Publications by authors named "Jan G Aalders"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Less gastrointestinal toxicity after adjuvant radiotherapy on a small pelvic field compared to a standard pelvic field in patients with endometrial carcinoma.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2012 Sep;22(7):1177-86

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Objective: Radiotherapy is associated with short-term and long-term morbidity. This study compared toxicity rates among patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC) treated with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on a small pelvic field (SmPF) in comparison with a standard pelvic field (StPF) or an extended field (EF).

Methods: Patients with EC preoperatively diagnosed with high-grade histological disease (grade 3 endometrioid, papillary serous, clear cell, and mixed tumor type) or cervical involvement were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and lymphadenectomy in the University Medical Center Groningen between 1999 and 2008. Patients who received adjuvant EBRT were included in this study. External beam radiation therapy on SmPF (includes only the central pelvis and proximal vagina) was applied in case of negative lymph nodes after adequate lymphadenectomy (≥10 lymph nodes removed at the bilateral obturator and external iliac nodal stations). In case of positive pelvic lymph nodes or inadequate lymphadenectomy, EBRT on StPF was given. External beam radiation therapy on EF was applied in case of common iliac and/or para-aortic lymph node metastases. Retrospectively, using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0, acute toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, whereas late toxicity was scored, from 3 months onward after treatment.

Results: Toxicity could be evaluated in 75 patients treated with SmPF (n = 33), StPF (n = 28), and EF EBRT (n = 14). Most patients with late adverse events had also reported toxicity during radiotherapy (71%). The most common late adverse events were gastrointestinal tract related, more frequently present in the StPF group (60.7%) compared to SmPF (33.3%; P = 0.032). In particular, nausea and anorexia were more frequent in the StPF group (32.1%) compared to the SmPF group (3.0%; P = 0.004), as well as ileus (14.3% vs 0%, P = 0.039, respectively).

Conclusions: Treatment with adjuvant EBRT on SmPF results in less gastrointestinal late adverse events compared to treatment with EBRT on StPF in patients with surgically staged EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0b013e31826302ddDOI Listing
September 2012

Endometrial cancer--revisiting the importance of pelvic and para aortic lymph nodes.

Gynecol Oncol 2007 Jan 28;104(1):222-31. Epub 2006 Nov 28.

Department of Gynecological Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby Sygehus, Aarhus, Denmark.

In 1998, FIGO (International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians) required a change from clinical to surgical staging in early endometrial cancer. This staging requirement raised numerous controversies around the importance of determining nodal status and its impact on outcomes. A diversity of opinions exists as to the actual benefits and toxicities associated with surgical staging which includes lymph node sampling, ranging from those whose opinion is that staging is required for all patients even when the a priori risk of nodal involvement is extremely low through to those who consider that staging is unnecessary in any patient. While knowledge of the presence or absence of extra uterine sites of disease may change treatment approaches and direct different treatment interventions in some patients, the impact of those changes on survival is much less clear. This paper examines recommendations for surgical staging in various subgroups of patients with clinically early endometrial cancer and the impact on survival and toxicity of the various approaches and the subsequent use of adjuvant irradiation and/or chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2006.10.013DOI Listing
January 2007

Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006 Nov 14;66(3):699-705. Epub 2006 Aug 14.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery.

Methods And Materials: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB1 to IVA treated with (chemo) radiation between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed. Patients underwent gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after completion of treatment. Cervical biopsy samples were taken from patients judged to be operable. In case of residual cancer, salvage surgery was performed.

Results: Between 1994 and 2001, 169 consecutive cervical cancer patients received primary (chemo) radiation, of whom 4 were lost to follow-up. Median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 44-71) and median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR, 1.5-5.9). In each of 111 patients a biopsy sample was taken, of which 90 (81%) showed no residual tumor. Vital tumor cells were found in 21 of 111 patients (19%). Salvage surgery was performed in 13 of 21 (62%) patients; of these patients, 5 (38%) achieved long-term, complete remission after salvage surgery (median follow-up, 5.2 years; range, 3.9-8.8 years). All patients with residual disease who did not undergo operation (8/21) died of progressive disease. Locoregional control was more often obtained in patients who underwent operation (7 of 13) than in patients who were not selected for salvage surgery (0 of 8 patients) (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after (chemo) radiation with cervical biopsies allows identification of those cervical cancer patients who have residual local disease, of whom a small but significant proportion may be salvaged by surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.05.039DOI Listing
November 2006

Surgery by consultant gynecologic oncologists improves survival in patients with ovarian carcinoma.

Cancer 2006 Feb;106(3):589-98

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Consultant gynecologic oncologists from the regional Comprehensive Cancer Center assisted community gynecologists in the surgical treatment of patients with ovarian carcinoma when they were invited. For this report, the authors evaluated the effects of primary surgery by a gynecologic oncologist on treatment outcome.

Methods: The hospital files from 680 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma who were diagnosed between 1994 and 1997 in the northern part of the Netherlands were abstracted. Treatment results were analyzed according to the operating physician's education by using survival curves and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.

Results: Primary surgery was performed on 184 patients by gynecologic oncologists, and on 328 patients by general gynecologists. Gynecologic oncologists followed surgical guidelines more strictly compared with general gynecologists (patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] Stage I-II disease, 55% vs. 33% [P=0.01]; patients with FIGO Stage III disease, 60% vs. 40% [P=0.003]) and more often removed all macroscopic tumor in patients with FIGO Stage III disease (24% vs. 12%; P=0.02). When patients were stratified according to FIGO stage, the 5-year overall survival rate was 86% versus 70% (P=0.03) for patients with Stage I-II disease and 21% versus 13% (P=0.02) for patients with Stage III-IV disease who underwent surgery by gynecologic oncologists and general gynecologists, respectively. The hazards ratio for patients who underwent surgery by gynecologic oncologists was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.61-1.03; adjusted for patient age, disease stage, type of hospital, and chemotherapy); when patients age 75 years and older were excluded, the hazards ratio fell to 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.94) in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: The surgical treatment of patients with ovarian carcinoma by gynecologic oncologists occurred more often according to surgical guidelines, tumor removal more often was complete, and survival was improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21616DOI Listing
February 2006

Preoperative serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels in clinical decision making for patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2005 Mar;23(7):1455-62

Department of Gynecological Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To prevent morbidity associated with double modality treatment, early-stage cervical cancer patients should only be offered surgery when there is a low likelihood for adjuvant radiotherapy. We analyzed whether serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) analysis allows better preoperative identification of patients with a low likelihood for adjuvant radiotherapy than currently used clinical parameters.

Patients And Methods: In a cohort study, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, tumor size, and preoperative serum SCC-ag levels, as determined by enzyme immunoassay, were related to the frequency of postoperative indications for adjuvant radiotherapy in 337 surgically treated, FIGO stage IB/IIA, squamous cell cervical cancer patients.

Results: In patients with normal preoperative SCC-ag, 16% of IB1 and 29% of IB2/IIA had postoperative indications for adjuvant radiotherapy, in contrast to 57% of IB1 and 74% of IB2/IIA patients with elevated (> 1.9 ng/mL) serum SCC-ag (P < .001). Serum SCC-ag was the only independent predictor for a postoperative indication for radiotherapy (odds ratio, 7.1; P < .001). Furthermore, in IB1 patients that did not have indications for adjuvant radiotherapy, 15% of patients with elevated preoperative serum SCC-ag levels recurred within 2 years, compared with 1.6% of patients with normal serum SCC-ag levels (P = .02).

Conclusion: In early-stage cervical cancer, determination of serum SCC-ag levels allows more refined preoperative estimation of the likelihood for adjuvant radiotherapy than current clinical parameters, and simultaneously identifies patients at high risk for recurrence when treated with surgery only. The role of preoperative serum SCC-ag in the management of patients with early-stage cervical cancer deserves further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.02.123DOI Listing
March 2005

Lymphvascular space involvement: an independent prognostic factor in endometrial cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2005 Mar;96(3):799-804

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Groningen University Medical Center, CMC V, 4th floor, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Investigation: To evaluate whether lymphvascular space involvement (LVSI) is a risk factor for relapse of disease and lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer.

Methods: From 1978 till 2003, 609 patients with epithelial endometrial cancer were treated at the Groningen University Medical Center. The association of LVSI and relapse of disease was evaluated in the total group of 609 patients and in a 'low' and 'high' risk stage I endometrial cancer group. In 239 surgically staged patients, the relation of LVSI and lymph node metastasis was investigated.

Results: The median age at diagnosis was 63 years (range 27-92 years) with a median follow-up of 58 months (range 0-236 months). More than half of the patients (56%) received adjuvant radiotherapy. LVSI was present in 123 patients (25,6%), and a prognostic factor for relapse of disease (multivariate analysis, P < 0.0001). In the 'low' and 'high' risk stage I endometrial cancer patients an increase of 2.6 times in relapse of disease was observed in the presence of LVSI. LVSI positive tumors were more likely to have metastasized to the pelvic lymph nodes (multivariate analysis, P = 0.001). In patients with proven negative nodes, LVSI was a prognostic factor for relapse of disease (univariate analysis, P = 0.02).

Conclusion: LVSI is a predictor of nodal disease and an independent prognostic factor for relapse of disease in all stages of endometrial cancer. Patients with stage I endometrial cancer with positive LVSI are at risk for relapse of disease and might therefore benefit from adjuvant therapy.

Content: The presence of lymphvascular space involvement (LVSI) in endometrial cancer is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of pelvic lymph node metastases and/or relapse of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2004.11.033DOI Listing
March 2005

Vulvar carcinoma. The price of less radical surgery.

Cancer 2002 Dec;95(11):2331-8

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The objective of this study was to determine whether modifications in the treatment of patients with vulvar carcinoma influence the rates of recurrence and survival.

Methods: Between 1982 and 1997, 253 patients with T1 and T2 invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were treated by essentially the same team of gynecologic oncologists, and 168 patients (Group I) underwent radical vulvectomy with en bloc inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy. Standard therapy was changed in 1993, and 85 patients (Group II) underwent wide local excision with inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy through separate incisions. The rates of recurrence and survival were compared between both groups.

Results: In Group II, the overall recurrence rate (33.3%) within 4 years was increased compared with Group I (19.9%; P = 0.03). In Group II, 5 of 79 patients (6.3%) developed fatal groin or skin bridge recurrences compared with 2 of 159 patients (1.3%) in Group I (P = 0.029); this did not result in a difference in overall survival. In Group II, 40 of 79 patients had tumor free margins measuring 8 mm, resulting in no local recurrences (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: The current study showed that fatal recurrences in either the groin or the skin bridge were more frequent after wide local excision and inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy through separate incisions; however, probably due to lack of power, this did not result in shorter survival. In 40 of 79 patients, the histologic margins measured
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.10969DOI Listing
December 2002

Vulvar melanoma: is there a role for sentinel lymph node biopsy?

Cancer 2002 Jan;94(2):486-91

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the author's recent, preliminary experience with the sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with vulvar melanoma and to compare this experience with treatment and follow-up of patients with vulvar melanomas who were treated previously at their institution.

Methods: From 1997, sentinel lymph node procedure with the combined technique (99mTechnetium-labeled nanocolloid and Patente Blue-V) was performed as a standard staging procedure for patients with vulvar melanoma with a thickness > 1 mm and no clinically suspicious inguinofemoral lymph nodes. For the current study, clinicopathologic data from all 33 patients with vulvar melanoma who were treated between 1978 and 2000 at the University Hospital Groningen were reviewed and analyzed.

Results: From January 1997 until December 2000, identification of sentinel lymph nodes was successful in all nine patients who were referred for treatment of vulvar melanoma. Three patients underwent subsequent complete inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy because of metastatic sentinel lymph nodes. In follow-up, groin recurrences (in-transit metastases) occurred in two of nine patients, both 12 months after primary treatment. Both patients had melanomas with a thickness > 4 mm and previously had negative sentinel lymph nodes. There was a trend toward more frequent groin recurrences in patients after undergoing the sentinel lymph node procedure (2 of 9 patients) compared with 24 historic control patients (0 of 24 patients; P = 0.06). Five of 33 patients developed local recurrences: Two patients had groin recurrences, and 11 patients developed distant metastases. Twelve patients died of vulvar melanoma. Seventeen patients with a median follow-up of 66 months (range, 9-123 months) are currently alive (overall survival rate, 52%).

Conclusions: Although the numbers were small, this study showed that the sentinel lymph node procedure is capable of identifying patients who have occult lymph node metastases and who may benefit from lymphadenectomy for locoregional control and prevention of distant metastases. However, the data also suggest that the sentinel lymph node procedure may increase the risk of locoregional recurrences (in-transit metastases), especially in patients with thick melanomas. The potential role of the sentinel lymph node procedure as an alternative method of lymph node staging in patients with vulvar melanoma needs further investigation only within the protection of clinical trials and probably should be restricted to patients with melanomas with intermediate thickness (1-4 mm).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.10230DOI Listing
January 2002

Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen and CYFRA 21-1 in cervical cancer treatment.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 Jan;52(1):23-32

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To analyze whether serum squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen and cytokeratin-19 fragments (CYFRA) levels can assist in selecting patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who will benefit from combined treatment or additive surgery.

Methods And Materials: Of 114 patients with cervical cancer Stage IB-IV, the first 39 patients received radiotherapy, the following 75 patients received identical radiotherapy plus concomitant chemotherapy (3 cycles of carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil). SCC antigen and CYFRA 21-1 serum levels were measured before treatment, after therapy, and during follow-up. Baseline tumor markers were related to tumor stage and size and clinical outcome.

Results: Before treatment, SCC antigen was elevated (>1.9 microg/L) in 60% and CYFRA 21-1 (>2.2 microg/L) in 46% of patients. For all patients, disease-free survival (DFS) was better after combined treatment (67% vs. 43%, p < 0.0005). For patients with elevated baseline SCC antigen, DFS was better after combination therapy (67% vs. 27%, p = 0.001) which resulted more frequently in a normal SCC antigen (93% vs. 65%, p = 0.004). In contrast, in those with a normal baseline CYFRA 21-1, combined therapy resulted in a better DFS (p = 0.04). Patients who achieved a normal SCC antigen or CYFRA 21-1 after treatment had a better DFS (respectively 63 vs. 17% and 64 vs. 30%). Elevated SCC antigen posttreatment indicated residual tumor in 11/12 patients (92%), elevated CYFRA 21-1 in 7/10 patients (70%). Forty-seven patients had a tumor recurrence. At recurrence, SCC antigen was raised in 70% and CYFRA 21-1 in 69%.

Conclusions: In patients with an elevated pretreatment SCC antigen, SCC antigen normalized more frequently with combined treatment and those patients had a better DFS. Elevated SCC antigen or CYFRA 21-1 levels after treatment completion indicated residual tumor in respectively 92% and 70%. The presence of elevated posttreatment levels of SCC antigen or CYFRA 21-1 indicates the need for additional salvage surgery. SCC antigen proved to be superior to CYFRA 21-1 in predicting DFS and disease recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0360-3016(01)01805-3DOI Listing
January 2002
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