Publications by authors named "Jan E Aagaard"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Selection on plant male function genes identifies candidates for reproductive isolation of yellow monkeyflowers.

PLoS Genet 2013 5;9(12):e1003965. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation promises insight into speciation and the origins of biological diversity. While progress has been made in identifying genes underlying barriers to reproduction that function after fertilization (post-zygotic isolation), we know much less about earlier acting pre-zygotic barriers. Of particular interest are barriers involved in mating and fertilization that can evolve extremely rapidly under sexual selection, suggesting they may play a prominent role in the initial stages of reproductive isolation. A significant challenge to the field of speciation genetics is developing new approaches for identification of candidate genes underlying these barriers, particularly among non-traditional model systems. We employ powerful proteomic and genomic strategies to study the genetic basis of conspecific pollen precedence, an important component of pre-zygotic reproductive isolation among yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus spp.) resulting from male pollen competition. We use isotopic labeling in combination with shotgun proteomics to identify more than 2,000 male function (pollen tube) proteins within maternal reproductive structures (styles) of M. guttatus flowers where pollen competition occurs. We then sequence array-captured pollen tube exomes from a large outcrossing population of M. guttatus, and identify those genes with evidence of selective sweeps or balancing selection consistent with their role in pollen competition. We also test for evidence of positive selection on these genes more broadly across yellow monkeyflowers, because a signal of adaptive divergence is a common feature of genes causing reproductive isolation. Together the molecular evolution studies identify 159 pollen tube proteins that are candidate genes for conspecific pollen precedence. Our work demonstrates how powerful proteomic and genomic tools can be readily adapted to non-traditional model systems, allowing for genome-wide screens towards the goal of identifying the molecular basis of genetically complex traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3854799PMC
August 2014

Duplicate abalone egg coat proteins bind sperm lysin similarly, but evolve oppositely, consistent with molecular mimicry at fertilization.

PLoS Genet 2013 7;9(2):e1003287. Epub 2013 Feb 7.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Sperm and egg proteins constitute a remarkable paradigm in evolutionary biology: despite their fundamental role in mediating fertilization (suggesting stasis), some of these molecules are among the most rapidly evolving ones known, and their divergence can lead to reproductive isolation. Because of strong selection to maintain function among interbreeding individuals, interacting fertilization proteins should also exhibit a strong signal of correlated divergence among closely related species. We use evidence of such molecular co-evolution to target biochemical studies of fertilization in North Pacific abalone (Haliotis spp.), a model system of reproductive protein evolution. We test the evolutionary rates (d(N)/d(S)) of abalone sperm lysin and two duplicated egg coat proteins (VERL and VEZP14), and find a signal of co-evolution specific to ZP-N, a putative sperm binding motif previously identified by homology modeling. Positively selected residues in VERL and VEZP14 occur on the same face of the structural model, suggesting a common mode of interaction with sperm lysin. We test this computational prediction biochemically, confirming that the ZP-N motif is sufficient to bind lysin and that the affinities of VERL and VEZP14 are comparable. However, we also find that on phylogenetic lineages where lysin and VERL evolve rapidly, VEZP14 evolves slowly, and vice versa. We describe a model of sexual conflict that can recreate this pattern of anti-correlated evolution by assuming that VEZP14 acts as a VERL mimic, reducing the intensity of sexual conflict and slowing the co-evolution of lysin and VERL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3567151PMC
June 2013

The Tegula tango: a coevolutionary dance of interacting, positively selected sperm and egg proteins.

Evolution 2012 Jun 9;66(6):1681-94. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA.

Reproductive proteins commonly show signs of rapid divergence driven by positive selection. The mechanisms driving these changes have remained ambiguous in part because interacting male and female proteins have rarely been examined. We isolate an egg protein the vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL) from Tegula, a genus of free-spawning marine snails. Like VERL from abalone, Tegula VERL is a major component of the VE surrounding the egg, includes a conserved zona pellucida (ZP) domain at its C-terminus, and possesses a unique, negatively charged domain of about 150 amino acids implicated in interactions with the positively charged lysin. Unlike for abalone VERL, where this unique VERL domain occurs in a tandem array of 22 repeats, Tegula VERL has just one such domain. Interspecific comparisons show that both lysin and the VERL domain diverge via positive selection, whereas the ZP domain evolves neutrally. Rates of nonsynonymous substitution are correlated between lysin and the VERL domain, consistent with sexual antagonism, although lineage-specific effects, perhaps owing to different ecologies, may alter the relative evolutionary rates of sperm- and egg-borne proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01530.xDOI Listing
June 2012

The molecular basis of sex: linking yeast to human.

Mol Biol Evol 2011 Jul 31;28(7):1963-6. Epub 2011 Jan 31.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, USA.

Species-specific recognition between egg and sperm, a crucial event that marks the beginning of fertilization in multicellular organisms, mirrors the binding between haploid cells of opposite mating type in unicellular eukaryotes such as yeast. However, as implied by the lack of sequence similarity between sperm-binding regions of invertebrate and vertebrate egg coat proteins, these interactions are thought to rely on completely different molecular entities. Here, we argue that these recognition systems are, in fact, related: despite being separated by 0.6-1 billion years of evolution, functionally essential domains of a mollusc sperm receptor and a yeast mating protein adopt the same 3D fold as egg zona pellucida proteins mediating the binding between gametes in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3167683PMC
July 2011

Functional diversification and evolution of antifreeze proteins in the antarctic fish Lycodichthys dearborni.

J Mol Evol 2010 Aug 5;71(2):111-8. Epub 2010 Aug 5.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) have independently evolved in many organisms. AFPs act by binding to ice crystals, effectively lowering the freezing point. AFPs are often at high copy number in a genome and diversity exists between copies. Type III antifreeze proteins are found in Arctic and Antarctic eel pouts, and have previously been shown to evolve under positive selection. Here we combine molecular and proteomic techniques to understand the molecular evolution and diversity of Type III antifreeze proteins in a single individual Antarctic fish Lycodichthys dearborni. Our expressed sequence tag (EST) screen reveals that at least seven different AFP variants are transcribed, which are ultimately translated into five different protein isoforms. The isoforms have identical 66 base pair signal sequences and different numbers of subsequent ice-binding domains followed by a stop codon. Isoforms with one ice-binding unit (monomer), two units (dimer), and multiple units (multimer) were present in the EST library. We identify a previously uncharacterized protein dimer, providing further evidence that there is diversity between Type III AFP isoforms, perhaps driven by positive selection for greater thermal hysteresis. Proteomic analysis confirms that several of these isoforms are translated and present in the liver. Our molecular evolution study shows that paralogs have diverged under positive selection. We hypothesize that antifreeze protein diversity is an important contributor to depressing the serum freezing point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-010-9367-6DOI Listing
August 2010

ZP domain proteins in the abalone egg coat include a paralog of VERL under positive selection that binds lysin and 18-kDa sperm proteins.

Mol Biol Evol 2010 Jan;27(1):193-203

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, USA.

Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm-egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msp221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877556PMC
January 2010

Bindin from a sea star.

Evol Dev 2009 Jul-Aug;11(4):376-81

Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6.

The genetic basis for the evolution of development includes genes that encode proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs. Previous studies of the sperm acrosomal protein bindin have helped to characterize the adaptive evolution of gamete compatibility and speciation in sea urchins. The absence of evidence for bindin expression in taxa other than the Echinoidea has limited such studies to sea urchins, and led to the suggestion that bindin might be a sea urchin-specific molecule. Here we characterize the gene that encodes bindin in a broadcast-spawning asterinid sea star (Patiria miniata). We describe the sequence and domain structure of a full-length bindin cDNA and its single intron. In comparison with sea urchins, P. miniata bindin is larger but the two molecules share several general features of their domain structure and some sequence features of two domains. Our results extend the known evolutionary history of bindin from the Mesozoic (among the crown group sea urchins) into the early Paleozoic (and the common ancestor of eleutherozoans), and present new opportunities for understanding the role of bindin molecular evolution in sexual selection, life history evolution, and speciation among sea stars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-142X.2009.00344.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2763509PMC
August 2009

Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006 Nov 3;103(46):17302-7. Epub 2006 Nov 3.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Box 357730, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0603125103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1859926PMC
November 2006

Relaxed selection among duplicate floral regulatory genes in Lamiales.

J Mol Evol 2006 Oct 4;63(4):493-503. Epub 2006 Oct 4.

Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

Polyploidization is a prevalent mode of genome diversification within plants. Most gene duplicates arising from polyploidization (paralogs) are typically lost, although a subset may be maintained under selection due to dosage, partitioning of gene function, or acquisition of novel functions. Because they experience selection in the presence of other duplicate loci across the genome, interactions among genes may also play a significant role in the maintenance of paralogs resulting from polyploidization. Previously, we identified duplicates of the genes LFY/FLO and AP3/DEF that directly interact in a floral regulatory pathway and are thought to be the result of ancient polyploidization in the Lamiales (> 50 mya). Although duplicates of MADS box genes including AP3/DEF are common throughout the angiosperm lineage, LFY/FLO duplicates in Lamiales are the first reported outside of tetraploid taxa. In order to explore hypotheses for the joint preservation of these interacting floral regulatory genes including novel LFY/FLO paralogs, here we clone FLO and DEF duplicates from additional Lamiales taxa and apply codon substitution models to test how selection acts on both genes following duplication. We find acceleration in the ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous nucleotide substitutions for one (FLO) or both (DEF) paralogs that appears to be due to relaxed purifying selection as opposed to positive selection and shows a different pattern among functional domains of these genes. Several mechanisms are discussed that might be responsible for preservation of co-orthologs of FLO and DEF in Lamiales, including interactions among the genes of this regulatory pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-005-0306-xDOI Listing
October 2006

Evolution of reproductive proteins from animals and plants.

Reproduction 2006 Jan;131(1):11-22

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Box 357730, Seattle, USA.

Sexual reproduction is a fundamental biological process common among eukaryotes. Because of the significance of reproductive proteins to fitness, the diversity and rapid divergence of proteins acting at many stages of reproduction is surprising and suggests a role of adaptive diversification in reproductive protein evolution. Here we review the evolution of reproductive proteins acting at different stages of reproduction among animals and plants, emphasizing common patterns. Although we are just beginning to understand these patterns, by making comparisons among stages of reproduction for diverse organisms we can begin to understand the selective forces driving reproductive protein diversity and the functional consequences of reproductive protein evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/rep.1.00357DOI Listing
January 2006

Duplication of floral regulatory genes in the Lamiales.

Am J Bot 2005 Aug;92(8):1284-93

Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 USA;

Duplication of some floral regulatory genes has occurred repeatedly in angiosperms, whereas others are thought to be single-copy in most lineages. We selected three genes that interact in a pathway regulating floral development conserved among higher tricolpates (LFY/FLO, UFO/FIM, and AP3/DEF) and screened for copy number among families of Lamiales that are closely related to the model species Antirrhinum majus. We show that two of three genes have duplicated at least twice in the Lamiales. Phylogenetic analyses of paralogs suggest that an ancient whole genome duplication shared among many families of Lamiales occurred after the ancestor of these families diverged from the lineage leading to Veronicaceae (including the single-copy species A. majus). Duplication is consistent with previous patterns among angiosperm lineages for AP3/DEF, but this is the first report of functional duplicate copies of LFY/FLO outside of tetraploid species. We propose Lamiales taxa will be good models for understanding mechanisms of duplicate gene preservation and how floral regulatory genes may contribute to morphological diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.92.8.1284DOI Listing
August 2005
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