Publications by authors named "Jeroen Aalten"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of obesity on the outcome of kidney transplantation: a 20-year follow-up.

Transplantation 2011 Apr;91(8):869-74

Department of Nephrology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is both a major threat to the life expectancy of kidney transplant recipients and an important determinant of late allograft loss. Obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Methods: We investigated the relation between both pretransplant and 1-year posttransplant body mass index (BMI) with patient and renal graft survival in a cohort of 1810 adult patients. Sixty-one percent of all patients were men; median age (interquartile range [IQR]) was 46 years (35-56 years); median (IQR) pretransplant BMI was 23.0 kg/m (20.8-25.6 kg/m); 1 year after transplantation, the median (IQR) BMI had increased 1.6 kg/m (0.3-3.2 kg/m) and median (IQR) follow-up time was 8.3 years (5.3-12.0 years). We categorized BMI as follows: less than or equal to 20, more than 20 to less than or equal to 25 (normal), more than 25 to less than or equal to 30, and more than 30 (obesity) kg/m.

Results: Using a Cox proportional hazards model, after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, the relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of death and death-censored graft failure during all follow-up for pretransplant obesity compared with normal BMI were 1.22 (0.86-1.74) and 1.34 (1.02-1.77), respectively; for obesity 1 year after transplantation compared with normal BMI, it was 1.39 (1.05-1.86) and 1.39 (1.10-1.74), respectively; and for change in BMI (per 5 kg/m increment) during the first year after transplantation, it was 1.23 (1.01-1.50) and 1.18 (1.01-1.38), respectively.

Conclusions: One year posttransplant BMI and BMI increment are more strongly related to death and graft failure than pretransplant BMI among kidney transplant recipients. Patients with BMI more than 30 kg/m compared with a normal BMI have approximately 20% to 40% higher risk for death and graft failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e3182100f3aDOI Listing
April 2011

Is standardized cardiac assessment of asymptomatic high-risk renal transplant candidates beneficial?

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011 Sep 14;26(9):3006-12. Epub 2011 Feb 14.

Department of Nephrology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Perioperative cardiovascular events in renal transplantation are common and non-invasive cardiac stress tests are recommended in high-risk renal transplant candidates. In 2004, we introduced a standardized preoperative cardiac risk assessment programme with the aim of reducing perioperative cardiac events.

Methods: Since 2004, all asymptomatic high-risk renal transplant candidates had to undergo non-invasive cardiac stress testing. Patients with a positive stress test went for a coronary angiography and if indicated for revascularization. The incidence of perioperative cardiac events (≤30 days of transplantation) was analysed in all high-risk patients who received a transplantation (screening group) and compared with high-risk renal transplant recipients evaluated in the 4 years before the introduction of the cardiac assessment programme (historical control group).

Results: Since 2004, 227 of 349 asymptomatic high-risk renal transplant candidates underwent non-invasive cardiac stress testing. In 15 patients (6.6%), significant ischaemia was found. Ten of these 15 patients underwent coronary angiography (eight patients had significant coronary artery disease and in five patients, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed). One hundred and sixty of 349 renal transplant candidates have received renal transplantation so far (screening group). In the screening group, 6 perioperative cardiac events (3.8%) occurred compared to 13 perioperative events (7.6%) in the historical control group (n = 172) (P = 0.136).

Conclusions: The incidence of significant cardiac ischaemia in high-risk renal transplant patients was low and was followed by revascularization in a small percentage of patients. No significant decrease in perioperative cardiac events was observed after the introduction of the standardized cardiac assessment programme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq822DOI Listing
September 2011

Does a plain X-ray of the pelvis predict arterial complications in renal transplantation? A prospective study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011 Jun 19;26(6):2007-12. Epub 2010 Nov 19.

Department of Nephrology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: It is unknown whether if a plain X-ray of the iliac arteries (pelvic X-ray) is a reliable tool to detect calcifications and predict vascular complications.

Methods: In a prospective study, a pelvic X-ray was performed before transplantation in patients without evidence of peripheral vascular disease (n = 109) and vascular calcifications were scored. Vascular calcifications in the iliac arteries and complications were scored by the transplant surgeon during the operation (gold standard).

Results: Vascular calcifications were found on the pelvic X-ray in 33 patients (30.2%). The transplant surgeon identified vascular calcifications in 35%. Sensitivity and specificity of the pelvic X-ray for vascular calcifications in the iliac arteries were 48 and 82%, respectively. Technical problems with the arterial anastomosis due to vascular calcifications were observed in five patients. The negative predictive value and positive predictive value of a pelvic X-ray for complications with the arterial anastomosis were 99 and 14%, respectively.

Conclusions: A pelvic X-ray is not a reliable tool to detect vascular calcifications. Technical problems with the arterial anastomosis due to calcifications are infrequent in the absence of vascular calcifications on the pelvic X-ray.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq705DOI Listing
June 2011

Pre-kidney-transplant blood transfusions do not improve transplantation outcome: a Dutch national study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009 Aug 27;24(8):2559-66. Epub 2009 May 27.

Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Radboud, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Female renal transplant candidates are prone to be sensitized by prior pregnancies, and undetected historical sensitization might decrease transplantation outcome. Hypothesis of our study was that pre-transplant blood transfusions (PTFs) can elucidate historical sensitization and that the avoidance of the associated antigens can improve transplantation outcome.

Methods: Data from all female non-immunized renal transplant candidates who received a random PTF (rPTF) (n = 620), matched PTF (mPTF) (one HLA-A and B and one HLA-DR match) (n = 86) or donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) (n = 100) between 1996 and 2006 were collected. Complement-dependent cytoxicity was used to detect anti-HLA antibodies. Sensitization and transplantation outcomes after a PTF were analyzed. Non-immunized female renal transplant recipients who did not receive a PTF were used as the control group.

Results: In 165 patients, anti-HLA antibodies (IgG) were detected after the PTF. Both historical and primary sensitizations were found. A DST induced donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies in 25% of the DST recipients. Our policy did not improve transplantation outcome in recipients of a kidney from a deceased donor (n = 368) or in recipients of a living donor [DST (n = 49) and mPTF (n = 66)].

Conclusions: A PTF did elucidate historical sensitization but induce primary sensitization as well. No beneficial effect of PTFs on transplantation outcome was found, and PTFs with the intention to detect historical sensitization are therefore not suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfp233DOI Listing
August 2009

Associations between pre-kidney-transplant risk factors and post-transplant cardiovascular events and death.

Transpl Int 2008 Oct 28;21(10):985-91. Epub 2008 Jun 28.

Department of Nephrology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in renal transplant candidates is high. A better understanding of the relation between these risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is mandatory to improve transplantation outcome. In this retrospective cohort study 2187 adult patients who received a first kidney transplant between 1984 and 1997 were included. We analyzed the incidence of post-transplant cardiovascular events and tried to identify independent pretransplant risk factors for post-transplant cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The cumulative incidence of post-transplant cardiovascular events was 40%. The incidence was highest in the first 3 months after transplantation. Independent pretransplant risk factors for a post-transplant cardiovascular event were diabetic nephropathy [Hazard ratio (HR) 3.02; 95% CI 2.85-3.98], claudication [HR 2.17 (1.42-3.31)], cardiac event [HR 1.76 (1.32-2.33)], cerebrovascular accident HR 1.53 (1.03-2.28), time-on-dialysis [HR 1.06 (1.02-1.11)], recipient age [HR 1.04 (1.04-1.05)], and body mass index [HR 1.03 (1.00-1.05)]. Diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease were also important predictors for all-cause mortality. Diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease were the most important predictors for cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality after renal transplantation. Early treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and pretransplant cardiovascular evaluation might improve transplantation outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2008.00717.xDOI Listing
October 2008

The influence of obesity on short- and long-term graft and patient survival after renal transplantation.

Transpl Int 2006 Nov;19(11):901-7

Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

To determine short- and long-term patient and graft survival in obese [body mass index (BMI) >or= 30 kg/m(2)] and nonobese (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)) renal transplant patients we retrospectively analyzed our national-database. Patients 18 years or older receiving a primary transplant after 1993 were included. A total of 1,871 patients were included in the nonobese group and 196 in the obese group. In the obese group there were significantly more females (52% vs. 38.6%, P < 0.01) and patients were significantly older [52 years (43-59) vs. 48 years (37-58); P < 0.05]. Patient survival and graft survival were significantly decreased in obese renal transplant recipients (1 and 5 year patient survival were respectively 94% vs. 97% and 81% vs. 89%, P < 0.01; 1 and 5 year graft survival were respectively 86% vs. 92% and 71% vs. 80%, P < 0.01). Initial BMI was an independent predictor for patient death and graft failure. This large retrospective study shows that both graft and patient survival are significantly lower in obese renal transplant recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2006.00367.xDOI Listing
November 2006

The effect of sodium profiling and feedback technologies on plasma conductivity and ionic mass balance: a study in hypotension-prone dialysis patients.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006 Jan 6;21(1):138-44. Epub 2005 Sep 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Maxima Medical Centre, Veldhoven and University Hospital Maastricht, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Sodium profiling improves haemodynamic tolerance in haemodialysis (HD) patients but may also influence sodium homeostasis. Changes in blood volume and plasma conductivity (PC) during HD can be modelled by feedback technology, but their effects on sodium homeostasis are not widely studied.

Methods: This randomized crossover study compared PC and ionic mass balance (IMB) as surrogate markers of sodium balance between standard HD [dialysate conductivity (DC) 14.0 mS/cm], sodium profiling (DC 15.0-->14.0 mS/cm), blood volume (BV)-controlled and PC-controlled feedback (target: post-HD PC: 14.0 mS/cm) in 10 HD patients with frequent hypotension.

Results: 440 treatments were studied. Pre-dialytic PC was significantly higher during SP (14.4+/-0.2 mS/cm) compared to standard HD (14.2+/-0.3 mS/cm), and was not different between the other manoeuvres: PC-controlled (14.1+/-0.3 mS/cm), and BV-controlled feedback (14.2+/-0.2 mS/cm). Except for the first treatment, during which IMB was lower during the sodium profile, IMB did not differ significantly between the various manoeuvres and was strongly dependent upon ultrafiltration volume and the difference between pre-dialytic PC and DC. Symptomatic hypotensive episodes occurred least frequently during BV-controlled feedback (8%) compared to the other manoeuvres (standard HD, 16%; sodium profile, 14%; PC-controlled feedback, 17%), but differences were not significant. Inter-dialytic weight gain and pre-dialytic systolic blood pressure did not differ.

Conclusions: Pre-dialytic PC increased during the sodium profile, and did not differ between BV- or PC-controlled feedback compared to standard HD. Thus, it appears that both BV- and PC-controlled feedback can be safely prescribed without substantial salt- and water-loading, at least in the short term. Analysis of IMB is useful to assess differences in sodium balance between single treatment sessions but appears of less value in a steady-state situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfi118DOI Listing
January 2006
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