Publications by authors named "Jianguo Zhu"

258 Publications

Conservation planning on China's borders with Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam.

Conserv Biol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, 666303, China.

Transboundary conservation plays an increasingly important role in maintaining ecosystem integrity and halting biodiversity loss caused by anthropogenic activities. Despite forceful appeals for global transboundary conservation, lack of information on species distributions in transboundary regions, and lack of understanding of the major threats in these areas, impairs conservation effectiveness. Here we develop a spatial conservation plan for the transboundary areas between Yunnan province, southwest China, and neighboring Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, in the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot. This plan integrates information on species distribution patterns and recent land-use changes, with an emphasis on the spatio-temporal dynamics of the connected natural forest which supports most species, to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration. We assessed connectivity using the equivalent connected area (ECA), which is the amount of reachable habitat for a species and incorporates both the habitat available within a patch and the amount in other patches within dispersal distance. Analysis of 197,845 locality records for 21,004 plant and vertebrate species shows that the region of Yunnan immediately adjacent to the international borders has the highest richness, with 61% of recorded species, including 56% of threatened vertebrates, suggesting a high conservation priority. Satellite imagery shows that the area of natural forest in the border zone declined by 5.2% (13,255 km ) from 1995 to 2018, while monoculture plantations increased 92.4%, shrubland 10.1%, and other cropland 6.2%. The resulting decline in connected natural forest reduced the habitat available, especially for forest specialists with weak dispersal abilities. The most severe decline in connectivity occurred on the Sino-Vietnamese border. We identify priority areas for conservation and restoration, many of which straddle international boundaries, indicating both demand and potential for establishing transboundary protected areas. Our study encourages bilateral or multilateral cooperation to protect biodiversity in this region and provides guidance for future conservation planning and practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13733DOI Listing
March 2021

Polystyrene microplastics alleviate the effects of sulfamethazine on soil microbial communities at different CO concentrations.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 30;413:125286. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics were reported to adsorb antibiotics and may modify their effects on soil systems. But there has been little research investigating how microplastics may affect the toxicities of antibiotics to microbes under future climate conditions. Here, we used a free-air CO enrichment system to investigate the responses of soil microbes to sulfamethazine (SMZ, 1 mg kg) in the presence of polystyrene microplastics (PS, 5 mg kg) at different CO concentrations (ambient at 380 ppm and elevated at 580 ppm). SMZ alone decreased bacterial diversity, negatively affected the bacterial structure and inter-relationships, and enriched the sulfonamide-resistance genes (sul1 and sul2) and class 1 integron (intl1). PS, at both CO conditions, showed little effect on soil bacteria but markedly alleviated SMZ's adverse effects on bacterial diversity, composition and structure, and inhibited sul1 transmission by decreasing the intl1 abundance. Elevated CO had limited modification in SMZ's disadvantages to microbial communities but markedly decreased the sul1 and sul2 abundance. Results indicated that increasing CO concentration or the presence of PS affected the responses of soil microbes to SMZ, providing new insights into the risk prediction of antibiotics under future climate conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125286DOI Listing
July 2021

Expression and Role of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) in Tumors: From the Cells to the Patients.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 25;13:659-675. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province 550002, People's Republic of China.

() is a secretory antagonist of the classical Wnt signaling pathway. Many studies have reported that is abnormally expressed in tumor cells, and abnormal expression of can inhibit cell proliferation or induce apoptosis through pro-apoptotic factors, However, due to the differences in tumor environment and the complex regulatory mechanisms in different tumors, has different effects on the progression of different tumors. In many tumors, high expression of may promote tumor metastasis. However, , which is highly expressed in other tumors, can inhibit tumor invasion and metastasis. More and more evidence shows that plays a complex and different role in tumor occurrence, development and metastasis in different tumor environments and through a variety of complex regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, may not only be a useful biomarker of metastasis, but also a target for studying the metabolic mechanism of tumor cells and treating tumors in many tumor types. Therefore, this article reviews the research progress on the expression, mechanism and function of in different tumors, and at the same time, based on the public database data, we made a further analysis of the expression of in different tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S275172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847771PMC
January 2021

Association of Total Dietary Intake of Sugars with Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Concentrations: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:4140767. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Urology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province 550002, China.

Background: There is increasing evidence that dietary intake of sugars may be a risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa) and elevate the concentration of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, there is limited evidence of the correlation between total dietary intake of sugars and serum PSA concentrations for adult American males. Herein, we evaluated the association between total dietary intake of sugars and serum PSA concentrations in men without a malignant tumor diagnosis in the United States (US) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. . In this secondary data analysis, a total of 6,403 men aged ≥40 years and without malignant tumor history were included from 2003 to 2010. The independent variable of this study was the total dietary intake of sugars, and the dependent variable was serum PSA concentrations. Covariates included dietary, comorbidity, physical examination, and demographic data.

Results: The average age of participants included in this study was 58.1 years (±13.6). After adjusting for the dietary, comorbidity, physical examination, and demographic data, we observed that a dietary intake increase of one gram of total dietary intake of sugars was associated with an increase of serum PSA concentrations by 0.003 ng/mL (after log2 transformed, 95% CI: 0.001 to 0.005) with a value for trend less than 0.05. Sensitivity analysis using the generalized additive model (GAM) supported the linear association between total dietary intake of sugars and serum PSA concentrations.

Conclusion: The total dietary intake of sugars is independently and positively associated with serum PSA concentrations in adult American males who are without a personal history of malignant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4140767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811566PMC
January 2021

Responses of rice qualitative characteristics to elevated carbon dioxide and higher temperature: implications for global nutrition.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Dec 18. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Protein and some minerals of rice seed are negatively affected by projected carbon dioxide (CO ) levels. However, an in-depth assessment of rice quality that encompasses both CO and temperature for a wide range of nutritional parameters is not available. Using a free-air CO enrichment facility with temperature control, we conducted a field experiment with two levels of CO (ambient; ambient + 200 ppm) and two levels of temperature (ambient; ambient + 1.5 °C). An in-depth examination of qualitative factors indicated a variable nutritional response.

Results: For total protein, albumin, glutelin, and prolamin, elevated CO reduced seed concentrations irrespective of temperature. Similarly, several amino acids declined further as a function of higher temperature and elevated CO relative to elevated CO alone. Higher temperature increased the lipid percentage of seed; however, elevated CO reduced the overall lipid content. At the nutrient elements level, whereas elevated CO reduced certain elements, a combination of CO and temperature could compensate for CO reductions but was element dependent.

Conclusion: Overall, these data are, at present, the most detailed analysis of rising CO /temperature on the qualitative characteristics of rice. They indicate that climate change is likely to significantly impact the nutritional integrity of rice, with subsequent changes in human health on a global basis. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11021DOI Listing
December 2020

Identification of immune-based prostate cancer subtypes using mRNA expression.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jan;41(1)

School of Medicine, Guizhou University, Guizhou, China.

Immune infiltration in Prostate Cancer (PCa) was reported to be strongly associated with clinical outcomes. However, previous research could not elucidate the diversity of different immune cell types that contribute to the functioning of the immune response system. In the present study, the CIBERSORT method was employed to evaluate the relative proportions of immune cell profiling in PCa samples, adjacent tumor samples and normal samples. Three types of molecular classification were identified in tumor samples using the 'CancerSubtypes' package of the R software. Each subtype had specific molecular and clinical characteristics. In addition, functional enrichment was analyzed in each subtype. The submap and Tumor Immune Dysfunction and Exclusion (TIDE) algorithms were also used to predict clinical response to the immune checkpoint blockade. Moreover, the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) database was employed to screen for potential chemotherapeutic targets for the treatment of PCa. The results showed that Cluster I was associated with advanced PCa and was more likely to respond to immunotherapy. The findings demonstrated that differences in immune responses may be important drivers of PCa progression and response to treatment. Therefore, this comprehensive assessment of the 22 immune cell types in the PCa Tumor Environment (TEM) provides insights on the mechanisms of tumor response to immunotherapy and may help clinicians explore the development of new drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20201533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785043PMC
January 2021

Expression profiles revealed potential kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2: a systematic analysis of ACE2 and clinical lessons learned from this discovery.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 11 21;13(8):10821-10832. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guizhou, China.

Background: Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in pneumonia patients in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Based on the current understanding, COVID-19 has become a global issue. Presumably, numerous studies have found that SARS-CoV-2 also transpires in kidney tissue with permanent viral loads. However, it is elusive as to whether SARS-CoV-2 can directly damage the kidney or induce acute renal failure. Hence, to comprehensively understand the impact of COVID-19 on kidney damage, we conducted a retrospective series of case studies to assess kidney functions. Additionally, ACE2 distribution in kidney tissue was analyzed through RNAseq data in open-access databases.

Results: According to the findings from transcriptome analysis, we revealed higher ACE2 expression levels in females than males. Similar results were more noticeable in the elderly than in young adults. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing data analysis showed high ACE2 expression in kidney tubule and collecting duct principal cells as well as glomerular parietal epithelial cells. On their admission, the patient's serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were elevated to between 36.13% and 16.80%, respectively. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) of < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was reported in 10.92 % of the patients. Notably, at admission, increased BUN time varied linearly following the generalized additive mixed model. Thus, the hourly-increase of BUN in patients was 0.495 (95%CI: 0.263, 0.726).

Conclusion: Based on clinical findings, it was ascertained that COVID-19 can damage renal function, but it seldom causes acute renal failure. Coronavirus may directly bind to ACE2-positive cells and damage kidney tissue in the analysis of scRNA-seq data in kidney tissue. Therefore, this evidence suggests that kidney tissue act as the SARS-CoV-2 infection site and the findings could provide insight into the pathophysiology of kidney damage.

Methods: We systematically analyzed ACE2 expression profiles in organs based on open-access datasets for healthy individuals. Meanwhile, single-cell sequencing data for kidney samples were collected and analyzed. Assessments on kidney functions were conducted on 119 selected COVID-19 positive patients admitted from 10 February - 18 March 2020, in hospital in Wuhan City, Hubei Province. Consequently, their clinical records and laboratory findings, such as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine, and Comorbidities, were collected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202224DOI Listing
November 2020

Benefit and risk of adding rivaroxaban in patients with coronary artery disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Jan 21;44(1):20-26. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Although the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration have, respectively, approved rivaroxaban for the prevention of recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with myocardial infarction and stable coronary artery disease, its efficacy and safety is unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the benefit and risk of adding rivaroxaban in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, focusing on treatment effects stratified by different baseline clinical presentations.

Hypothesis: There are differences in treatment effects of adding rivaroxaban among CAD patients with different baseline clinical presentations.

Methods: Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Databases were systematically searched from inception to 21 July 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing rivaroxaban in CAD patients. The primary efficacy endpoint and safety endpoint were assessed by using Mantel-Haenszel pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Five RCTs that included 43 650 patients were identified. Patients receiving rivaroxaban had a significantly lower risk of the primary efficacy endpoint (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.97, p = .01) accompanied by increased risk of the primary safety endpoint (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.10-3.05, p = .02). Subgroup analyses showed that in males the risk-benefit appears to be more favorable while in patients ≥65 years, in females, in patients with diabetes, those with mild to moderate impaired renal function, and region of Asia/other seems unfavorable.

Conclusion: Rivaroxaban may provide an additional choice for secondary prevention in CAD patients. However, careful estimation of the risk of ischemic and bleeding events using patient characteristics are critical to achieving net benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803358PMC
January 2021

Systematic Analysis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Receptor ACE2 in Malignant Tumors: Pan-Cancer Analysis.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 23;7:569414. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Urology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guizhou, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in patients with pneumonia in December 2019 in China and it spread rapidly to the rest of the world becoming a global pandemic. Several observational studies have reported that cancer is a risk factor for COVID-19. On the other hand, ACE2, a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was found to be aberrantly expressed in many tumors. However, the characterization of aberrant ACE2 expression in malignant tumors has not been elucidated. Here, we conducted a systematic analysis of the ACE2 expression profile across 31 types of tumors.

Methods: Distribution of ACE2 expression was analyzed using the GTEx, CCLE, TCGA pan-cancer databases. We evaluated the effect of ACE2 on clinical prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier survival plot and COX regression analysis. Correlation between ACE2 and immune infiltration levels was investigated in various cancer types. Additionally, the correlation between ACE2 and immune neoantigen, TMB, microsatellite instability, Mismatch Repair Genes (MMRs), HLA gene members, and DNA Methyltransferase (DNMT) was investigated. The frequency of ACE2 gene mutation in various tumors was analyzed. Functional enrichment analysis was conducted in various cancer types using the GSEA method.

Results: In normal tissues, ACE2 was highly expressed in almost all 31 organs tested. In cancer cell lines, the expression level of ACE2 was low to medium. Although aberrant expression was observed in most cancer types, high expression of ACE2 was not linked to OS, DFS, RFS, and DFI in most tumors in TCGA pan-cancer data. We found that ACE2 expression was significantly correlated with the infiltrating levels of macrophages and dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells in multiple tumors. A positive correlation between ACE2 expression and immune neoantigen, TMB, and microsatellite instability was found in multiple cancers. GSEA analysis which was carried out to determine the effect of ACE2 on tumors indicated that several cancer-associated pathways and immune-related pathways were hyperactivated in the high ACE2 expression group of most tumors.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that ACE2 is not correlated with prognosis in most cancer types. However, elevated ACE2 is significantly correlated with immune infiltrating levels, including those of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and DCs in multiple cancers, especially in lung and breast cancer patients. These findings suggest that ACE2 may affect the tumor environment in cancer patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.569414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649796PMC
October 2020

Field experiments and model simulation based evaluation of rice yield response to projected climate change in Southeastern China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 28;761:143206. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Evaluating the impact of climate change factors, especially temperature and carbon dioxide (CO), on rice yield is essential to ensure future food security. Because of the wide biogeographical distribution of rice, such evaluations are conducted exclusively through modeling efforts. However, geographical forecasts could, potentially, be improved by the inclusion of field-based data on projected increases in temperature and CO concentration from a given rice-growing region. In this study, the latest version of the ORYZA (v3) crop model was evaluated with additional yield data obtained from a temperature-controlled free-air CO enrichment system (T-FACE) in Southeastern China. ORYZA (v3) results were then evaluated in the context of phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) for representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 using five global change models (GCMs). Our findings indicate that climate change, i.e., inclusion of CO and temperature effects, decreased mean rice yield by 3.5%, and 9.4% for RCP 4.5; and by 10.5 and 47.9% for RCP 8.5 for the scenarios in the 2050s and 2080s, respectively. The CO fertilizer effect partially compensated but did not offset the negative impacts of rising temperature on rice yields. Warmer temperatures were the primary factor that influenced yield by adversely affecting the spikelet fertility factor and spikelet number. Overall, climate change would have positive effects on rice yields until the middle-century in Southeastern China but negative effects were noted by the end of the century. These results may be of interest for informing policy makers and developing appropriate strategies to improve future rice productivity for this region of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143206DOI Listing
March 2021

Xenon Exerts Neuroprotective Effects on Kainic Acid-Induced Acute Generalized Seizures in Rats Increased Autophagy.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 6;14:582872. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, China.

Xenon has been shown to have neuroprotective effects and is clinically used as a favorable safe inhalation anesthetic. We previously confirmed the neuroprotective effects of xenon treatment in epileptic animals. However, the mechanism underlying these protective effects remains unclear. We aimed to assess the effects of xenon inhalation on autophagy in neuronal injury induced by acute generalized seizures. Kainic acid (KA) was injected into the lateral ventricle of male Sprague-Dawley rats to induce acute generalized seizures. Next, the rats were treated inhalation of a 70% xenon/21% oxygen/9% nitrogen mixture for 60 min immediately after KA administration. The control group was treated inhalation of a 79% nitrogen/21% oxygen mixture. Subsequently, two inhibitors (3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A) or an autophagy inducer (rapamycin) were administered, respectively, before KA and xenon administration to determine the role of autophagy in the protective effects of xenon. The levels of apoptosis, neuronal injury, and autophagy were determined in all the rats. Xenon inhalation significantly attenuated the severity of the seizure-induced neuronal injury. Increased autophagy accompanied this inhibitive effect. Autophagy inhibition eliminated these xenon neuroprotective effects. A simulation of autophagy using rapamycin recapitulated xenon's protective effects on KA-induced acute generalized seizures in the rats. These findings confirmed that xenon exerts strong neuroprotective effects in KA-induced acute generalized seizures. Further, they indicate that increased autophagy may underlie the protective effects of xenon. Therefore, xenon and autophagy inducers may be useful clinical options for their neuroprotective effects in epileptic seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.582872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573545PMC
October 2020

Leaf characteristics of rice cultivars with a stronger yield response to projected increases in CO concentration.

Physiol Plant 2021 Mar 5;171(3):416-423. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO ) could, potentially, be exploited as a means to increase seed yield and maintain food security, especially for cereal grains. Although there have been multiple cultivar trials indicating that significant yield variation occurs, the basis for these differences has not been entirely elucidated. Here, we focus on two rice cultivars that differed in field trials to their yield sensitivity to elevated CO : Yangdao6hao (YD6), and Wuyunjing23 (W23) to assess whether observed yield differences (YD6 > W23) were associated with concurrent changes in leaf-level characteristics. At ambient levels of CO , leaf net photosynthesis (A) of YD6 was compatible with that of W23. However, at elevated CO , A was higher for YD6 relative to W23. The stability of leaf Rubisco content, biochemical characteristics (V and J ), nitrogen enzymatic activity, and chlorophyll concentration differed significantly, with greater values observed for YD6 relative to W23 at elevated CO . While such results are consistent with other studies, we also demonstrate that a higher ratio of carbon sinks (seed) to carbon sources (leaf), were linked to increases in cytokinins, and slower flag leaf senescence for the YD6 relative to the W23 cultivar at elevated CO . While additional data for a broader genetic selection are needed, the current study suggests a link between source/sink carbon assimilation, maintenance of photosynthetic biochemistry, and slower leaf senescence for rice cultivars that show a stronger yield response to projected CO levels. This information, in turn, may provide suitable metrics for future CO selection among rice cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13246DOI Listing
March 2021

Elevated atmospheric CO reduces yield-scaled N O fluxes from subtropical rice systems: Six site-years field experiments.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jan 15;27(2):327-339. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Nanjing Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, P.R. China.

Increasing levels of atmospheric CO are expected to enhance crop yields and alter soil greenhouse gas fluxes from rice paddies. While elevated CO ( ) effects on CH emissions from rice paddies have been studied in some detail, little is known how might affect N O fluxes or yield-scaled emissions. Here, we report on a multi-site, multi-year in-situ FACE (free-air CO enrichment) study, aiming to determine N O fluxes and crop yields from Chinese subtropical rice systems as affected by . In this study, we tested various N fertilization and residue addition treatments, with rice being grown under either (+200 μmol/mol) or ambient control. Across the six site-years, rice straw and grain yields under were increased by 9%-40% for treatments fertilized with ≥150 kg N/ha, while seasonal N O emissions were decreased by 23%-73%. Consequently, yield-scaled N O emissions were significantly lower under . For treatments receiving insufficient fertilization (≤125 kg N/ha), however, no significant effects on N O emissions were observed. The mitigating effect of upon N O emissions is closely associated with plant N uptake and a reduction of soil N availability. Nevertheless, increases in yield-scaled N O emissions with increasing N surplus suggests that N surplus is a useful indicator for assessing N O emissions from rice paddies. Our findings indicate that with rising atmospheric CO soil N O emissions from rice paddies will decrease, given that the farmers' N fertilization is usually sufficient for crop growth. The expected decrease in N O emissions was calculated to compensate 24% of the simultaneously observed increase in CH emissions under . This shows that for an agronomic and environmental assessment of effects on rice systems, not only CH emissions, but also N O fluxes and yield-scaled emissions need to be considered for identifying most climate-friendly and economically viable options for future rice production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15410DOI Listing
January 2021

How do elevated atmosphere CO and temperature alter the physiochemical properties of starch granules and rice taste?

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;766:142592. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology/Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Elevated atmospheric CO (EC) and temperature (ET) strongly affect agricultural production, but the mechanism through which EC and/or ET influence starch granules and their relationship to cooked rice taste remain largely unknown. Therefore, a field experiment using a popular japonica cultivar grown in a temperature/free-air CO enrichment environment was conducted to investigate the responses of volume and fine structure of starch granules and their formation physiology to EC (+200 ppm) and/or ET (+1 °C) in 2015-2016. EC markedly enhanced the activity of soluble-starch synthase and granule-bound starch synthase by 28.0% and 27.9% respectively, thereby increasing the long chains and the volume of starch granules. However, EC decreased the activity of starch-branch enzyme by 7.5% possibly via the pathway of ethylene signalling (EC prominently decreased the ethylene evolution rate of rice grains by 28.8%), resulting in a remarkable decrease in α-1'6 glucosidic bonds and significant increase in the iodine-binding capacity and double helix in starch molecules. These EC-induced changes in morphology and fine structure of starch granules synergistically altered the thermal properties of rice flour and eventually improved the cohesiveness and taste of cooked rice, as suggested by the significant relationships between them. ET partially offset the beneficial EC effects in most cases. However, few remarkable CO × temperature or CO × year effects were detected, indicating that the effects of EC on starch granules and rice taste less varied with meteorological conditions. These findings have important implications on rice palatability and for the development of adaptive strategies in the starch industry in future environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142592DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficient catalytic reduction of highly toxic aqueous Cr(VI) with Fe@CBC/Pd composites at room temperature.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 16;28(7):8569-8575. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Chemicobiology and Functional Materials, Institute of Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiao Ling Wei 200, Nanjing, 210094, China.

We report a facile approach to fabricating catalytic active palladium nanoparticles (NPs) immobilized on Fe-loaded carbonized bacterial cellulose nanofibers (Fe@CBC) for the catalytic reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at room temperature. The formed nanofiber composites (Fe@CBC/Pd) was investigated by various physicochemical characterization and its catalytic activity, and reusability were evaluated as well. The results demonstrated that the Fe@CBC/Pd exhibited favorable catalytic activity for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the presence of HCOOH. Moreover, the catalyst could be easily recovered from reaction system in a facile manner and recycled four times without obvious loss in activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11095-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Large losses of ammonium-nitrogen from a rice ecosystem under elevated CO.

Sci Adv 2020 Oct 16;6(42). Epub 2020 Oct 16.

MOE Key Laboratory of Biosystems Homeostasis & Protection, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Inputs of nitrogen into terrestrial ecosystems, mainly via the use of ammonium-based fertilizers in agroecosystems, are enormous, but the fate of this nitrogen under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO) is not well understood. We have taken advantage of a 15-year free-air CO enrichment study to investigate the influence of elevated CO on the transformation of ammonium-nitrogen in a rice ecosystem in which ammonium is usually assumed to be stable under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrate that elevated CO causes substantial losses of ammonium-nitrogen that result from anaerobic oxidation of ammonium coupled to reduction of iron. We identify a new autotrophic member of the bacterial order Burkholderiales that may use soil CO as a carbon source to couple anaerobic ammonium oxidation and iron reduction. These findings offer insight into the coupled cycles of nitrogen and iron in terrestrial ecosystems and raise questions about the loss of ammonium-nitrogen from arable soils under future climate-change scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb7433DOI Listing
October 2020

KIF4A: A potential biomarker for prediction and prognostic of prostate cancer.

Clin Invest Med 2020 Sep 24;43(3):E49-59. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Urology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Clinical Molecular Medicine and Diagnostics, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To investigate the clinical relevance and biological function of the kinesin super-family protein 4A (KIF4A) expression in prostate cancer (PCa).

Methods: We examined 1) the relationship between the expression of KIF4A and clinico-pathological characteristics of PCa patients using a tissue microarray and the Cancer Genome Atlas database, 2) the prognostic value of KIF4A expression in patients using Kaplan-Meier plots and 3) the functions of KIF4A in LNCaP and DU145 cells, such as cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell apoptosis.

Results: Compared with normal prostate, the mRNA and protein expressions of KIF4A were up-regulated in PCa. The up-regulation expression rates of KIF4A in PCa were significantly related to the Gleason score (P.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25011/cim.v43i3.34393DOI Listing
September 2020

Differentiation of usual vertebral compression fractures using CT histogram analysis as quantitative biomarkers: A proof-of-principle study.

Eur J Radiol 2020 Oct 1;131:109264. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

The Second Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nan Jing, China; Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nan Jing, China.

Purpose: To investigate the utility of CT histogram analysis (CTHA) for discrimination of traumatic, osteoporotic and malignant fractures in patients with vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of CTHA in differentiating non-malignant (traumatic and osteoporotic) from malignant VCFs.

Materials And Methods: Totally, 235 patients with VCFs were enrolled in the current experimental study. There were 132 patients with traumatic VCFs, 51 with osteoporotic VCFs and 52 with malignant VCFs, with MRI and histology as the standard references. All the patients underwent unenhanced CT scans. Nineteen histogram-based parameters were derived using Omni-Kinetics software (Omni-Kinetics, GE Healthcare). The reproducibility of those parameters was evaluated using two independent delineations conducted by two observers. These histogram parameters were compared among the three different VCFs using Kruskal-Wallis H test. Traumatic VCFs and osteoporotic VCFs were combined as non-malignant VCFs and compared with malignant VCFs using Mann-Whitney U test Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed on the significantly different features and built a diagnosis model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was carried out to observe the difference of diagnostic performance between the single positive parameter and the combination of parameters.

Results: All the 19 parameters presented excellent reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficient values from 0.789 to 0.997. At quantitative evaluation, the best predictive histogram parameters in discrimination of the three different types of VCFs were relative min intensity (p = 0.022), relative entropy (p = 0.043), and relative frequency size (p < 0.001). Relative frequency size (p < 0.001) and relative quantile5 (p = 0.012) resulted in statistically significant difference between non-malignant and malignant VCFs. The area under ROC curve indicated that relative frequency size combined with relative quantile5 (0.754; 95 % confidence intervals: 0.661∼0.829; p < 0.001) was of best performance in differentiating malignant from non-malignant VCFs.

Conclusions: Our results are encouraging and suggest that histogram parameters derived from unenhanced CT could be reliable quantitative biomarkers for diff ;erential diagnosis of usual VCFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109264DOI Listing
October 2020

Elevated CO concentration modifies the effects of organic fertilizer substitution on rice yield and soil ARGs.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 23;754:141898. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Antibiotic resistance and rising CO levels are considered among the most significant challenges we will face in terms of global development over the following decades. However, the impact of elevated CO on soil antibiotic resistance has rarely been investigated. We used a free-air CO enrichment system to investigate the potential risks posed by applying mineral and organic fertilizers to paddy soil at current CO concentration (370 ppm) and future elevated CO (eCO, 570 ppm predicted for 2100). Organic fertilizer substitution (substituting the mineral fertilizer by 50% N) alone increased the plant uptake and soil residue of sulfamethazine, and enriched sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2), tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM) and class 1 integron (intl1). But it decreased the rice grain yield (by 7.6%). Comparatively, eCO decreased the sul2, tetG and intl1 gene abundances by organic fertilizer substitution, and meanwhile increased grain yield (by 8.4%). Proteobacteria and Nitrospirae were potential hosts of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Horizontal gene transfer via intl1 may play an important role in ARGs spread under eCO. Results indicated that future elevated CO concentration could modify the effects of organic fertilizer substitution on rice yield and soil ARGs, with unknown implications for future medicine and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141898DOI Listing
February 2021

Extended application of genomic selection to screen multiomics data for prognostic signatures of prostate cancer.

Brief Bioinform 2020 Sep 8. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

University of California, Riverside, USA.

Prognostic tests using expression profiles of several dozen genes help provide treatment choices for prostate cancer (PCa). However, these tests require improvement to meet the clinical need for resolving overtreatment, which continues to be a pervasive problem in PCa management. Genomic selection (GS) methodology, which utilizes whole-genome markers to predict agronomic traits, was adopted in this study for PCa prognosis. We leveraged The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to evaluate the prediction performance of six GS methods and seven omics data combinations, which showed that the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) model outperformed the other methods regarding predictability and computational efficiency. Leveraging the BLUP-HAT method, an accelerated version of BLUP, we demonstrated that using expression data of a large number of disease-relevant genes and with an integration of other omics data (i.e. miRNAs) significantly increased outcome predictability when compared with panels consisting of a small number of genes. Finally, we developed a novel stepwise forward selection BLUP-HAT method to facilitate searching multiomics data for predictor variables with prognostic potential. The new method was applied to the TCGA data to derive mRNA and miRNA expression signatures for predicting relapse-free survival of PCa, which were validated in six independent cohorts. This is a transdisciplinary adoption of the highly efficient BLUP-HAT method and its derived algorithms to analyze multiomics data for PCa prognosis. The results demonstrated the efficacy and robustness of the new methodology in developing prognostic models in PCa, suggesting a potential utility in managing other types of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbaa197DOI Listing
September 2020

Immunogenomic Profiling and Classification of Prostate Cancer Based on HIF-1 Signaling Pathway.

Front Oncol 2020 6;10:1374. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Medical College, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China.

The HIF-1 signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Many studies have explored the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) under hypoxic conditions based on transcriptome data; few have uncovered the immunogenomic profiling and prostate cancer classification based on the HIF-1 signaling pathway. This pathway may help to identify the optimal subset of PCa patients responsive to immunotherapy/chemotherapy. The immunogenomic PCa subsets were classified based on profiling of the HIF-1 signaling pathway, using four publicly available PCa datasets. Three PCa subtypes that named as HIF-1 High (HIF-1_H), HIF-1 Medium (HIF-1_M), and HIF-1 Low (HIF-1_L) were identified. Functional enrichment was analyzed in each subtype. Several cancer-associated and immune-related pathways were hyperactivated in the HIF-1_H subtypes. In contrast, HIF-1_L subtypes were enriched in cell cycle and cell repair. Compared with other subtypes, HIF-1_H subtypes have greater immune cell infiltration, anti-tumor immune activity, and better survival prognosis. The submap and TIDE algorithm were used to predict the clinical response to immune checkpoint blockade, and GDSC was employed to screen potential chemotherapeutic targets for the treatment of PCa. Several chemotherapy drugs were identified in the GDSC dataset, including ABT 888, Temsirolimus, and EHT 1864. Meanwhile, HIF-1_H was defined as an early PCa marker, which is more likely to respond to immunotherapy. The identification of immunogenomic PCa subtypes based on the HIF-1 signaling pathway has potential clinical implications for PCa treatment. Immunopositive PCa subtypes will help to explore the reasons for the poor response of PCa to immunotherapy, and it is expected that immunotherapy will guide the personalized treatment of PCa patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425731PMC
August 2020

Efficient X-ray Attenuation Lead-Free AgBiI Halide Rudorffite Alternative for Sensitive and Stable X-ray Detection.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Oct 9;11(19):7939-7945. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China.

The poor attenuation capability of high-energy X-ray photons hinders the application of X-ray detectors in medical and astrophysical areas. Halide-based perovskites are promising candidates for X-ray detection because of their improved sensitivity. However, their inferior attenuation coefficient is still unsatisfactory for broadband X-ray detection. Here, a new kind of X-ray detection material, AgBiI rudorffite single crystal (SC), is prepared and applied in X-ray detection for the first time, and it shows a higher attenuation coefficient than halide-based perovskites, commercialized a-Se, and the currently outstanding CdZnTe (CZT). The AgBiI rudorffite SCs possess outstanding electric properties and excellent stability. AgBiI-SC detectors demonstrate a limit of detection (LoD) of 72 nGy s and a sensitivity of 282.5 μC Gycm to X-rays and show only a slight performance degradation after ontinuous X-ray irradiation with a total dose of 58 Gy. This work opens up a new perspective and broad opportunities for halide rudorffite in X-ray detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02343DOI Listing
October 2020

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy vs. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Renal Stones Larger than 2cm in Patients with a Solitary Kidney: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis.

Urol J 2020 07 28;17(5):442-448. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Urology, Guizhou provincial people's hospital, Guiyang, China.

Purpose: The safety and feasibility of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are debated. This systematic evaluation was performed to obtain comprehensive evidence with regard to the treatment outcomes of PCNL compared with RIRS for management of renal stones in patients with solitary kidney.

Material And Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Web of Science, CNKI, Scopus and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify studies that compared PCNL with RIRS for management of renal stones in patients with solitary kidney and published up to Aug 2019. Outcomes of interest included perioperative variables, complications, and stone-free rate (SFR).

Results: Four studies assessing PCNL vs. RIRS for renal stones larger than 2cm were included for meta-analysis. Although patients underwent PCNL have higher initial SFR than RIRS (OR: 3.72, 95% CI:2.38 to 5.83; P<0.001), patients underwent RIRS have less intraoperative blood loss (dropped Hb: WMD= 3.49 g/L, 95% CI:2.83 to 4.15; P<0.001), lower blood transfusion rates (OR= 5.31, 95% CI:1.36 to 20.68; P=0.02), and higher incidence rate of steinstrasse (OR:0.20, 95% CI:0.04 to 0.91; P=0.04). All the other calculated results including operation time (WMD: -9.87 minute, 95% CI:-30.11 to 10.37; P=0.34), final SFR (OR:1.65, 95% CI:0.80 to 3.42;P=0.18) and overall complications (OR:1.22, 95% CI:0.78 to 1.93; P=0.38) are similar between the two groups.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that PCNL has higher initial SFR than RIRS in the treatment of renal stones larger than 2cm in patients with a solitary kidney, the overall complications were similar in both groups. However, RIRS, with less blood loss and transfusion rate, may be an alternative in selected patients. But we need to pay more attention to the incidence rate of steinstrasse after RIRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v16i7.5609DOI Listing
July 2020

Dietary phosphorus intake and serum prostate-specific antigen in non-prostate cancer American adults: A secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2020 ;29(2):322-333

Department of Urology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, China. Email:

Background And Objectives: Previous study has reported phosphorus intake is associated prostate cancer (PCa), but the association between phosphorus intake and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels hasn't been reported in non-history of PCa population. Therefore, we performed a secondary data analysis based on existing data from the public Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2003-2010) database.

Methods And Study Design: Totally 6403 participants were selected from NHANES (2003-2010) database. The interested independent and dependent variables were considered as dietary phosphorus intake and PSA level, respectively. Covariates included demographic data, dietary data, physical examination data, and comorbidities. Weighted linear regression and generalized additive models were used to addressing the linear and non-linear link of phosphorus intake to PSA level.

Results: Linear association between phosphorus intake and PSA was not detected [β=0.016 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.012, 0.045)]. But we found an existing nonlinearity. By the recursive algorithm, the inflection point was 1151 mg. On the left side of the inflection point, we did not find the correlation between dietary phosphorus intake (per 100 change) and PSA level [β=-0.04 (95% CI -0.11, 0.02), p=0.2155], while dietary phosphorus intake (per 100 change) positively associated with PSA [β=0.05 (95% CI 0.01, 0.09) p=0.0293] on the right side of inflection point.

Conclusions: There is a non-linear correlation between dietary phosphorus intake and PSA. Dietary phosphorus intake was positively associated with increased PSA when dietary phosphorus intake is beyond 1151 mg after adjusting other covariates. Over 1151 mg per day dietary phosphorus intake may be the risk factor for PSA increasing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.202007_29(2).0015DOI Listing
May 2021

Inference of Chromosome-Length Haplotypes Using Genomic Data of Three or a Few More Single Gametes.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 12;37(12):3684-3698

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA.

Compared with genomic data of individual markers, haplotype data provide higher resolution for DNA variants, advancing our knowledge in genetics and evolution. Although many computational and experimental phasing methods have been developed for analyzing diploid genomes, it remains challenging to reconstruct chromosome-scale haplotypes at low cost, which constrains the utility of this valuable genetic resource. Gamete cells, the natural packaging of haploid complements, are ideal materials for phasing entire chromosomes because the majority of the haplotypic allele combinations has been preserved. Therefore, compared with the current diploid-based phasing methods, using haploid genomic data of single gametes may substantially reduce the complexity in inferring the donor's chromosomal haplotypes. In this study, we developed the first easy-to-use R package, Hapi, for inferring chromosome-length haplotypes of individual diploid genomes with only a few gametes. Hapi outperformed other phasing methods when analyzing both simulated and real single gamete cell sequencing data sets. The results also suggested that chromosome-scale haplotypes may be inferred by using as few as three gametes, which has pushed the boundary to its possible limit. The single gamete cell sequencing technology allied with the cost-effective Hapi method will make large-scale haplotype-based genetic studies feasible and affordable, promoting the use of haplotype data in a wide range of research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7743722PMC
December 2020

Prevalence and risk factors of small airway dysfunction, and association with smoking, in China: findings from a national cross-sectional study.

Lancet Respir Med 2020 11 26;8(11):1081-1093. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China and Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Small airway dysfunction is a common but neglected respiratory abnormality. Little is known about its prevalence, risk factors, and prognostic factors in China or anywhere else in the world. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of small airway dysfunction using spirometry before and after bronchodilation, both overall and in specific population subgroups; assess its association with a range of lifestyle and environmental factors (particularly smoking); and estimate the burden of small airway dysfunction in China.

Methods: From June, 2012, to May, 2015, the nationally representative China Pulmonary Health study invited 57 779 adults to participate using a multistage stratified sampling method from ten provinces (or equivalent), and 50 479 patients with valid lung function testing results were included in the analysis. We diagnosed small airway dysfunction on the basis of at least two of the following three indicators of lung function being less than 65% of predicted: maximal mid-expiratory flow, forced expiratory flow (FEF) 50%, and FEF 75%. Small airway dysfunction was further categorised into pre-small airway dysfunction (defined as having normal FEV and FEV/forced vital capacity [FVC] ratio before bronchodilator inhalation), and post-small airway dysfunction (defined as having normal FEV and FEV/FVC ratio both before and after bronchodilator inhalation). Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for small airway dysfunction associated with smoking and other lifestyle and environmental factors. We further estimated the total number of cases of small airway dysfunction in China by applying present study findings to national census data.

Findings: Overall the prevalence of small airway dysfunction was 43·5% (95% CI 40·7-46·3), pre-small airway dysfunction was 25·5% (23·6-27·5), and post-small airway dysfunction was 11·3% (10·3-12·5). After multifactor regression analysis, the risk of small airway dysfunction was significantly associated with age, gender, urbanisation, education level, cigarette smoking, passive smoking, biomass use, exposure to high particulate matter with a diameter less than 2·5 μm (PM) concentrations, history of chronic cough during childhood, history of childhood pneumonia or bronchitis, parental history of respiratory diseases, and increase of body-mass index (BMI) by 5 kg/m. The ORs for small airway dysfunction and pre-small airway dysfunction were similar, whereas larger effect sizes were generally seen for post-small airway dysfunction than for either small airway dysfunction or pre-small airway dysfunction. For post-small airway dysfunction, cigarette smoking, exposure to PM, and increase of BMI by 5 kg/m were significantly associated with increased risk, among preventable risk factors. There was also a dose-response association between cigarette smoking and post-small airway dysfunction among men, but not among women. We estimate that, in 2015, 426 (95% CI 411-468) million adults had small airway dysfunction, 253 (238-278) million had pre-small airway dysfunction, and 111 (104-126) million had post-small airway dysfunction in China.

Interpretation: In China, spirometry-defined small airway dysfunction is highly prevalent, with cigarette smoking being a major modifiable risk factor, along with PM exposure and increase of BMI by 5 kg/m. Our findings emphasise the urgent need to develop and implement effective primary and secondary prevention strategies to reduce the burden of this condition in the general population.

Funding: Ministry of Science and Technology of China; National Natural Science Foundation of China; National Health Commission of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30155-7DOI Listing
November 2020

Robust Fabrication of Hybrid Lead-Free Perovskite Pellets for Stable X-ray Detectors with Low Detection Limit.

Adv Mater 2020 Aug 26;32(31):e2001981. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Sichuan Research Center of New Materials, Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu, 610200, China.

X-ray detectors are widely utilized in medical diagnostics and nondestructive product inspection. Halide perovskites are recently demonstrated as excellent candidates for direct X-ray detection. However, it is still challenging to obtain high quality perovskites with millimeter-thick over a large area for high performance, stable X-ray detectors. Here, methylammonium bismuth iodide (MA Bi I ) polycrystalline pellets (PPs) are developed by a robust, cost effective, and scalable cold isostatic-pressing for fabricating X-ray detectors with low limit of detection (LoD) and superior operational stability. The MA Bi I -PPs possess a high resistivity of 2.28 × 10 Ω cm and low dark carrier concentration of ≈10 cm , and balanced mobility of ≈2 cm V s for electrons and holes. These merits enable a sensitivity of 563 μC Gy cm , a detection efficiency of 28.8%, and an LoD of 9.3 nGy s for MA Bi I -PPs detectors, and the LoD is much lower than the dose rate required for X-ray diagnostics used currently (5.5 μGy s ). In addition, the MA Bi I -PPs detectors work stably under high working bias field up to 2000 V cm after sensing an integrated dose >320 Gy with continuous X-ray radiation, demonstrating its competitive advantage in practical application. These findings provide an approach to explore a new generation of low LoD, stable and green X-ray detectors based on MA Bi I -PPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202001981DOI Listing
August 2020

A novel 3',5'-diprenylated chalcone induces concurrent apoptosis and GSDME-dependent pyroptosis through activating PKCδ/JNK signal in prostate cancer.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 05 19;12(10):9103-9124. Epub 2020 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550014, P.R. China.

Although androgen deprivation therapy may initially be effective in prostate cancer, the disease can gradually progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer, at which point chemotherapy becomes the major clinical strategy. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-cancer potential of a novel 3',5'-diprenylated chalcone (C10), which selectively inhibited the proliferation of PC3 cells and . C10 treatment elevated the proportion of PC3 cells in sub-G1 phase and induced programmed cell death. Interestingly, C10 elicited concurrent Caspase-dependent apoptotic and gasdermin E-dependent pyroptotic events. RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses revealed a strong correlation between protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation in prostate cancer. PKCδ silencing in PC3 cells suppressed the activation of the JNK pathway and the expression of its downstream genes, including Bax, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β, which are involved in apoptotic and pyroptotic processes. Moreover, in PC3 cell xenograft tumor tissues, C10 treatment inhibited tumor growth and upregulated PKCδ. These findings suggest that C10 treatment induces the PKCδ/JNK pathway, thereby activating Caspase-3 and inducing the cleavage of PARP and gasdermin E to execute apoptosis and cell-lytic pyroptosis in prostate cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288973PMC
May 2020

Is there a non-linear relationship between dietary protein intake and prostate-specific antigen: proof from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003-2010).

Lipids Health Dis 2020 May 2;19(1):82. Epub 2020 May 2.

Department of Urology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, 550001, Guizhou, China.

Background: Growing evidence demonstrated that dietary protein intake may be a risk factor for prostate cancer and elevate the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, proof for the correlation between dietary protein intake and PSA in American adults without prostate tumor history is limited. Our goal was to investigate the association of dietary protein intake with PSA using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2003-2010) database.

Methods: After the screening, 6403 participants were included in the study. The interested independent is the dietary protein intake, and the dependent variable is PSA levels, the covariates included demographic, dietary, biological data, and physical examination variables. A weighted linear model and a weighted linear regression model were used to examine the distribution of variables in the covariate differences between the different independent groups according to quartiles. Four models were used to survey the association between dietary protein intake and PSA. We also attempted to find a nonlinear relationship between dietary protein intake and PSA using the GAM model and the penalty spline method and further solved the nonlinear problem using weighted two-piecewise linear model.

Results: The weighted multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that dietary protein intake was not independently associated with PSA levels after adjusting potential confounders (β = 0.015, 95%CI:-0.024, 0.055). However, we found the non-linear relationship between dietary protein intake and PSA, whose point was 18.18 g (per 10 g change). The magnitude and confidence intervals for the left and right inflection points are - 0.03 (- 0.09, 0.02) and 0.22 (0.07, 0.36), respectively. On the right side of the inflection point, one gram of increment in protein intake was associated with increased PSA levels by 0.22 (log2 transformation: 0.22, 95%CI: 0.07, 0.36).

Conclusions: After adjusting for potential covariates, the non-linear correlation between dietary protein intake and PSA was observed. When dietary protein intake exceeded the threshold of 181.8 g, dietary protein intake was positively correlated with elevated PSA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01234-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195731PMC
May 2020

A fast chemical oxidation method for predicting the long-term mineralization of biochar in soils.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 19;718:137390. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.71, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Biochar stability determines the effectiveness of biochar's functions such as carbon sequestration, soil structure improvement, soil fertility enhancement and soil pollution remediation. However, a fast method for accurately predicting biochar long-term stability in soil remains elusive. Here, firstly, an incubation experiment was conducted on mineralization dynamics of different C-labelled biochars over 368 days to explore their actual mineralization in soils and establish their mineralization model. Thereafter, ten treatments of fast chemical oxidation methods using KCrO (0.1 M) with different H concentrations and oxidation times were applied to the biochars to reveal which method best matches the mineralization of biochar in soils. Results showed that the percentage of biochar‑carbon oxidized by the solution containing 0.1 M KCrO and 0.2 M H at 100 °C for 2 h was in accordance with the one that potentially would be mineralized in soils at a 100-year scale (R > 0.99; REMS = 2.53; RD = 15.3). The results provided a chemical oxidation method that was robust, effective, low cost and highly available for measuring the long-term stability of biochar in soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137390DOI Listing
May 2020