Publications by authors named "Jean E Aaron"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mapping trabecular disconnection "hotspots" in aged human spine and hip.

Bone 2015 Sep 12;78:71-80. Epub 2015 Apr 12.

School of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; Department of Rheumatology, Dewsbury District Hospital, Mid-Yorkshire NHS Trust, Dewsbury, UK. Electronic address:

Trabecular bone disconnection is an independent factor in age-related skeletal failure where real termini (ReTm; rare in youth) may cause weakness disproportionate to tissue loss, yet their structural contribution at vulnerable locations remains uncertain. ReTm (previously recorded at the iliac crest) were mapped in "normal" aged vertebral bodies (T11-L5 autopsy; 20 females, 10 males) and corresponding proximal femora (autopsy; 10 females). Results were compared with biomechanically failed femora from orthopaedic subjects aged >58 yr (osteoporosis OP, 10 females; osteoarthritis OA, 10 females). A novel direct 2D/3D histological method was applied to large, thick (300 μm) slices superficially silver-stained to separate ReTm (unstained) from apparent termini (planar artefacts, brown). Light microscope field co-ordinates enabled ReTm mapping and statistical testing relative to i) sex, ii) tissue sector and iii) slicing plane. In men ReTm populations were small and random while in women they were large and sector-specific. In vertebrae they clustered anterior/superior being rare posterior/inferior; in the femoral head they concentrated distal/superior and also near the fovea, being fewer distal/inferior. A distribution polarity was evident with 100% more ReTm observed transversely (i.e., on tensile-related cross struts) than longitudinally (i.e., on compression-related vertical struts). Their numbers rose in OP (BV/TV<14%, microCT) and in OA (BV/TV>14%), remaining polarised and sector-specific in OP only. Comparative experimentation by marrow elution of an OP animal model demonstrated "floating segments" as a possible outcome. Conclusions were supported statistically that trabecular disconnection "hotspots" at vulnerable locations are sex- and sector-specific, mainly transaxial, and subject to disease modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2015.04.009DOI Listing
September 2015

A silicon cell cycle in a bacterial model of calcium phosphate mineralogenesis.

Micron 2013 Jan 5;44:419-32. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Faculty of Biological Sciences, Worsley Medical and Dental Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

The prokaryote Corynebacterium matruchotii produces calcium phosphate (bone salt) and may serve as a convenient model for examining individual factors relevant to vertebrate calcification. A factor of current clinical uncertainty is silicon. To investigate its possible role in biomineralisation advanced optical (digital deconvolution and 3D fluorescent image rendering) and electron microscopy (EDX microanalysis and elemental mapping) were applied to calcifying microbial colonies grown in graded Si concentrations (0-60mM). Cell viability was confirmed throughout by TO-PRO-3-iodide and SYTO-9 nucleic acid staining. It was observed that calcium accumulated in dense intracellular microspherical objects (types i-iii) as nanoparticles (5 nm, type i), nanospheres (30-50 nm, type ii) and filamentous clusters (0.1-0.5 μm, type iii), with a regular transitory Si content evident. With bacterial colony development (7-28 days) the P content increased from 5 to 60%, while Si was displaced from 60 to 5%, distinguishing the phenomenon from random contamination, and with a significant relationship (p<0.001) found between calcified object number and Si supplementation (optimum 0.01mM). The Si-containing, intracellular calcified objects (also positive for Mg and negative with Lysensor blue DND-167 for acidocalcisomes) were extruded naturally in bubble-like chains to complete the cycle by coating the cell surface with discrete mineral particles. These could be harvested by lysis, French press and density fractionation when Si was confirmed in a proportion. It was concluded that the unexplained orthopaedic activity of Si may derive from its special property to facilitate calcium phosphorylation in biological systems, thereby recapitulating an ancient and conserved bacterial cycle of calcification via silicification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2012.09.008DOI Listing
January 2013

Periosteal Sharpey's fibers: a novel bone matrix regulatory system?

Authors:
Jean E Aaron

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2012 9;3:98. Epub 2012 Aug 9.

Bone Structural Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds , Leeds, Yorkshire, UK.

Sharpey's "perforating" fibers (SF) are well known skeletally in tooth anchorage. Elsewhere they provide anchorage for the periosteum and are less well documented. Immunohistochemistry has transformed their potential significance by identifying their collagen type III (CIII) content and enabling their mapping in domains as permeating arrays of fibers (5-25 μ thick), protected from osteoclastic resorption by their poor mineralization. As periosteal extensions they are crucial in early skeletal development and central to intramembranous bone healing, providing unique microanatomical avenues for musculoskeletal exchange, their composition (e.g., collagen type VI, elastin, tenascin) combined with a multiaxial pattern of insertion suggesting a role more complex than attachment alone would justify. A proportion permeate the cortex to the endosteum (and beyond), fusing into a CIII-rich osteoid layer (<2 μ thick) encompassing all resting surfaces, and with which they apparently integrate into a PERIOSTEAL-SHARPEY FIBER-ENDOSTEUM (PSE) structural continuum. This intraosseous system behaves in favor of bone loss or gain depending upon extraneous stimuli (i.e., like Frost's hypothetical "mechanostat"). Thus, the birefringent fibers are sensitive to humoral factors (e.g., estrogen causes retraction, rat femur model), physical activity (e.g., running causes expansion, rat model), aging (e.g., causes fragmentation, pig mandible model), and pathology (e.g., atrophied in osteoporosis, hypertrophied in osteoarthritis, human proximal femur), and with encroaching mineral particles hardening the usually soft parts. In this way the unobtrusive periosteal SF network may regulate bone status, perhaps even contributing to predictable "hotspots" of trabecular disconnection, particularly at sites of tension prone to fatigue, and with the network deteriorating significantly before bone matrix loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2012.00098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3414712PMC
August 2012

The use of preserved tissue in finite element modelling of fresh ovine vertebral behaviour.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2013 31;16(11):1163-9. Epub 2012 Jan 31.

a School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds , Woodhouse Lane, Leeds West Yorkshire LS2 9JT , UK.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the predicted finite element (FE) stiffness of vertebral bone is altered when using images of preserved rather than fresh tissue to generate specimen-specific FE models. Fresh ovine vertebrae were used to represent embalmed (n = 3) and macerated dry-bone (n = 3) specimens and treated accordingly. Specimens were scanned pre- and post-treatment using micro-computed tomography. A constant threshold level derived from these images was used to calculate the respective bone volume fraction (BV/TV) from which the conversion factor validated for fresh tissue was used to determine material properties that were assigned to corresponding FE models. Results showed a definite change in the BV/TV between the fresh and the preserved bone. However, the changes in the predicted FE stiffness were not generally greater than the variations expected from assignment of loading and boundary conditions. In conclusion, images of preserved tissue can be used to generate FE models that are representative of fresh tissue with a tolerable level of error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10255842.2012.654782DOI Listing
May 2014
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