Publications by authors named "Jan O Gordeladze"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ameloblastin Peptides Modulates the Osteogenic Capacity of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Front Physiol 2017 7;8:58. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo Oslo, Norway.

During amelogenesis the extracellular enamel matrix protein AMBN is quickly processed into 17 kDa (N-terminus) and 23 kDa (C-terminus) fragments. In particular, alternatively spliced regions derived by exon 5/6 within the N-terminus region are known to be critical in biomineralization. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) also express and secrete AMBN, but it is unclear if this expression has effects on the hMSC themselves. If, as suggested from previous findings, AMBN act as a signaling molecule, such effects could influence hMSC growth and differentiation, as well as promoting the secretion of other signaling proteins like cytokines and chemokines. If AMBN is found to modulate stem cell behavior and fate, it will impact our understanding on how extracellular matrix molecules can have multiple roles during development ontogenesis, mineralization and healing of mesenchymal tissues. Here we show that synthetic peptides representing promote hMSC proliferation. , this effect is inhibited by the application of a 15 aa peptide representing the alternatively spliced start of . Both peptides also influence gene expression of RUNX2 and osteocalcin, and promote calcium deposition in cultures, indicating a positive influence on the osteogenic capacity of hMSC. We also show that the full-length AMBN-WT and N-terminus region enhance the secretion of RANTES, IP-10, and IL-8. In contrast, the AMBN C-terminus fragment and the exon 5 deleted AMBN (DelEx5) have no detectable effects on any of the parameters investigated. These findings suggest the signaling effect of AMBN is conveyed by processed products, whereas the effect on proliferation is differentially modulated through alternative splicing during gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5293776PMC
February 2017

Systemic leptin administration in supraphysiological doses maintains bone mineral density and mechanical strength despite significant weight loss.

Endocrinology 2012 May 28;153(5):2245-53. Epub 2012 Feb 28.

Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.

The effects of leptin on bone are controversial. Although in vitro studies have shown that leptin stimulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and inhibits osteoclastogenesis, some rodent studies have shown that leptin administered centrally might result in decreased bone formation. In the present study we have investigated the skeletal effects of supraphysiological concentrations of leptin administered sc to rats. Female Fischer rats were given leptin 100 μg/d, 200 μg/d, or saline by continuous infusion for 9 wk. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, bone microarchitecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography, and biomechanical properties were tested by three-point bending experiments. At the end of the study, the body weight was significantly lower in rats receiving leptin compared with controls (-10.8% and -12.0% in low- and high-dose leptin groups, respectively). The high-dose leptin group also significantly lost weight compared with baseline. The plasma leptin concentration was 14- and 33-fold increased in the low- and high-dose groups, respectively. No significant differences in femoral BMD were observed. Whole-body BMD was significantly lower in the low-dose leptin group, whereas there was no difference between the high-dose leptin group and the control. Mechanical strength and microarchitecture were similar in the high-dose and the control group. The low-dose group, however, had decreased cortical volume in the femoral metaphysis, lowered bone strength, and altered moment of inertia. In conclusion, leptin given at very high doses maintains BMD, microarchitecture, and mechanical strength in female rats, despite a significant decrease in body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2011-1848DOI Listing
May 2012

From stem cells to bone: phenotype acquisition, stabilization, and tissue engineering in animal models.

ILAR J 2009 ;51(1):42-61

Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Basal Medical Sciences of the Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Norway.

The regeneration of bone tissue depends on the concerted actions of a plethora of signals that recruit mesenchymal stem cells for lineage-specific differentiation, with cellular phenotypes serving various functions throughout their life span. The signals are conveyed in hormones, growth factors, and mechanical forces, all of which ensure proper modeling and remodeling. Both processes are secured by indigenous and programmed metabolism in osteoblasts/osteocytes as well as in other stem cell (SC)-derived cell types (e.g., osteoclasts, bone lining cells) involved in the remodeling of the subject tissue. The focus of this review is the concerted action of these signals as well as the regulatory and/or stabilizing control circuits exhibited by a class of small RNAs, designated microRNAs. We discuss an in vitro approach for ensuring proper phenotype acquisition as well as the choice of scaffolds and animal models for in vivo tissue repair. This approach includes selection of SC niches to optimize bone formation in vivo, transcription factors important for osteoblastogenesis, the Wnt and Notch pathways of signaling, selection of delivery systems for gene therapy, use of appropriate matrices and scaffolds, in vivo mechanostimulation, choice of lesions to be repaired, and type of animal to use. We also discuss Wnt-related and SC-based treatment of osteoporosis. Throughout, we offer considerations for the selection of model systems and parameters to assess the entire procedure from initial SC selection to final bone repair, and conclude with a table summarizing our recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ilar.51.1.42DOI Listing
April 2010

Concerted stimuli regulating osteo-chondral differentiation from stem cells: phenotype acquisition regulated by microRNAs.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2009 Oct;30(10):1369-84

Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Basal Medical Sciences, Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Norway.

Bone and cartilage are being generated de novo through concerted actions of a plethora of signals. These act on stem cells (SCs) recruited for lineage-specific differentiation, with cellular phenotypes representing various functions throughout their life span. The signals are rendered by hormones and growth factors (GFs) and mechanical forces ensuring proper modelling and remodelling of bone and cartilage, due to indigenous and programmed metabolism in SCs, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, as well as osteoclasts and other cell types (eg T helper cells).This review focuses on the concerted action of such signals, as well as the regulatory and/or stabilizing control circuits rendered by a class of small RNAs, designated microRNAs. The impact on cell functions evoked by transcription factors (TFs) via various signalling molecules, also encompassing mechanical stimulation, will be discussed featuring microRNAs as important members of an integrative system. The present approach to cell differentiation in vitro may vastly influence cell engineering for in vivo tissue repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/aps.2009.143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4007326PMC
October 2009

Transient down-regulation of cbfa1/Runx2 by RNA interference in murine C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stromal cells delays in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis, but does not overtly affect chondrogenesis.

Exp Cell Res 2008 Apr 12;314(7):1495-506. Epub 2008 Jan 12.

Institute of Basal Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Norway.

In order to ensure that MSCs designed for in vivo cartilage repair do not untowardly differentiate into osteoblasts and mineralize in situ, we tested whether siRNA-induced suppression of cbfa1/Runx2 affected the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential of the murine cell line C3H10T1/2. Anti-cbfa1/Runx2 siRNA decreased the levels of cbfa1/Runx2 mRNA and protein by 65-80%, and also markedly reduced the expression of osteoblast-related genes such as Dlx5, osterix, collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase (AP), osteocalcin, SPARC/osteonectin and osteopontin, leading to a temporal expression of AP enzyme activity and mineralization potential delayed by at least some 7-9 days. Furthermore, siRNA-transfected cells, grown under chondrogenic conditions did not display biologically significant changes in the expression of aggrecan, collagen type II or type X, or histology when grown in micropellets or monolayer cultures. Finally, when cells were propagated in osteogenic medium and injected into the tibial muscles of SCID mice, no overtly mineralized bone tissue emerged. These experiments indicate that a major transient reduction of cbfa1/Runx2 expression in MSCs is sufficient to delay osteoblastic differentiation, both in vitro and in vivo, while chondrogenesis seemed to be sustained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.12.023DOI Listing
April 2008

Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 and prothyrotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the central nervous system are regulated by suckling in lactating rats.

Eur J Endocrinol 2005 May;152(5):791-803

Institute of Basic Medical Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1112 Blindern, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.

Background: The accepted function of the hypothalamic peptide, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), is to initiate release of thyrotrophin (TSH) from the pituitary. A physiological role for TRH in lactating rats has not yet been established.

Methods: Tissues were prepared from random-cycling and lactating rats and analysed using Northern blot, real time RT-PCR and quantitative in situ hybridisation.

Results: This study demonstrates that TRH receptor 1 (TRHR1) mRNA expression is up-regulated in the pituitary and in discrete nuclei of the hypothalamus in lactating rats, while proTRH mRNA expression levels are increased only in the hypothalamus. The results were corroborated by quantitative in situ analysis of proTRH and TRHR1. Bromocriptine, which reduced prolactin (PRL) concentrations in plasma of lactating and nursing rats, also counteracted the suckling-induced increase in TRHR1 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, but had an opposite effect in the pituitary. These changes were confined to the hypothalamus and the amygdala in the brain.

Conclusions: The present study shows that the mechanisms of suckling-induced lactation involve region-specific regulation of TRHR1 and proTRH mRNAs in the central nervous system notably at the hypothalamic level. The results demonstrate that continued suckling is critical to maintain plasma prolactin (PRL) levels as well as proTRH and TRHR1 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Increased plasma PRL levels may have a positive modulatory role on the proTRH/TRHR1 system during suckling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/eje.1.01902DOI Listing
May 2005

A unified model for the action of leptin on bone turnover.

J Cell Biochem 2003 Mar;88(4):706-12

Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Blindern, Norway.

Leptin has been advocated as a centrally acting factor responsible for inhibiting accumulation of bone mass. However, recent investigations unequivocally establish leptin as a local (autocrine) factor expressed by osteoblasts. Exogenously added leptin causes osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation, while also rendering osteoblasts more efficacious in terms of mineralization. Leptin acts as an anti-apoptotic agent, and augments messages responsible for the remodelling of bone tissue, i.e., mRNAs for osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the interleukin IL-6. Furthermore, leptin message is readily expressed in osteoblasts subjected to mechanical strain. In this respect, osteoblasts, which are unilaterally stretched proliferate and differentiate, a phenomenon being potentiated by exposure of the cells to differentiating humoral factors. This article discusses a unified model of dually acting leptin through the central nervous system and the mechanostat principle applied to osteoblasts. The proposed model may account for the finely tuned bone homeostasis maintained within rather narrow limits, depending on exposure to humoral factors and the prevailing mechanostat usage mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.10385DOI Listing
March 2003

Role of leptin in bone growth: central player or peripheral supporter?

FEBS Lett 2002 Sep;528(1-3):40-2

Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1046 Blindern, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0014-5793(02)03161-7DOI Listing
September 2002

Leptin stimulates human osteoblastic cell proliferation, de novo collagen synthesis, and mineralization: Impact on differentiation markers, apoptosis, and osteoclastic signaling.

J Cell Biochem 2002 ;85(4):825-36

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Anabolic hormones, mechanical loading, and the obese protein leptin play separate roles in maintaining bone mass. We have previously shown that leptin, as well as its receptor, are expressed by normal human osteoblasts. Consequently, we have investigated how leptin affects proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of human osteoblasts. Iliac crest osteoblasts, incubated with either leptin (100 ng/ml), calcitriol (1,25(OH)(2)D(3); 10(-9) M) or 1-84 human parathyroid hormone (PTH; 10(-8) M), were cultured for 35 consecutive days and assayed for expression of various differentiation-related marker genes (as estimated by RT-PCR), de novo collagen synthesis, proliferation, in vitro mineralization, and osteoclast signaling. The effects of leptin on protection against retinoic acid (RA; 10(-7) M) induced apoptosis, as well as transition into preosteocytes, were also tested. Leptin exposure enhanced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis over both control condition and PTH exposure. Leptin inhibited in vitro calcified nodule production after 1-2 weeks in culture, however, subsequent to 4-5 weeks, leptin significantly stimulated mineralization. The mineralization profile throughout the entire incubation period was almost undistinguishable from the one induced by PTH. In comparison, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) generally reduced proliferation and collagen production rates, whereas mineralization was markedly enhanced. Leptin exposure (at 2 and 5 weeks) significantly enhanced the expression of TGFbeta, IGF-I, collagen-Ialpha, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNA. Leptin also protected against RA-induced apoptosis, as estimated by soluble DNA fractions and DNA laddering patterns subsequent to 10 days of culture. The expression profiles of Bax-alpha and Bcl-2 mRNAs indicated that leptin per se significantly protected against apoptosis throughout the entire incubation period. Furthermore, the osteoblast marker OSF-2 was diminished, whereas the CD44 osteocyte marker gene expression was stimulated, indicating a transition into preosteocytes. In terms of osteoclastic signaling, leptin significantly augmented the mRNA levels of both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). In summary, continuous leptin exposure of iliac crest osteoblasts, promotes collagen synthesis, cell differentiation and in vitro mineralization, as well as cell survival and transition into preosteocytes. Leptin may also facilitate osteoblastic signaling to the osteoclast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.10156DOI Listing
October 2002