new tumor treatment strategy, which combines the amplification of oxidative stress and enhancement of inhibition of cell proliferation based on inhibition of the PPP process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120671DOI Listing
May 2021

Septin homologs cooperating in the Proliferative Stage of Microsporidia Nosema bombycis.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 May 4;183:107600. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Microsporidia Infection and Prevention, Chongqing 400716, China; Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agricultural, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China; College of Life Science, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China. Electronic address:

The single-celled pathogen Nosema bombycis, that can infect silkworm Bombyx mori and other lepidoptera including Spodoptera, is the first identified Microsporidia which has diplokaryotic nuclei throughout the life cycle. Septin proteins can form highly ordered filaments, bundles or ring structures related to the cytokinesis in fungi. Here, three septin proteins (NbSeptin1, NbSeptin2 and NbSeptin3) from Nosema bombycis CQ I are described. These proteins, appear to be conserved within the phylum Microsporidia. NbSeptins transcripts were detected throughout the pathogen developmental cycle and were significantly enhanced from second days of infection, which lead to our hypothesis that NbSeptins play a role in merogony. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed a broad distribution of NbSeptins in meronts and partly co-localization of NbSeptins. Interestingly, in some of meronts, NbSeptin2 and NbSeptin3 showed localization between the nuclei of the diplokaryon. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analysis verified that NbSeptins can interact with each other. Our findings suggest that NbSeptins can cooperate in the proliferation stage of Nosema bombycis and contribute towards the understanding of the rols of septins in microsporidia development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2021.107600DOI Listing
May 2021

Reduced mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B after implementation of completely charge-free active-passive immunoprophylaxis: an observational cohort study.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Jiangsu province, China.

Objectives: China has implemented universal hepatitis B vaccination since 2002 and provided charge-free hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) to infants of HBV-infected mothers since July 2011. We aimed to compare mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in children born before and since July 2011.

Methods: In total, 5,149 children of HBV-infected mothers were tested for HBV markers. Group one contained 1,160 children born during August 2002-June 2011 and group two contained 3,989 children born during July 2011-June 2016.

Results: In total, 92 (1.8%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.4-2.2) children were infected with HBV. None (0%, 95%CI 0.0-0.1) of 3,716 children of mothers with negative hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was infected, whereas 92 (6.4%, 95%CI 5.2-7.8) of 1,433 children of HBeAg-positive mothers were infected (p<0.0001). Among children of HBeAg-positive mothers, MTCT occurred in 10.3% (19/185) (95%CI 6.3-15.6) in group one and 5.8% (73/1,248) (95%CI 4.6-7.3) in group two (p=0.02).

Conclusions: Implementing charge-free active-passive immunoprophylaxis greatly reduces MTCT of HBV in children of HBeAg-positive mothers, highlighting the importance of timely administration of both hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG to prevent MTCT. The still remaining MTCT suggests that reducing maternal virus load before delivery is an additional important measure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2021.1927723DOI Listing
May 2021

Social frailty and longitudinal risk of depressive symptoms in a Chinese population: the Rugao Longevity and Aging Study.

Psychogeriatrics 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

National Clinical Research Center for Aging and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social frailty (SF) and incident depressive symptoms in a Chinese population.

Methods: SF was measured with 6 questions (6 points maximum; 0-1 = non-SF, 2-3 = pre-SF, 4-6 = SF). Depressive symptoms were defined as a score of ≥6 on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Compared to baseline, participants with a ≥2-point increase in the Geriatric Depression Scale score were considered to have worsening depressive symptoms.

Results: At baseline, among 1764 participants, 9.9% (n = 175) had depressive symptoms, 3.6% (n = 61) were SF, and 38.2% (n = 650) were pre-SF. The percentage of depressive symptoms increased with SF status from 5.1% (non-SF) to 12.9% (pre-SF), to 41.0% (SF). In cross-sectional analysis, after adjustments for multiple covariates, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with both pre-SF (odds ratio (OR) = 2.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-4.32) and SF (OR = 16.70, 95% CI 8.80-31.71). During the 3-year follow-up period, 10.0% (n = 117) of the participants developed depressive symptoms. In longitudinal analyses, after multiple adjustments, SF and pre-SF were associated with a 2.31-fold (95% CI 1.10-4.88) and 1.58-fold (95% CI 1.05-2.38) increased risk of incidence of depressive symptoms, respectively. Among participants without depressive symptoms at baseline, 23.2% had worsening depressive symptoms, and SF was associated with increased risk of worsening depressive symptoms (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.18-3.65).

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that SF may be a predictor of depression among Chinese community-dwelling older adults. In addition, in elders with no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with SF had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 3 years later.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12696DOI Listing
May 2021

Highly Regio- and Enantioselective Reductive Coupling of Alkynes and Aldehydes via Photoredox Cobalt Dual Catalysis.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Suzhou Research Institute of LICP, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (LICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China.

A Co-catalyzed highly regio- and enantioselective reductive coupling of alkynes and aldehydes has been developed under visible light photoredox dual catalysis. A variety of enantioenriched allylic alcohols have been obtained by using unsymmetrical internal alkynes and commercially available catalyst, chiral ligand, and reagents. It is noteworthy that this approach has considerable advantages, such as excellent regio- (>95:5 for >40 examples), stereo- (up to >95:5 /), and enantioselectivity (92-99% ee, >35 examples) control, mild reaction conditions, broad substrate scope, and good functional group compatibility, making it a great improvement to enantioselective alkyne-aldehyde reductive coupling reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c03527DOI Listing
May 2021

Development of a Novel Mentorship Platform to Foster Relational Mentoring, Empowered Vulnerability, and Professional Identity Formation in Undergraduate Medical Education.

Acad Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

J.J. Chen is a first-year resident physician, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5380-4825. J.J. Kusner is a fourth-year medical student, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1466-4345. F. Saldaña is dean for students, Harvard Medical School, and a clinical cardiologist, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1857-0848. J. Potter is advisory dean, director, William Bosworth Castle Society, Harvard Medical School, and director, Women's Health Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Boston, Massachusetts; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6221-8895.

Problem: Mentorship is valuable to medical students undergoing professional identity formation. Many institutions lack infrastructure to facilitate the personalized mentoring that supports students' integration of new professional identities with their personal identities and values.

Approach: The authors developed a novel mentorship platform called Weave via a multistep, iterative design process, incorporating in-person and survey-based student and faculty feedback. Features of Weave include clear communication of mentorship offerings and expectations, plus opportunities to engage mentors based on professional and personal (identity-based) attributes. Faculty at HMS who created a mentor profile within the first 3 months of launch and students who visited the website within the same period were invited to complete usability surveys in February 2019; students were invited to complete impact surveys in August 2020.

Outcomes: Fifty-two of 132 invited faculty members (39.4%) and 80 of 185 students (43.2%) completed the usability surveys. Most of these faculty (86.5%) and students (73.8%) reported that navigating the website was easy/very easy; 36 faculty (69.2%) created a mentor profile within 10 minutes. Key innovations highlighted by faculty and students were the listing of personal attributes and identities of diverse faculty, centralized and increased access to faculty mentors, ease of use, and provision of clear expectations. Nearly all students who completed the impact surveys agreed that Weave allowed them to connect with a faculty mentor whom they would not have found through other sources and/or to learn about the dimensions of diverse faculty.

Next Steps: Weave is a customizable online mentorship platform that fosters empowered vulnerability and increases dialogue between medical students and faculty based on professional and personal interests and identities. Weave may be expanded to other mentoring contexts and adapted for implementation at other institutions to help cultivate an institutional culture that values mentoring and to strengthen broader diversity and inclusion efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000004152DOI Listing
May 2021

Pristimerin synergistically sensitizes conditionally reprogrammed patient derived-primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells to sorafenib through endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS generation by modulating Akt/FoxO1/p27 signaling pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jun 4;86:153563. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 510080 Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Sorafenib (SORA), as a first-line therapeutic drug, has been used to treat HCC, but resistance poses a major limitation on the efficacy of SORA chemotherapy. Pristimerin (PRIS), a natural bioactive component isolated from various plant species in the Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae families, has been reported to exhibit outstanding antitumor effects in several types of cells in vitro.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether PRIS can exert synergistic anti-tumor effects with the combination of SORA, and if so, through what mechanism.

Methods: Conditionally reprogrammed patient derived-primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells (CRHCs) were isolated from human liver cancer tissues and treated with SORA and PRIS. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and tube formation ability were detected by DNA content quantification, flow cytometry, transwell assay and Matrigel-based angiogenesis assay. Gene and protein expression were assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively.

Results: Initially, we observed that the combination of the two drugs had a much stronger inhibitory effect on CRHCs growth than either drug alone. Moreover, the combination of 2 µM SORA and 1 µM PRIS exhibited a significant anti‑migrative and anti-invaded effect on CRHCs, and remarkably inhibited capillary structure formation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, the combined treatment with SORA and PRIS synergistically induced intrinsic apoptosis in CRHCs, involving a caspase-4-dependent mechanism paralleled by an increased Bax/Bcl-xL ratio. These activities were mediated through ROS generation and the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. GRP78 silencing or ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid administration was revealed to abolish the anticancer effects of PRIS, indicating the critical role of GRP78 in mediating the bioactivity of PRIS. The present study also provides mechanistic evidence that PRIS modulated the Akt/FoxO1/p27 signaling pathway, which is required for mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptosis, activation of ER stress, and stimulation of caspase-4 induced by PRIS, and, consequently resulting in suppressed cell viability, migration and angiogenesis co-treated with SORA in CRHCs.

Conclusion: Our results suggest the use of PRIS as sensitizers of chemotherapy paving the way for innovative and promising targeted chemotherapy-based therapeutic strategies in human HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153563DOI Listing
June 2021

Controlled release of KGF-2 for regulation of wound healing by KGF-2 complexed with "lotus seedpod surface-like" porous microspheres.

J Mater Chem B 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Intensive Care, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China.

Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) can regulate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocyte, which plays a remarkable role in maintaining normal tissue structure and promoting wound healing. As an effective strategy, KGF-2 solution is widely used in the treatment of wounds in clinical applications. However, KGF-2 in solution cannot achieve sustained release, which results in drug loss and unnecessary waste. Polysaccharide hemostasis microspheres (PHMs) are an ideal drug loading platform due to their special "lotus seedpod surface-like" morphology and structure. Herein, to realize the controllable release of KGF-2, PHMs loaded with KGF-2 (KGF-2@PHMs) were prepared. It was found that the bioavailability of KGF-2 was improved greatly. Most importantly, KGF-2@PHMs can reduce inflammation and accelerate the wound healing process due to the controlled release of KGF-2. KGF-2@PHMs might be a potential alternative strategy for wound healing in future clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00148eDOI Listing
May 2021

Barbel steed (Hemibarbus labeo) NK-lysin protects against Aeromonas hydrophila infection via immunomodulatory activity.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 May 1;122:104114. Epub 2021 May 1.

College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui, 323000, China.

NK-lysins (NKLs) are a family of multifunctional antimicrobial peptides that have activity against various microorganisms. However, the immunomodulatory activity of NKL in fish remains unclear. In this study, the cDNA sequence of barbel steed (Hemibarbus labeo) NKL gene was cloned. Barbel steed NKL amino acid sequence comprised a signal peptide and a mature peptide. The saposin B domain in the mature peptide has six conserved cysteines that form three disulfide bonds. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the barbel steed NKL was most closely related to that of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) NKL. Differential expression analysis showed that the barbel steed NKL gene was expressed in all tested tissues, with the highest expression in the spleen. In response to Aeromonas hydrophila infection, NKL was significantly upregulated in the liver, spleen, head kidney, and gill. The barbel steed NKL showed strong antibacterial activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, and Listeria monocytogenes. However, NKL had no antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria A. hydrophila. Lactate dehydrogenase release assays showed that NKL damaged the V. parahaemolyticus cell membrane. NKL significantly increased barbel steed survival rate after A. hydrophila infection and upregulated IL-1β and TNF-α expression in the spleen and head kidney. NKL induced monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis and enhanced the respiratory burst and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Our study shows that fish NKL exhibits immunomodulatory effects and protects the host from pathogenic infections independent of direct bacterial clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2021.104114DOI Listing
May 2021

Health care access and utilization among adult cancer survivors: Results from the National Institutes of Health "All of Us" Research Program.

Cancer Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Background: Many cancer survivors face financial difficulties that prevent them from receiving appropriate health care. Racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of health care have been reported among cancer survivors, but recent data for important racial/ethnic subgroups of the US population are lacking.

Methods: To learn more about barriers to healthcare access faced by cancer survivors, we analyzed data from the NIH "All of Us" Research Program. Data were analyzed about demographic factors and other personal characteristics, personal medical history of cancer, healthcare utilization, and access to care.

Results: As of November 2020, a total of 5426 participants had a history of cancer (excluding skin cancer). About 88.2% were non-Hispanic White; 3.9% were Black, African American, or African; 1.3% were Asian; 4.1% were Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish; and 1.2% reported more than one race. Just over one-half had an annual income of $75,000 or greater. The majority of the participants (71.7%) were college graduates or had an advanced degree. About 47.0%% had private health insurance, 41.0% had Medicare, 6.0% had Medicaid, and the remainder had military, Veterans Affairs, other insurance, or no health insurance. Frequently cited reasons for delayed care in the past 12 months were "had to pay out of pocket for some or all of the procedures," "deductible was too high/or could not afford the deductible," "couldn't afford the copay," "couldn't get time off work," and "were nervous about seeing a health care provider."

Discussion: A minority of cancer survivors who participated in the NIH "All of Us" Program had difficulty paying for health care in the past 12 months. Of particular concern are minorities such as African American and Hispanic cancer survivors along with those who are low income.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3924DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative assessment between bio-adhesive material and silk suture in regard to healing, clinical attachment level and width of keratinized gingiva in gingival recession defects cases.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211011868

Department of Orthodontics, Shanghai Huangpu District 2nd Dental Disease Prevention and Treatent Institute, Shanghai, China.

The objective of this study was to compare the silk suture with a cyanoacrylate adhesive to stabilize the free gingival graft in conjunction with Er: YAG laser-assisted recipient site preparation to augment the keratinized tissue in gingival recession cases. This randomized trial comprised of 300 recession defects patients. All the included patients were diagnosed using Miller class I and II gingival recession defects classification. Group I sites were treated with a free gingival graft (FGG) harvested using an Er: YAG laser and further sutured with silk. Group II sites were stabilized with isoamyl 2 cyanoacrylate bio-adhesive material. Clinical parameters, such as gingival recession depth, clinical attachment level, gain in gingival tissue thickness, and width of keratinized gingiva were recorded at baseline, and at third month, sixth month, and 12th month postoperatively. The mean changes in gingival recession from months 3 to 6 and months and 6 to 12 were significant ( < 0.05) in both groups. However, the improvement in recession depth was better in group II than in group I. The mean change in clinical attachment level did not differ significantly between the groups at the different time intervals. However, values tended to be higher in group II than in group I. The width of the keratinized gingiva tended to be higher from baseline to 3 months, baseline to 6 months, baseline to 12 months, 3 to 6 months, and from 6 to 12 months in group II as compared with group I ( > 0.05). Cyanoacrylate could be used as a substitute to silk sutures to stabilize FGGs. Cyanoacrylate was easy to apply, consumed less operating time, and was considered equally efficacious for stabilizing FGGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211011868DOI Listing
May 2021

A Distinct Spin Structure and Giant Baromagnetic Effect in MnNiGe Compounds with Fe-Doping.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 3;143(18):6798-6804. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Spin structure of a magnetic system results from the competition of various exchange couplings. Pressure-driven spin structure evolution, through altering interatomic distance, and hence, electronic structure produces baromagnetic effect (BME), which has potential applications in sensor/actuator field. Here, we report a new spin structure(CyS-AFM) with antiferromagnetic(AFM) nature in Fe-doped MnFeNiGe. Neutron powder diffraction (NPD) under in situ hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field was conducted to reveal the spin configuration and its instabilities. We discovered that a pressure higher than 4 kbar can induce abnormal change of Mn(Fe)-Mn(Fe) distances and transform the CyS-AFM into a conical spiral ferromagnetic(FM) configuration(45°-CoS-FM) with easily magnetized but shortened magnetic moment by as much as 22%. The observed BME far exceeds previous reports. Our first-principles calculations provide theoretical supports for the enhanced BME. The compressed lattice by pressure favors the 45°-CoS-FM and significantly broadened 3d bandwidth of Mn(Fe) atoms, which leads to the shortened magnetic moment and evolution of spin structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c02694DOI Listing
May 2021

Alendronate Alleviated Femoral Head Necrosis and Upregulated BMP2/EIF2AK3/EIF2A/ATF4 Pathway in Liquid Nitrogen Treated Rats.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 23;15:1717-1724. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopedics, Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201199, People's Republic of China.

Background: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) seriously affects the quality of life and labor ability of patients. It is urgent and vital to find the methods for necrosis clinical treatment.

Objective: This study aims to study the potential protective effects of Alendronate in the early stage of femur head necrosis.

Methods: Ten clinal ONFH tissue samples were employed. H&E staining was employed for the observation of the pathological characteristics of ONFH. The rat model (n=12) was established by the treatment of liquid nitrogen and then treated with Alendronate. The protein expression of BMP2, EIF2AK3, EIF2A and ATF4 were detected via Western blotting and IHC.

Results: Fibrin and necrotizing granulation tissue were observed in ONFH tissues with lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltrating in the necrotic area, exhibiting the inflammatory muscle with abnormal shape and color. In the Model group, the BMP2 and ATF4 were mainly distributed in the cell boundaries. The relative protein expression of BMP2, EIF2AK3, EIF2A, ATF4 was decreased in the Model group, compared to the NC group, which was partially recovered by the Alendronate application.

Conclusion: Alendronate application partially reversed the suppression of expression of BMP2, EIF2AK3, EIF2A, ATF4 caused by liquid nitrogen. Alendronate could be a promising strategy of curing ONFH via targeting BMP2/EIF2AK3/EIF2A/ATF4 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S286610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079257PMC
April 2021

Trends in Health Care Utilization and Expenditures in the United States Across 5 Decades: 1977-2017.

Med Care 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Miami Herbert Business School, Coral Gables, FL University of Maryland School of Public Health Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD.

Background: Health care expenditures in the United States are high and rising, with significant increases over the decades. The delivery, organization, and financing of the health care system has evolved over time due to technological innovation, policy changes, patient preferences, altering payment mechanisms, shifting demographics, and other factors.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine trends over time in health care utilization and expenditures in the United States.

Research Design: This analysis employs descriptive statistics to examine 5 decades of health care utilization and expenditure data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) for 1977-2017.

Measures: Measures include utilization and expenditures (not charges) for inpatient, emergency department, outpatient physician, outpatient nonphysician, office-based physician, dental, and out-of-pocket retail prescription drugs.

Results: We demonstrate that while health care expenditures have increased significantly overall and by type of care, utilization trends are less pronounced. The population of the United States grew 53% between 1977 and 2017, while annual total expenditures on health care increased by 208%. Amidst attention to out-of-pocket exposure for unexpected medical care bills, out-of-pocket payments for care have declined from 32% in 1977 to 12% in 2017 but increased in amount.

Conclusions: This article provides the first extended snapshot of the dynamics of health care utilization and expenditures in the United States. Aspects of health care are much different today than in previous decades, yet the inpatient setting still dominates the expenditures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000001557DOI Listing
May 2021

Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Findings Correlate with Pathologic Grades of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Medical Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The correlation of sonographic findings with pathologic grades of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic features in diagnosing the pathologic grade of PNETs. Conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography findings of PNETs diagnosed by surgical pathology from July 2010 to June 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Sonographic features were compared among three pathologic grades of PNETs according to the World Health Organization 2010 classification. Ordinal regression models were constructed to evaluate the usefulness of the sonographic features in diagnosing the pathologic grade of PNETs. This study enrolled 93 participants with PNETs: 50 grade 1, 31 grade 2 and 12 grade 3. Multivariate ordinal regression analysis suggested that tumor size ≥2 cm (odds ratio [OR], 0.110; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.020-0.606; p = 0.011), dilation of the main pancreatic duct (OR, 0.103; 95% CI, 0.025-0.430; p = 0.002), hepatic metastases (OR, 0.250; 95% CI, 0.072-0.869; p = 0.029) and hyper-enhancement in arterial phase (OR, 4.676; 95% CI, 1.656-13.206; p = 0.004) were significantly associated with the pathologic grades of PNETs. The accuracy of the ordinal logistic regression model in identifying grade 1, 2 and 3 PNETs was 77.4%, 67.7% and 90.3%, respectively. The findings suggest that sonographic features, including tumor size, pancreatic duct dilation and hepatic metastasis, as well as the enhancement level in arterial phase, may help identify different pathologic grades of PNETs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.02.013DOI Listing
April 2021

LanCLs add glutathione to dehydroamino acids generated at phosphorylated sites in the proteome.

Cell 2021 May 30;184(10):2680-2695.e26. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; Department of Chemistry and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Electronic address:

Enzyme-mediated damage repair or mitigation, while common for nucleic acids, is rare for proteins. Examples of protein damage are elimination of phosphorylated Ser/Thr to dehydroalanine/dehydrobutyrine (Dha/Dhb) in pathogenesis and aging. Bacterial LanC enzymes use Dha/Dhb to form carbon-sulfur linkages in antimicrobial peptides, but the functions of eukaryotic LanC-like (LanCL) counterparts are unknown. We show that LanCLs catalyze the addition of glutathione to Dha/Dhb in proteins, driving irreversible C-glutathionylation. Chemo-enzymatic methods were developed to site-selectively incorporate Dha/Dhb at phospho-regulated sites in kinases. In human MAPK-MEK1, such "elimination damage" generated aberrantly activated kinases, which were deactivated by LanCL-mediated C-glutathionylation. Surveys of endogenous proteins bearing damage from elimination (the eliminylome) also suggest it is a source of electrophilic reactivity. LanCLs thus remove these reactive electrophiles and their potentially dysregulatory effects from the proteome. As knockout of LanCL in mice can result in premature death, repair of this kind of protein damage appears important physiologically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Specific intracellular binding peptide as sPD-L1 antibody mimic: Robust binding capacity and intracellular region specific modulation upon applied to sensing research.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 23;185:113269. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Center for Molecular Recognition and Biosensing, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, PR China. Electronic address:

Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint has been regarded as a new target for predicting cancer immunotherapy. As a transmembrane protein, PD-L1 has very low blood concentration and is likely to deplete their native activity when separated from the membrane environment due to significant hydrophobic domains, which make it difficult to measure sensitively. The reported PD-L1 aptamers and antibodies are both extracellular region binding molecules with the overlapping binding sites, which seriously limit with the construction of biosensor. Specific intracellular binding peptide (SIBP) as a unique PD-L1 intracellular region homing probe molecule is utilized for specifically capture targets. A simple and sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sandwich assay was constructed to detect serum soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) based on the unique and strong binding ability of SIBP to the intracellular region of sPD-L1. The designed SPR sensor showed great selectivity and wide dynamic response range of sPD-L1 concentration from 10 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. The limit of detection was calculated to be 1.749 ng/mL (S/N = 3). Owing to the SIBP's strong and specific binding ability with sPD-L1, the sensitive sensor can successfully detect sPD-L1 in serum samples, paving the way for the development of efficient test tools for clinical diagnosis and analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113269DOI Listing
April 2021

Protective Effect of n-Butanol Extract from Viola yedoensis on Immunological Liver Injury.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Ningxia Medical University, pharmacy, 1160 Shengli Street, 750004, Yinchuan, CHINA.

Viola yedoensis Makino was used to treat inflammation, viral hepatitis, acute pyogenic infection, and ulcerative carbuncles. However, the protective effect on immunological liver injury (ILI) of V. yedoensis had been rarely reported. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of n -butanol extract (BE) from V. yedoensis on ILI in vitro and in vivo . In vitro , the BE significantly inhibited the secretions of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 cells and the replication of HBV DNA. The research data in vivo revealed that the BE reduced the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) in liver tissues of the ConA-induced mice, while increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and the effective contents of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ), interferon- γ (IFN- γ ) and the BE could ameliorate liver histological lesions. These results motivated a further investigation into the chemical constituents of BE. Four coumarins (esculetin, prionanthoside, cichoriin, and esculin) and one flavonoid (quercetin-3- O -galactoside) were isolated from the BE by silica gel column chromatography and recrystallization, of which structures were eventually confirmed by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202001043DOI Listing
April 2021

The accumulation and effect of rare earth element neodymium on the root of rice seedlings.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Life Sciences, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, 255049, Shandong, China.

Neodymium (Nd) potentially threatens ecological equilibrium for its wide usage in industries. In this study, the accumulation and effect of Nd on roots were investigated in the rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to different concentrations of Nd (0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μM). The toxic effect of Nd on rice growth was observed at the higher concentration, but the positive effects were found at the lower concentration. The accumulation of Nd was present in six different chemical forms, and the insoluble phosphate and oxalate Nd were the major forms of Nd in the roots. In addition, Nd was accumulated in the soluble fractions, organelles, and cell walls of rice seedlings, and the root cell wall was a major Nd sink site. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer spectral analysis indicated that the functional groups of -OH and C-OH were the major binding sites of Nd in the cell wall of roots. Moreover, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) were significantly increased with the increase of Nd concentration. The enhanced antioxidant capacity also played an important role in Nd detoxification of rice seedlings. In all, the results indicated that forming of inactive oxalate or phosphate and efficient sequestration into the root cell wall was a key process in Nd accumulation and detoxification of rice seedlings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14072-5DOI Listing
April 2021