Publications by authors named "Jawad Aarrouf"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Flashes of UV-C Light Stimulate Defenses of L. 'Chardonnay' Against in Greenhouse and Vineyard Conditions.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 15:PDIS10202229RE. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

UMR Qualisud, Avignon Université, France.

Using detached leaves, UV-C light in the form of 1-s flashes has recently been shown to stimulate defenses of several plants against different pathogens better than 1-min exposures under greenhouse conditions. In the present work, the pathological tests were conducted using undetached leaves under greenhouse and vineyard conditions. In a first trial, two flashes of UV-C light were applied to plants of L. 'Chardonnay' grown under greenhouse conditions, at an interval of 10 days. Plants were inoculated with 2 days after the last light treatment. After 18 days of inoculation, the symptom severity on leaves was reduced by 60% when compared with the untreated control. In a second trial, flashes of UV-C light were applied to grapevine Chardonnay plants under field conditions in the southeast of France every 10 days from 18 April until 10 July 2019. The symptom severity resulting from natural contaminations by was reduced by 42% in leaves on 4 July 2019 and by 65% in clusters on 25 July 2019. In a third trial, we observed that UV-C light did not have any effect on net photosynthesis, maximal net photosynthesis, dark respiration, maximal quantum efficiency of photosystem II, the performance index of Strasser, and, generally, any parameter derived from induction curves of maximal chlorophyll fluorescence. It was concluded that flashes of UV-C light have true potential for stimulating plant defenses against under vineyard conditions and, therefore, help in reducing fungicide use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-20-2229-REDOI Listing
September 2021

Temperature and storage time increase provitamin A carotenoid concentrations and bioaccessibility in post-harvest carrots.

Food Chem 2021 Feb 11;338:128004. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

C2VN, INRAE, INSERM, Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

The aim was to enhance provitamin A carotenoid (proVA CAR) concentrations and bioaccessibility in carrots by manipulating post-harvest factors. To that end, we assessed the effects of Ultraviolet-C light, pulsed light, storage temperature, and storage duration. We also measured CAR bioaccessibility by using an in vitro model. Pulsed light, but not Ultraviolet-C, treatment increased proVA CAR concentrations in the cortex tissue (p < 0.05). Longer storage times and higher temperatures also increased concentrations (p < 0.05). The maximal increase induced by pulsed light was obtained after treatment with 20 kJ/m and 3-days of storage at 20 °C. However, the positive effect induced by pulsed light decreased considerably over the next seven days. ProVA CAR in carrots with the highest concentrations also proved to be more bioaccessible (p < 0.05). Thus, proVA CAR concentrations in stored carrots can be increased significantly through storage times and temperatures. Pulsed light can also significantly increase proVA CAR concentrations, but only temporarily.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128004DOI Listing
February 2021

Flashes of UV-C light: An innovative method for stimulating plant defences.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235918. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

UMR Qualisud, Avignon Université, Avignon, France.

Leaves of lettuce, pepper, tomato and grapevine plants grown in greenhouse conditions were exposed to UV-C light for either 60 s or 1 s, using a specific LEDs-based device, and wavelengths and energy were the same among different light treatments. Doses of UV-C light that both effectively stimulated plant defences and were innocuous were determined beforehand. Tomato plants and lettuce plants were inoculated with Botrytis cinerea, pepper plants with Phytophthora capsici, and grapevine with Plasmopara viticola. In some experiments we investigated the effect of a repetition of treatments over periods of several days. All plants were inoculated 48 h after exposure to the last UV-C treatment. Lesions on surfaces were measured up to 12 days after inoculation, depending on the experiment and the pathogen. The results confirmed that UV-C light stimulates plant resistance; they show that irradiation for one second is more effective than irradiation for 60 s, and that repetition of treatments is more effective than single light treatments. Moreover a systemic effect was observed in unexposed leaves that were close to exposed leaves. The mechanisms of perception and of the signalling and metabolic pathways triggered by flashes of UV-C light vs. 60 s irradiation exposures are briefly discussed, as well as the prospects for field use of UV-C flashes in viticulture and horticulture.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235918PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347194PMC
September 2020

Xenon lamps used for fruit surface sterilization can increase the content of total flavonols in leaves of Lactuca sativa L. without any negative effect on net photosynthesis.

PLoS One 2019 21;14(10):e0223787. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

UMR 95 Qualisud/Laboratoire de Physiologie des Fruits et Légumes, Avignon Université, Avignon, France.

One (1P), two (2P), three (3P) or four (4P) pulses of light supplied by a xenon lamp, were applied to young lettuce plants grown in pots. The lamp used in the trial was similar to those used for fruit surface sterilization. Total flavonols were measured in leaves using the Dualex method. In a first trial conducted in greenhouse conditions, 6 days after the pulsed light (PL) treatment, flavonols were increased by 312% and 525% in the 3P and 4P treatments, respectively, in comparison to the those in the untreated control. Changes in the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters suggest that the PL treatment may induce limited and transient damage to the photosynthetic machinery and that the damage increases with the increasing number of pulses. The performance parameters were not significantly affected by PL and recovered fully by 6 days after the treatments. The 1P and the 2P treatments 6 days after the treatment showed a 28.6% and a 32.5% increase, respectively, in net photosynthetic assimilation, when compared to that of the control. However, 8 days after the treatment, there was no longer a difference between the treatments and the control in net photosynthetic assimilation. Eight days after the light treatment, the 3P treatment showed a 38.4% increase in maximal net photosynthetic assimilation over that of the control, which is an indication of positive long-term adaptation of photosynthetic capacity. As a whole, our observations suggest that PL could be used on field or greenhouse crops to increase their phytochemical content. No long-lasting or strong negative effects on photosynthesis were associated with PL within the range of doses we tested; some observations even suggest that certain treatments could result in an additional positive effect. This conclusion is supported by a second trial conducted in phytotrons. More studies are required to better understand the roles of the different wavelengths supplied by PL and their interactions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223787PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6802843PMC
March 2020

Assessing the Effects of Water Deficit on Photosynthesis Using Parameters Derived from Measurements of Leaf Gas Exchange and of Chlorophyll Fluorescence.

Front Plant Sci 2017 14;8:2068. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

INRA, UMR 1334 AGAP, Montpellier, France.

Water deficit (WD) is expected to increase in intensity, frequency and duration in many parts of the world as a consequence of global change, with potential negative effects on plant gas exchange and growth. We review here the parameters that can be derived from measurements made on leaves, in the field, and that can be used to assess the effects of WD on the components of plant photosynthetic rate, including stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, photosynthetic capacity, light absorbance, and efficiency of absorbed light conversion into photosynthetic electron transport. We also review some of the parameters related to dissipation of excess energy and to rerouting of electron fluxes. Our focus is mainly on the techniques of gas exchange measurements and of measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF), either alone or combined. But we put also emphasis on some of the parameters derived from analysis of the induction phase of maximal ChlF, notably because they could be used to assess damage to photosystem II. Eventually we briefly present the non-destructive methods based on the ChlF excitation ratio method which can be used to evaluate non-destructively leaf contents in anthocyanins and flavonols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.02068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5735977PMC
December 2017

Juvenile Coffee Leaves Acclimated to Low Light Are Unable to Cope with a Moderate Light Increase.

Front Plant Sci 2017 14;8:1126. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

CIRAD, Unité Mixte de Recherche-Interactions Plantes Microorganismes Environnement, IRD, CIRAD, Université de MontpellierMontpellier, France.

The understorey origin of coffee trees and the strong plasticity of leaves in relation to contrasting light environments have been largely shown. The adaptability of coffee leaves to changes in light was tested under controlled conditions by increasing the illumination rate on var. Naryelis seedlings acclimated to low light conditions and observing leaf responses at three different developmental stages (juvenile, growing and mature). Only mature leaves proved capable of adapting to new light conditions. In these leaves, different major mechanisms were found to contribute to maintaining a good photosynthetic level. With increased illumination, a high photosynthetic response was conserved thanks to fast nitrogen remobilization, as indicated by SPAD values and the photorespiration rate. Efficient photoprotection was accompanied by a great ability to export sucrose, which prevented excessive inhibition of the Calvin cycle by hexose accumulation. In contrast, in younger leaves, increased illumination caused photodamage, observable even after 9 days of treatment. One major finding was that young coffee leaves rely on the accumulation of chlorogenic acids, powerful antioxidant phenolic compounds, to deal with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species rather than on antioxidant enzymes. Due to a lack of efficient photoprotection, a poor ability to export sucrose and inadequate antioxidant protection, younger leaves seemed to be unable to cope with increased illumination. In these leaves, an absence of induced antioxidant enzyme activity was accompanied, in growing leaves, by an absence of antioxidant synthesis or, in juvenile leaves, inefficient synthesis of flavonoids because located in some epidermis cells. These observations showed that coffee leaves, at the beginning of their development, are not equipped to withstand quick switches to higher light levels. Our results confirm that coffee trees, even selected for full sunlight conditions, remain shade plants possessing leaves able to adapt to higher light levels only when mature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5509796PMC
July 2017

Understanding the physiological effects of UV-C light and exploiting its agronomic potential before and after harvest.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2016 Aug 4;105:1-11. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Unité Mixte de Recherche Qualisud, Laboratoire de Physiologie des Fruits et Légumes, Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, 301 rue Baruch de Spinoza, BP 2139 - 84916, Avignon cedex 9, France.

There is an abundant literature about the biological and physiological effects of UV-B light and the signaling and metabolic pathways it triggers and influences. Much less is known about UV-C light even though it seems to have a lot of potential for being effective in less time than UV-B light. UV-C light is known since long to exert direct and indirect inhibitory and damaging effects on living cells and is therefore commonly used for disinfection purposes. More recent observations suggest that UV-C light can also be exploited to stimulate the production of health-promoting phytochemicals, to extent shelf life of fruits and vegetables and to stimulate mechanisms of adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Clearly some of these effects may be related to the stimulating effect of UV-C light on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to the stimulation of antioxidant molecules and mechanisms, although UV-C light could also trigger and regulate signaling pathways independently from its effect on the production of ROS. Our review clearly underlines the high potential of UV-C light in agriculture and therefore advocates for more work to be done to improve its efficiency and also to increase our understanding of the way UV-C light is perceived and influences the physiology of plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.04.004DOI Listing
August 2016

Salt stress mitigation by seed priming with UV-C in lettuce plants: growth, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2014 Oct 1;83:126-33. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Unité de Physiologie et Biochimie de la réponse des plantes aux contraintes abiotiques, Département de Biologie, FST, Université Tunis El Manar, 1068 Tunis, Tunisia.

Seeds of Lactuca sativa L. 'Romaine' were subjected to priming treatments with UV-C radiation at 0.85 or 3.42 kJ m(-2). Seedlings obtained from both primed (Pr) and non-primed (NPr) seeds were grown in an hydroponic culture system supplemented with 0 (control) or 100 mM NaCl. After 21 days of NaCl treatment, root and leaf biomass, root lengths, leaf numbers, and leaf surface area were measured. Ions (Na(+) and K(+)) accumulation was determined in roots and leaves. Total phenolic compound and flavonoid concentrations, as well as antioxidant and antiradical activities were measured in L. sativa leaves. Salt stress resulted in a lower increase in fresh weight of roots and leaves, which was more pronounced in roots than in leaves, due to reduced root elongation, leaf number and leaf expansion, as well as leaf thickness. The lower increase in fresh weight was accompanied by a restriction in tissue hydration and K(+) ion uptake, as well as an increase in Na(+) ion concentrations in all organs. These effects were mitigated in plants from the UV-C primed seeds. The mitigating effect of UV-C was more pronounced at 0.85 than at 3.42 kJ m(-2). Salt stress also resulted in an increase in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid concentrations and in the total antioxidant capacity in leaves. The highest diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity was found in the leaves of plants from both Pr seeds. Our results suggest that plants grown from seed primed by exposure to moderate UV-C radiation exhibited a higher tolerance to salinity stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2014.07.019DOI Listing
October 2014

A diminution in ascorbate oxidase activity affects carbon allocation and improves yield in tomato under water deficit.

Plant Cell Environ 2013 Jan 18;36(1):159-75. Epub 2012 Jul 18.

INRA, UR1052, Génétique et amélioration des fruits et légumes, Domaine St Maurice BP94, Montfavet, France.

The regulation of carbon allocation between photosynthetic source leaves and sink tissues in response to stress is an important factor controlling plant yield. Ascorbate oxidase is an apoplastic enzyme, which controls the redox state of the apoplastic ascorbate pool. RNA interference was used to decrease ascorbate oxidase activity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Fruit yield was increased in these lines under three conditions where assimilate became limiting for wild-type plants: when fruit trusses were left unpruned, when leaves were removed or when water supply was limited. Several alterations in the transgenic lines could contribute to the improved yield and favour transport of assimilate from leaves to fruits in the ascorbate oxidase lines. Ascorbate oxidase plants showed increases in stomatal conductance and leaf and fruit sugar content, as well as an altered apoplastic hexose:sucrose ratio. Modifications in gene expression, enzyme activity and the fruit metabolome were coherent with the notion of the ascorbate oxidase RNAi lines showing altered sink strength. Ascorbate oxidase may therefore be a target for strategies aimed at improving water productivity in crop species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02564.xDOI Listing
January 2013

Development of the primary root and mobilisation of reserves in etiolated seedlings of Brassica napus grown on a slowly rotating clinostat.

J Plant Physiol 2003 Apr;160(4):409-13

UMR A408 Qualité et Sécurité des aliments d'origine végétale, Université d'Avignon, 33, rue Louis Pasteur, F-84000 Avignon, France.

The effect of the slow rotating clinostat (1 rpm) on the growth of the primary root was studied on Brassica napus seedlings. After 5 d in darkness, the primary root was longer and thinner in seedlings grown on the clinostat than in seedlings grown in the vertical position. However, the breakdown of lipid reserves, sucrose level and transport of 14C-labeled sucrose from the cotyledons to the primary root, were not altered by growth on the clinostat. Moreover, the activity of isocitrate lyase, one of the two enzymes necessary for the conversion of lipids into glucids also was also not modified in the cotyledons of clinorotated seedlings. Thus, there was clear evidence that clinorotation had a direct effect on the growth of the primary root that was independent of the mobilisation of lipid reserves in the cotyledons. As a sink, the primary root had the same strength on the clinostat as in the vertical position, but the reserves were used in a different way. The increase in root elongation on the clinostat could be due to the slight, but continuous, omnilateral gravitropic stimulation due to the rotation of the seedlings about a horizontal axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0176-1617-00857DOI Listing
April 2003
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