Publications by authors named "Jesse J Aarden"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Longitudinal Changes in Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength, and Physical Performance in Acutely Hospitalized Older Adults.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 04 8;22(4):839-845.e1. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Centre of Expertise Urban Vitality, Faculty of Health, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Amsterdam UMC, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Acute hospitalization may lead to a decrease in muscle measures, but limited studies are reporting on the changes after discharge. The aim of this study was to determine longitudinal changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in acutely hospitalized older adults from admission up to 3 months post-discharge.

Design: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted.

Setting And Participants: This study included 401 participants aged ≥70 years who were acutely hospitalized in 6 hospitals. All variables were assessed at hospital admission, discharge, and 1 and 3 months post-discharge.

Methods: Muscle mass in kilograms was assessed by multifrequency Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis (MF-BIA) (Bodystat; Quadscan 4000) and muscle strength by handgrip strength (JAMAR). Chair stand and gait speed test were assessed as part of the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Norm values were based on the consensus statement of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People.

Results: A total of 343 acute hospitalized older adults were included in the analyses with a mean (SD) age of 79.3 (6.6) years, 49.3% were women. From admission up to 3 months post-discharge, muscle mass (-0.1 kg/m; P = .03) decreased significantly and muscle strength (-0.5 kg; P = .08) decreased nonsignificantly. The chair stand (+0.7 points; P < .001) and gait speed test (+0.9 points; P < .001) improved significantly up to 3 months post-discharge. At 3 months post-discharge, 80%, 18%, and 43% of the older adults scored below the cutoff points for muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, respectively.

Conclusions And Implications: Physical performance improved during and after acute hospitalization, although muscle mass decreased, and muscle strength did not change. At 3 months post-discharge, muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance did not reach normative levels on a population level. Further research is needed to examine the role of exercise interventions for improving muscle measures and physical performance after hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.006DOI Listing
April 2021

Usability and Preliminary Effectiveness of a Preoperative mHealth App for People Undergoing Major Surgery: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 01 7;9(1):e23402. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Major surgery is associated with negative postoperative outcomes such as complications and delayed or poor recovery. Multimodal prehabilitation can help to reduce the negative effects of major surgery. Offering prehabilitation by means of mobile health (mHealth) could be an effective new approach.

Objective: The objectives of this pilot study were to (1) evaluate the usability of the Be Prepared mHealth app prototype for people undergoing major surgery, (2) explore whether the app was capable of bringing about a change in risk behaviors, and (3) estimate a preliminary effect of the app on functional recovery after major surgery.

Methods: A mixed-methods pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in two Dutch academic hospitals. In total, 86 people undergoing major surgery participated. Participants in the intervention group received access to the Be Prepared app, a smartphone app using behavior change techniques to address risk behavior prior to surgery. Both groups received care as usual. Usability (System Usability Scale), change in risk behaviors 3 days prior to surgery, and functional recovery 30 days after discharge from hospital (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System physical functioning 8-item short form) were assessed using online questionnaires. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and multivariable linear regression. Semistructured interviews about the usability of the app were conducted with 12 participants in the intervention group. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data.

Results: Seventy-nine people-40 in the intervention group and 39 in the control group-were available for further analysis. Participants had a median age of 61 (interquartile range 51.0-68.0) years. The System Usability Scale showed that patients considered the Be Prepared app to have acceptable usability (mean 68.2 [SD 18.4]). Interviews supported the usability of the app. The major point of improvement identified was further personalization of the app. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed an increase in self-reported physical activity and muscle strengthening activities prior to surgery. Also, 2 of 2 frequent alcohol users in the intervention group versus 1 of 9 in the control group drank less alcohol in the run-up to surgery. No difference was found in change of smoking cessation. Between-group analysis showed no meaningful differences in functional recovery after correction for baseline values (β=-2.4 [95% CI -5.9 to 1.1]).

Conclusions: The Be Prepared app prototype shows potential in terms of usability and changing risk behavior prior to major surgery. No preliminary effect of the app on functional recovery was found. Points of improvement have been identified with which the app and future research can be optimized.

Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Registry NL8623; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8623.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/23402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819776PMC
January 2021

The longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and functional abilities in older patients.

J Psychosom Res 2020 Jul 23;137:110195. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; ACHIEVE - Center of Applied Research, Faculty of Health, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the course of depressive symptoms, and basic and instrumental activities of daily living (collectively described as, (I)ADL functioning) from acute admission until one year post-discharge, the longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and (I)ADL functioning, and to disaggregate between- and within-person effects to examine whether changes in depressive symptoms are associated with changes in (I)ADL functioning.

Methods: Prospective multicenter cohort of acutely hospitalized patients aged ≥70. Data gathered over a one-year period were assessed using validated measures of depressive symptoms (GDS-15) and physical functioning (Katz-ADL index). A Poisson mixed model analysis was used to examine the association between the courses and a hybrid model was used to disentangle between- and within-subject effects.

Results: The analytic sample included 398 patients (mean age = 79.6 years, SD = 6.6). Results showed an improvement in depressive symptoms and physical functions over time, whereby changes in depressive symptoms were significantly associated with the course of ADL function (rate ratio (RR) = 0.91, p < .001) and IADL function (RR = 0.94, p < .001), even after adjustment for confounding variables. Finally, both between- and within-person effects of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with the course of ADL function (between-person: RR = 0.85, p < .001; within-person: RR = 0.94, p < .001) and IADL function (between-person: RR = 0.87, p < .001; within-person: RR = 0.97, p < .001).

Conclusion: The course of depressive symptoms and physical functions improved over time, whereby changes in depressive symptoms were significantly associated with changes in physical functions, both at group and individual level. These changes in (I)ADL functioning lie mostly above the estimated minimally important change for both scales, implying clinically relevant changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110195DOI Listing
July 2020

Factors Associated with Step Numbers in Acutely Hospitalized Older Adults: The Hospital-Activities of Daily Living Study.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 02 23;22(2):425-432. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Rehabilitation, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands; ACHIEVE, Center of Applied Research, Faculty of Health, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Objectives: To determine the number of steps taken by older patients in hospital and 1 week after discharge; to identify factors associated with step numbers after discharge; and to examine the association between functional decline and step numbers after discharge.

Design: Prospective observational cohort study conducted in 2015-2017.

Setting And Participants: Older adults (≥70 years of age) acutely hospitalized for at least 48 hours at internal, cardiology, or geriatric wards in 6 Dutch hospitals.

Methods: Steps were counted using the Fitbit Flex accelerometer during hospitalization and 1 week after discharge. Demographic, somatic, physical, and psychosocial factors were assessed during hospitalization. Functional decline was determined 1 month after discharge using the Katz activities of daily living index.

Results: The analytic sample included 188 participants [mean age (standard deviation) 79.1 (6.7)]. One month postdischarge, 33 out of 174 participants (19%) experienced functional decline. The median number of steps was 656 [interquartile range (IQR), 250-1146] at the last day of hospitalization. This increased to 1750 (IQR 675-4114) steps 1 day postdischarge, and to 1997 (IQR 938-4098) steps 7 days postdischarge. Age [β = -57.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) -111.15 to -4.71], physical performance (β = 224.95; 95% CI 117.79-332.11), and steps in hospital (β = 0.76; 95% CI 0.46-1.06) were associated with steps postdischarge. There was a significant association between step numbers after discharge and functional decline 1 month after discharge (β = -1400; 95% CI -2380 to -420; P = .005).

Conclusions And Implications: Among acutely hospitalized older adults, step numbers double 1 day postdischarge, indicating that their capacity is underutilized during hospitalization. Physical performance and physical activity during hospitalization are key to increasing the number of steps postdischarge. The number of steps 1 week after discharge is a promising indicator of functional decline 1 month after discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.027DOI Listing
February 2021

Motivational factors mediate the association of general self-efficacy and performance outcomes in acutely hospitalised older patients.

Age Ageing 2020 08;49(5):837-842

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: To study (i) the association of general self-efficacy (GSE) on the course of subjective (i.e. basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs) and objective physical performance outcomes (short physical performance battery (SPPB)) among older persons from discharge up to 3 months post-discharge and (ii) the extent to whether motivational factors such as depressive symptoms, apathy and fatigue mediate this association.

Methods: Prospective multi-centre cohort of acutely hospitalised patients aged ≥70 (Hospital-ADL study). Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the structural relationships.

Results: The analytic sample included 236 acutely hospitalised patients. GSE had a significant total effect on the course of subjective and objective performance outcomes (ADLs: β = -0.21, P < 0.001, IADLs: β = -0.24, P < 0.001 and SPPB: β = 0.17, P < 0.001). However, when motivational factors as mediator were included into the same model, motivational factors (IADLs: β = 0.51, P < 0.001; SPPB: β = 0.49, P < 0.001) but not GSE remained significantly associated with IADLs (β = -0.06, P = 0.16) and SPPB (β = 0.002, P = 0.97). Motivational factors partially mediated the relationship between GSE and ADLs (β = -0.09, P = 0.04). The percentage of mediation was 55, 74 and 99% for ADLs, IADLs and SPPB, respectively.

Conclusions: Motivational factors and GSE are both associated with subjective and objective performance outcomes. However, the relationship between GSE and subjective and objective performance outcomes was highly mediated by motivational factors. Taken together, this suggests that GSE is important to being physically active but not sufficient to becoming more physical active in acutely hospitalised older patients; motivation is important to improving both subjective and objective performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444668PMC
August 2020

Insight Into the Posthospital Syndrome: A 3-Month Longitudinal Follow up on Geriatric Syndromes and Their Association With Functional Decline, Readmission, and Mortality.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020 06;75(7):1403-1410

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Acute hospitalization may lead to posthospital syndrome, but no studies have investigated how this syndrome manifests and geriatric syndromes are often used as synonym. However, studies on longitudinal associations between syndromes and adverse outcomes are scarce. We aimed to analyze longitudinal associations between geriatric syndromes and functional decline (FD), readmission, and mortality.

Methods: Prospective cohort study, including 401 acutely hospitalized patients (aged ≥ 70). We performed: (i) logistic regression analyses to assess associations between patterns of geriatric syndromes as they develop over time (between admission and 1 month postdischarge), and FD and readmission; (ii) generalized estimating equations to assess longitudinal associations between geriatric syndromes over five time points (admission, discharge, 1, 2, and 3 months postdischarge) and FD, mortality, and readmission at 3 months postdischarge.

Results: After syndrome absent, syndrome present at both admission and 1 month postdischarge was most prevalent. Persistent patterns of apathy (odds ratio [OR] = 4.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.54-12.30), pain (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.21-8.8), malnutrition (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.35-8.56), mobility impairment (OR = 6.65, 95% CI = 1.98-22.38), and fear of falling (OR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.25-8.02) were associated with FD. Developing cognitive impairment (OR = 6.40, 95% CI = 1.52-26.84), fatigue (OR = 4.71, 95% CI = 1.03-21.60), and fall risk (OR = 4.30, 95% CI = 1.21-16.57) postdischarge, was associated with readmission; however, only 4%-6% developed these syndromes. Over the course of five time points, mobility impairment, apathy, and incontinence were longitudinally associated with FD; apathy, malnutrition, fatigue, and fall risk with mortality; malnutrition with readmission.

Conclusion: Most geriatric syndromes are present at admission and patients are likely to retain them postdischarge. Several geriatric syndromes are longitudinally associated with mortality and, particularly, persistently present syndromes place persons are at risk of FD. Although few persons develop syndromes postdischarge, those developing cognitive impairment, fatigue, and fall risk were at increased readmission risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302165PMC
June 2020

Muscle strength is longitudinally associated with mobility among older adults after acute hospitalization: The Hospital-ADL study.

PLoS One 2019 5;14(7):e0219041. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Amsterdam UMC, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Rehabilitation, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: 30 to 60% of the acute hospitalized older adults experience functional decline after hospitalization. The first signs of functional decline after discharge can often be observed in the inability to perform mobility tasks, such as raising from a chair or walking. Information how mobility develops over time is scarce. Insight in the course of mobility is needed to prevent and decrease mobility limitations.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the course of mobility of acute hospitalized older adults and (ii) the association between muscle strength and the course of mobility over time controlled for influencing factors.

Methods: In a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study, measurements were taken at admission, discharge, one- and three months post-discharge. Mobility was assessed by the De Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) and muscle strength by the JAMAR. The longitudinal association between muscle strength and mobility was analysed with a Linear Mixed Model and controlled for potential confounders.

Results: 391 older adults were included in the analytic sample with a mean (SD) age of 79.6 (6.7) years. Mobility improved significantly from admission up to three months post-discharge but did not reach normative levels. Muscle strength was associated with the course of mobility (beta = 0.64; p<0.01), even after controlling for factors as age, cognitive impairment, fear of falling and depressive symptoms (beta = 0.35; p<0.01).

Conclusion: Muscle strength is longitudinally associated with mobility. Interventions to improve mobility including muscle strength are warranted, in acute hospitalized older adults.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0219041PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6611658PMC
February 2020

Determinants of Post-acute Care Costs in Acutely Hospitalized Older Adults: The Hospital-ADL Study.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 10 2;20(10):1300-1306.e1. Epub 2019 May 2.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; ACHIEVE - Centre of Applied Research, Faculty of Health, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: After hospitalization, many older adults need post-acute care, including rehabilitation or home care. However, post-acute care expenses can be as high as the costs for the initial hospitalization. Detailed information on monthly post-acute health care expenditures and the characteristics of patients that make up for a large share of these expenditures is scarce. We aimed to calculate costs in acutely hospitalized older patients and identify patient characteristics that are associated with high post-acute care costs.

Design: Prospective multicenter cohort study (between October 2015 and June 2017).

Setting And Participants: 401 acutely hospitalized older persons from internal medicine, cardiology, and geriatric wards.

Measurements: Our primary outcome was mean post-acute care costs within 90 days postdischarge. Post-acute care costs included costs for unplanned readmissions, home care, nursing home care, general practice, and rehabilitation care. Three costs categories were defined: low [0-50th percentile (p0-50)], moderate (p50-75), and high (p75-100). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between costs and frailty, functional impairment, health-related quality of life, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms.

Results: Costs were distributed unevenly in the population, with the top 10.0% (n = 40) accounting for 52.1% of total post-acute care costs. Mean post-acute care costs were €4035 [standard deviation (SD) 4346] or $4560 (SD 4911). Frailty [odds ratio (OR) 3.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.78-6.63], functional impairment (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.03-3.16), and poor health-related quality of life (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.09-3.28) at admission were associated with classification in the high-cost group, compared with the low-cost group.

Conclusions/implications: Post-acute care costs are substantial in a small portion of hospitalized older adults. Frailty, functional impairment, and poor health-related quality of life are associated with higher post-acute care costs and may be used as an indicator of such costs in practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2019.03.013DOI Listing
October 2019

Decreased Appetite is Associated with Sarcopenia-Related Outcomes in Acute Hospitalized Older Adults.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 25;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Faculty of Health, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, ACHIEVE-Center of Applied Research, 1105 BD Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Decreased appetite is one of the main risk factors of malnutrition. Little is known on how appetite changes during hospitalization and after discharge and how it relates with sarcopenia-related outcomes. We analyzed data of the Hospital-ADL study, a multicenter prospective cohort study that followed 400 acutely hospitalized older adults (≥70 year). Appetite (SNAQ), handgrip strength (Jamar), muscle mass (BIA), mobility (DEMMI), and physical performance (SPPB) were assessed within 48 h of admission, at discharge, and at one and three months post-discharge. The course of decreased appetite was analysed by Generalised Estimating Equations. Linear Mixed Model was used to analyse the associations between decreased appetite and the sarcopenia-related outcomes. Decreased appetite was reported by 51% at hospital admission, 34% at discharge, 28% one month post-discharge, and 17% three months post-discharge. Overall, decreased appetite was associated with lower muscle strength (β = -1.089, = 0.001), lower mobility skills (β = -3.893, < 0.001), and lower physical performance (β = -0.706, < 0.001) but not with muscle mass (β = -0.023, = 0.920). In conclusion, decreased appetite was highly prevalent among acute hospitalized older adults and remained prevalent, although less, after discharge. Decreased appetite was significantly associated with negative sarcopenia-related outcomes, which underlines the need for assessment and monitoring of decreased appetite during and post hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520962PMC
April 2019

Hopelessness and Other Depressive Symptoms in Adults 70 Years and Older as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality Within 3 Months After Acute Hospitalization: The Hospital-ADL Study.

Psychosom Med 2019 06;81(5):477-485

From the Department of Internal Medicine (Reichardt, Nederveen, van Seben, Henstra, Buurman), Section of Geriatric Medicine, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam; Department of Rehabilitation (Aarden, van der Schaaf, Engelbert), Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam; ACHIEVE - Center of Applied Research (Aarden, Engelbert, van der Esch, Buurman), Faculty of Health, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences; Reade (Esch), Center for Rehabilitation and Rheumatology/Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Center; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (Twisk), Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Department of Clinical Psychology (Bosch), University of Amsterdam; and Department of Psychology (Bosch), Section of Psychology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands (Bosch).

Objective: Depression among older adults predicts mortality after acute hospitalization. Depression is highly heterogeneous in its presentation of symptoms, whereas individual symptoms may differ in predictive value. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of individual cognitive-affective depressive symptoms during acute hospitalization and investigate the predictive value of both overall and individual cognitive-affective depressive symptoms for mortality between admission up to 3-month postdischarge among older patients.

Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study enrolled 401 acutely hospitalized patients 70 years and older (Hospitalization-Associated Disability and impact on daily Life Study). The predictive value of depressive symptoms, assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale 15, during acute hospitalization on mortality was analyzed with multiple logistic regression.

Results: The analytic sample included 398 patients (M (SD) = 79.6 (6.6) years; 51% men). Results showed that 9.3% of participants died within 3 months, with symptoms of apathy being most frequently reported. The depression total score during hospitalization was associated with increased mortality risk (admission: odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-1.3; discharge: OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.2-1.4). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses yielded the finding that feelings of hopelessness during acute hospitalization were a strong unique predictor of mortality (admission: OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4; discharge: OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 2.5-13.1). These associations were robust to adjustment for demographic factors, somatic symptoms, and medical comorbidities.

Conclusions: Symptoms of apathy were most frequently reported in response to acute hospitalization. However, feelings of hopelessness about their situation were the strongest cognitive-affective predictor of mortality. These results imply that this item is important in identifying patients who are in the last phase of their lives and for whom palliative care may be important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000694DOI Listing
June 2019

Trajectories of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms in acutely hospitalized older adults: The hospital-ADL study.

J Psychosom Res 2019 05 12;120:66-73. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; ACHIEVE - Center of Applied Research, Faculty of Health, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objective: To identify trajectories of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among acutely hospitalized older patients and whether trajectories are related to prognostic baseline factors and three-month outcomes such as functional decline, falls, unplanned readmissions, and mortality.

Methods: Prospective multicenter cohort of acutely hospitalized patients aged ≥ 70. Depressive trajectories were based on Group Based Trajectory Modeling, using the Geriatric Depression Scale-15. Outcomes were functional decline, falls, unplanned readmission, and mortality within three months post-discharge.

Results: The analytic sample included 398 patients (mean age = 79.6 years; SD = 6.6). Three distinct depressive symptoms trajectories were identified: minimal (63.6%), mild persistent (25.4%), and severe persistent (11.0%). Unadjusted results showed that, compared to the minimal symptoms group, the mild and severe persistent groups showed a significantly higher risk of functional decline (mild: OR = 3.9, p < .001; severe: OR = 3.0, p = .04), falls (mild: OR = 2.0, p = .02; severe: OR = 6.0, p < .001), and mortality (mild: OR = 2.2, p = .05; severe: OR = 3.4, p = .009). Patients with mild or severe persistent symptoms were more malnourished, anxious, and functionally limited and had more medical comorbidities at admission.

Conclusion: Nearly 40% of the acutely hospitalized older adults exhibited mild to severe levels of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms. In light of the substantially elevated risk of serious complications and the fact that elevated depressive symptoms was not a transient phenomenon identification of these patients is needed. This further emphasizes the need for acute care hospitals, as a point of engagement with older adults, to develop discharge or screening procedures for managing cognitive-affective depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2019.03.011DOI Listing
May 2019

The Course of Geriatric Syndromes in Acutely Hospitalized Older Adults: The Hospital-ADL Study.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 02 27;20(2):152-158.e2. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Faculty of Health, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, ACHIEVE-Centre of Applied Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To establish the prevalence and course of geriatric syndromes from hospital admission up to 3 months postdischarge and to determine the probability to retain geriatric syndromes over the period from discharge until 3 months postdischarge, once they are present at admission.

Design: Prospective multicenter cohort study conducted between October 2015 and June 2017.

Setting And Participants: Acutely hospitalized patients aged 70 years and older recruited from internal, cardiology, and geriatric wards of 6 Dutch hospitals.

Measures: Cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, apathy, pain, malnutrition, incontinence, dizziness, fatigue, mobility impairment, functional impairment, fall risk, and fear of falling were assessed at admission, discharge, and 1, 2, and 3 months postdischarge. Generalized estimating equations analysis were performed to analyze the course of syndromes and to determine the probability to retain syndromes.

Results: A total of 401 participants [mean age (standard deviation) 79.7 (6.7)] were included. At admission, a median of 5 geriatric syndromes were present. Most prevalent were fatigue (77.2%), functional impairment (62.3%), apathy (57.5%), mobility impairment (54.6%), and fear of falling (40.6%). At 3 months postdischarge, an average of 3 syndromes were present, of which mobility impairment (52.7%), fatigue (48.1%), and functional impairment (42.5%) were most prevalent. Tracking analysis showed that geriatric syndromes that were present at admission were likely to be retained. The following 6 geriatric syndromes were most likely to stay present postdischarge: mobility impairment, incontinence, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and fear of falling.

Implications: Acutely hospitalized older adults exhibit a broad spectrum of highly prevalent geriatric syndromes. Moreover, patients are likely to retain symptoms that are present at admission postdischarge. Our study underscores the need to address a wide range of syndromes at admission, the importance of communication on syndromes to the next care provider, and the need for adequate follow-up care and syndrome management postdischarge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2018.08.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Unravelling the potential mechanisms behind hospitalization-associated disability in older patients; the Hospital-Associated Disability and impact on daily Life (Hospital-ADL) cohort study protocol.

BMC Geriatr 2016 Mar 5;16:59. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22600, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Over 30 % of older patients experience hospitalization-associated disability (HAD) (i.e., loss of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)) after an acute hospitalization. Despite its high prevalence, the mechanisms that underlie HAD remain elusive. This paper describes the protocol for the Hospital-Associated Disability and impact on daily Life (Hospital-ADL) study, which aims to unravel the potential mechanisms behind HAD from admission to three months post-discharge.

Methods/design: The Hospital-ADL study is a multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 400 patients aged ≥70 years that are acutely hospitalized at departments of Internal Medicine, Cardiology or Geriatrics, involving six hospitals in the Netherlands. Eligible are patients hospitalized for at least 48 h, without major cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination score ≥15), who have a life expectancy of more than three months, and without disablement in all six ADLs. The study will assess possible cognitive, behavioral, psychosocial, physical, and biological factors of HAD. Data will be collected through: 1] medical and demographical data; 2] personal interviews, which includes assessment of cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychosocial functioning, physical functioning, and health care utilization; 3] physical performance tests, which includes gait speed, hand grip strength, balance, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and an activity tracker (Fitbit Flex), and; 4] analyses of blood samples to assess inflammatory and metabolic markers. The primary endpoint is additional disabilities in ADLs three months post-hospital discharge compared to ADL function two weeks prior to hospital admission. Secondary outcomes are health care utilization, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical performance tests, and mortality. There will be at least five data collection points; within 48 h after admission (H1), at discharge (H3), and at one (P1; home visit), two (P2; by telephone) and three months (P3; home visit) post-discharge. If the patient is admitted for more than five days, additional measurements will be planned during hospitalization on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (H2).

Discussion: The Hospital-ADL study will provide information on cognitive, behavioral, psychosocial, physical, and biological factors associated with HAD and will be collected during and following hospitalization. These data may inform new interventions to prevent or restore hospitalization-associated disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-016-0232-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4779575PMC
March 2016
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