Publications by authors named "Jalil Jaafari"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Adsorption of 4-Nitrophenol on calcium alginate-multiwall carbon nanotube beads: Modeling, kinetics, equilibriums and reusability studies.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 17;185:66-76. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Research Center of Health and Environment, School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study calcium alginate-multiwall carbon nanotube (CA/MWCNTs) was synthesized using (CA) calcium alginate and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs), and its efficiency in adsorption of 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) in aqueous solution was studied. The structure and properties of the synthesized adsorbent were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental design was performed using Box-Behnken design (BBD) in which variables pH, CA/MWCNTs, and temperature were examined. The results of the effect of temperature on the removal efficiency of 4-NP showed that the adsorption efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The results of nonlinear isotherm and kinetics models showed that Langmuir and pseudo-second-order models were more consistent than other models. The maximum adsorption capacity of 4-NP in this study by CA, MWCNTs, and CA/MWCNTs was 136, 168.4, and 58.8 mg/g, respectively, which indicates that the use of MWCNTs on CA could increase the adsorption capacity. The results of reuse of the synthesized adsorbent at 4-NP removal also showed that after 5 reuse of the adsorbent, the removal of 4-NP using CA/MWCNTs is reduced by about 10%, which shows that the synthesized adsorbent can be used several times to adsorb contaminants without significant reduction in the efficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.081DOI Listing
June 2021

Associations between short term exposure to ambient particulate matter from dust storm and anthropogenic sources and inflammatory biomarkers in healthy young adults.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 14;761:144503. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This study examined the association between particulate matter from anthropogenic and natural sources and inflammatory biomarkers, including hs-CRP, IL-6, sTNF-RII, and WBCs, in two groups of healthy young subjects. We followed up subjects of two panels (16 to 22 years old), including 22 subjects selected from the urban area (Tehran city) with high-level pollution background and 22 subjects selected from the rural area (Ahmadabad) with low-level pollution background. In each group, we collected 4 times blood samples in various air pollution conditions, In the subjects of the urban group, there was a substantial difference (p < 0.05) between inversion days and cold season control days, and between dust storm days and warm season control days for concentrations of hs-CRP, IL-6, and WBCs biomarkers. In the subjects of the rural group, a significant difference could be detected in the concentration of hs-CRP, IL-6, and WBCs biomarkers (p < 0.05) between inversion days and cold season control days, and between dust storm and warm control days. We found that the difference in concentrations of hs-CRP, IL-6, and WBCs biomarkers between dust storm days and warm control conditions in the rural group were higher than the difference in inversion and cold control conditions, which can be attributed to low background air pollution in the rural area. In the urban area, the health effect of anthropogenic sources of PM is higher than the dust storm condition, which can be attributed to the stronger effect of anthropogenic pollution effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144503DOI Listing
March 2021

Effective adsorptive removal of reactive dyes by magnetic chitosan nanoparticles: Kinetic, isothermal studies and response surface methodology.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 8;164:344-355. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran. Electronic address:

In the present study, magnetic chitosan (MC) was synthesized, characterized, and used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Reactive Red 141 (RR-141) and Reactive Yellow 14 (RY-14) dyes. Synthesized magnetic chitosan nanoparticles were used for characterization with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effect of the pH, concentration of pollutants, and adsorbent dosage on the amount of adsorption was studied. Under optimum conditions, the removal rate of RR-141 and RY-14 was 99.5 and 92.7%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities were obtained 98.8 and 89.7 mg/g for the RR141 and RY-14, respectively. The results from isotherm models showed that the adsorption of dyes on magnetic chitosan nanocomposite correlated well with Freundlich model, whereas the kinetics studies revealed that the adsorption process was fitted by pseudo-first-order for both dyes. Results of the reusability tests confirmed the magnetic chitosan (MC) nanoparticles could be used for several times. Based on the experimental results obtained, the MC has adequate potential for the treatment of water contaminated with anionic dyes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.07.042DOI Listing
December 2020

The acute effects of short term exposure to particulate matter from natural and anthropogenic sources on inflammation and coagulation markers in healthy young adults.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Sep 15;735:139417. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Airborne particulate matter is associated with increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution conditions and MDA, vWF, and fibrinogen markers in the blood of two panels of healthy young individuals in an urban area in Tehran city with a high air pollution background and another group was living in a rural area (Ahmad Abad Mostofi), with a low air pollution background. In each group, 4 blood samples were taken as follows: one in inversion days, the second in winter, but during the existence of normal condition in terms of air pollution, the third sample in the spring during the normal condition in terms of air pollution and the fourth sample during the dust storm conditions. In the urban and rural groups, there was a significant difference between the concentration of MDA, vWF, fibrinogen between inversion and cold season control conditions, and between dust storm conditions and warm season control conditions (p < 0.05). The results showed that the association of dust storm condition on the measured biomarkers was stronger than the inversion condition, which health consideration in the dust conditions be taken into account similar to the inversion conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139417DOI Listing
September 2020

Environmental exposure to endotoxin and its health outcomes: A systematic review.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jun 1;174:236-244. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Water Quality Research (CWQI), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Health Equity Research Center (HERC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Exposure to endotoxin occurs environmentally and occupationally. There are several differences between them in terms of the variety and severity of health outcomes, possible exposed groups and type and route of exposure. Occupational exposures caused adverse health outcomes in almost all cases, but there is disparity in the incidence of significant health outcomes due to environmental exposure to endotoxin. This study has therefore endeavoured to investigate health outcomes from environmental exposure to endotoxin. A systematic review was conducted of three databases and non-occupational studies reporting the environmental concentration of endotoxin, and observed health outcomes in exposed groups were included in the review (n = 27). The studies showed that first exposure to endotoxin occurs in infancy by the inhalation route. Inhalation is the only exposure route that can induce inflammation as the main symptom of exposure to endotoxin. The studies included were conducted using four approaches: molecular immunology, measurement of lung volumes, clinical sensitisation test and diagnosis of asthmatic and respiratory symptoms such as wheezing. By the immunological approach, all the included studies reported that environmental exposure to endotoxin, especially at a younger age, has a protective effect on the incidence of asthma in adolescence. The main disparity observed was in studies using the approach of diagnosed asthma. Overall, however, they confirm the protective effect of exposure to endotoxin although, in the case of children with non-atopic asthma, the results could be different.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.02.046DOI Listing
June 2019

The concentration data of heavy metals in vegetables of Guilan province, Iran.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 3;21:1704-1708. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

School of Public Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Food safety is a major problem currently facing the world and food consumption has been identified as the major pathway for human exposure to hazardous pollutants such as heavy metals. These datasets include the concentration of heavy metals like Cd, Pb, Cu, Ba, Co and Sn in selected vegetables in Guilan province and estimate daily intake of metals. The results of this dataset showed that the average concentration of heavy metals including Cd, Pb, Cu, Ba, Co and Sn in total vegetables were 0.55, 1.098, 4.095, 5.98, 0.69, and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. The mint showed higher levels of Pb, Cu and Co contamination compared to other vegetables. The estimated daily intakes of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ba, Co and Sn for children were 0.311, 0.622, 2.320, 3.388, 0.391, 0.119 µg/day, whereas for adults were 0.182, 0.363, 1.357, 1.98, 0.228, 0.069 mg/kg, respectively. The present data highlights that both adults and children consuming vegetables ingest significant amount of these metals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.10.114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249516PMC
December 2018

Optimization of heavy metal biosorption onto freshwater algae (Chlorella coloniales) using response surface methodology (RSM).

Chemosphere 2019 Feb 1;217:447-455. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study, the interaction of the initial metal concentration, time of reaction and Chlorella coloniales algae dose were taken for the biosorption of Cr, Cd, Co, Fe and As from aqueous solutions using the Box-Behnken design. The regression equation coefficients were calculated and the data confirmed the validity of second-order polynomial equation for the removal of Cr, Cd, Co, Fe and As with Chlorella coloniales algae. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value (R) for Cr, Cd, Co, Fe, and As, being respectively 0.998, 0.998, 0.995, 0.998 and 0.994. Heavy metal biosorption increased with the increase in time of reaction from 30 h to 100 h then smoothly steadily decreased. The biosorption capacity of Chlorella coloniales increased when initial Cd concentration was increased from 5 to 12 mg/L, and then no change was seen with further increasing in initial Cd concentration. At low concentrations of heavy metal, Chlorella coloniales showed its effectiveness for Cr, Co, Fe and As bioaccumulation, but at high concentrations of heavy metal bioaccumulation efficiency decreased Under optimal value of process parameters, maximum efficiencies for the removal of Cr, Cd, Co, Fe, and As were 97.8, 97.05, 95.15, 98.6 and 96.5% respectively. The results of the present study suggest that use of C. Coloniales algae can be a good alternative to the current expensive methods of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.205DOI Listing
February 2019

Tetracycline removal from aqueous solutions using zeolitic imidazolate frameworks with different morphologies: A mathematical modeling.

Chemosphere 2019 Feb 3;217:250-260. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80, Caixa Postal: 6121, CEP: 13083-862, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Technology of Chemistry, Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, 16/21 Azadliq Ave, Baku, Azerbaijan. Electronic address:

Concerns about environment pollution by antibiotics raised notable attention. In this context, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can produce an excellent platform for toxicant removal from water environments. In the current investigation, eight MOFs (ZIF-67-NO, ZIF-67-Cl, ZIF-67-SO, ZIF-67-OAC, ZIF-8-Octahedron, ZIF-8-Leaf, ZIF-8-Cuboid, and ZIF-8-Cube) with different chemical and textural compositions were synthesized, and furthermore, the adsorption of Tetracycline (TC) by them was evaluated. Also, the key experimental conditions were modeled using response surface methodology (RSM). Among the prepared MOFs, the highest tendency for TC removal was nominated to ZIF-67- Acetate (ZIF-67-OAC). By model optimization approach, the optimum system conditions as contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH and adsorbed antibiotic concentration were reported as 26.8 min, 0.63 g/L, 5.9, and 74.6 mg/L, respectively. The proposed equilibrium model showed that the TC accumulated on ZIF-67-OAC surface is reversible in multilayer with the highest monolayer capacity of 446.9 mg/g. Furthermore, based on separation factor (K), TC adsorption is more favorable at a higher amount of MOFs added. Moreover, according to the fitted kinetic model, the process was controlled by chemisorption. ZIF-67-OAC shows excellent structural stability during mechanical agitation in an aqueous environment, and the TC removal capacities of regenerated adsorbent did not change considerably at the end of cycle 4 compared to the first cycle. Considering the findings among the examined MOFs, the ZIF-67-OAC can be approached as a promising adsorbent for the removal of antibiotics from aqueous environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.166DOI Listing
February 2019

Characterization, kinetic, thermodynamic and isotherm data for diclofenac removal from aqueous solution by activated carbon derived from pine tree.

Data Brief 2018 Jun 22;18:1082-1087. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

School of Public Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

The usage of low cost material as adsorbent would be admirable from environmental point of view. Thus, herein, this data set present a simple method for providing an adsorbent from activated carbon derived from pine tree. The prepared adsorbent was applied to remove diclofenac from aqueous solution. The characterization data of the adsorbent was analyzed using FTIR method. The FTIR test results showed that adsorbent has a functional group that is useful in adsorption process. It was conducted in laboratory scale and the adsorption technique was batch technique. The information regarding isotherms of diclofenac adsorption were listed. The Langmuir isotherm was suitable for correlation of equilibrium data with correlation coefficient value of 0.999. Adsorption of diclofenac by adsorbent from activated carbon follows pseudo second order model with correlation coefficient value () of 0.9997. The data implied that the maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent to uptake diclofenac from aqueous solution was obtained 54.67 mg/g. The acquired data indicated that the adsorption of diclofenac by the adsorbent prepared from activated carbon derived from pine tree is a promising technique for treating diclofenac bearing wastewaters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.03.068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996302PMC
June 2018

Short-term effects of particle size fractions on lung function of late adolescents.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Aug 23;25(22):21822-21832. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although ambient air pollution has been linked to reduced lung function in healthy students, longitudinal studies that compare the response of asthmatic and healthy adolescents are lacking. To evaluate lung function responses to short-term ambient air particulate matter (PM, PM, and PM) levels, we conducted a study on high school students aged 15-18 years. The aim of this study was to assess effects of acute exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) on lung function in healthy and asthmatic late adolescents. We examined associations of lung function indices and ambient PM levels in 23 asthmatic and 23 healthy students. Paired-samples T test was used to evaluate the association of exposure to airborne PM concentrations with lung function test results (FVC, FEV, FEV/FVC, and FEF). We observed negative impact of exposure to an increased concentration of ambient air PM, PM, and PM on lung function parameters of asthmatic and healthy late adolescents. These findings are consistent with other similar short-term studies which have confirmed the adverse effect of PM air pollution. These associations were stronger in asthmatic subjects compared with those in healthy ones. There are significant adverse effects of ambient air PM on pulmonary function of adolescents, especially asthmatics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2264-zDOI Listing
August 2018

Data on pollutants content in the influent and effluent from wastewater treatment plant of Rasht in Guilan Province, Iran.

Data Brief 2018 Feb 15;16:271-275. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Data on this paper show the concentrations of COD, BOD, TSS, K, Ca, Na, Cl, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], Mn, Fe, Mg, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cd in the influent and effluent of wastewater, and also the nematode eggs, total and fecal coliform in effluents from wastewater treatment plant of Rasht, Guilan Province, in Iran. Measurements of pollutants in influent and effluent was measured according to standard methods (W.E. Federation and Association, A. P. H., 2005) [1]. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.11.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709296PMC
February 2018

Catalytic decomposition of 2-chlorophenol using an ultrasonic-assisted [email protected] system: Influence factors, pathway and mechanism study.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Feb 12;512:172-189. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

As a reusable sonocatalyst, magnetically separable [email protected] (FMT) was synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted wet impregnation method and was evaluated in the removal of 2-chlorophenol (2CP). Physical and chemical properties of the catalyst composite materials were investigated by all catalysts were systematically characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), and N-physisorption. The efficiency and kinetics of 2CP removal by FMT-assisted sonocatalysis (FMT-US) was systematically investigated under various operational parameters i.e. pH, FMT and 2CP concentration, temperature and ultrasonic power. The results indicated that 0.4gL FMT dosage, pH 5, temperature of 35°C as well as 50 w ultrasound power are the most favorable conditions for the degradation of the 2CP. Furthermore, both of the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were produced in the reaction, however, superoxide radicals were assumed to be the dominating reactive species for the 2CP degradation, according to the scavenging tests and electron paramagnetic resonance tests. Moreover, the FMT catalyst exhibited a high reusability and stability in the US/FMT system during the five repetitive experiments. The intermediate products were identified by GC-MS, thereby a possible degradation pathway is proposed. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and corresponding total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies were 64.9% and 56.7%, respectively. Finally, toxicity tests showed that the toxicity of the solution increased during the first 5min and then decreased significantly with the progress of the oxidation. The mechanisms of ultrasound irritation enhanced FMT activation were also proposed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.10.015DOI Listing
February 2018

CFD modeling of incinerator to increase PCBs removal from outlet gas.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2015 12;13:60. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Incineration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is an important alternative way for disposal of this type of hazardous waste. PCBs are very stable compounds and do not decompose readily. Individuals can be exposed to PCBs through several ways and damaged by their effects. A well design of a waste incinerator will convert these components to unharmfull materials. In this paper we have studied the design parameters of an incinerator with numerical approaches. The CFD software Fluent 6.3 is used for modelling of an incinerator. The effects of several baffles inside the incinerator on flow distribution and heat is investigated. The results show that baffles can reduce eddy flows, increase retaining times, and efficiencies. The baffles reduced cool areas and increased efficiencies of heat as maximum temperature in two and three baffle embedded incinerator were 100 and 200 °C higher than the non-baffle case, respectively. Also the gas emission leaves the incinerator with a lower speed across a longer path and the turbulent flow in the incinerator is stronger.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-015-0212-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534144PMC
August 2015

Heavy metal contamination in street dusts with various land uses in Zahedan, Iran.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2015 Mar 9;94(3):382-6. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

A total of 78 street dust samples (75 within city and 3 from suburban) were collected from different areas with various land use within the city of Zahedan in November 2013 at the end of a long dry period. After digestion, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured by using ICP-OES. The degree of pollution by heavy metals was assessed with respect to the background concentration by calculation and comparison of the pollution index, integrated pollution index (IPI) and enrichment factor (EF). The mean IPI values (aggregate of six heavy metals) in commercial, high traffic, industrial, urban park, and residential were 3.65, 2.76, 1.68, 1.53 and 1.25, respectively. The results of EF analysis showed almost all sampled urban land use types to be enriched in heavy metals compared with sampled background levels, suggesting heavy metals contamination of street dust in the urban center is from anthropogenic sources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1453-9DOI Listing
March 2015

Influence of upflow velocity on performance and biofilm characteristics of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) in treating high-strength wastewater.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2014 25;12(1):139. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

One of the key parameters in Fluidized Bed reactors is the control of biofilm thickness and configuration. The effect of upflow velocity on performance and biofilm characteristics of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor was studied in treating Currant wastewater at various loading rates. The reactor used this study was made of a plexiglass column being 60 mm diameter, 140 cm height, and a volume of 3.95 L. The results demonstrated that the AFBR system is capable of handling an exceptionally high organic loading rate. At organic loading rates of 9.4 to 24.2 (kg COD m(-3)) at steady state, reactor performances with upflow velocities of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 (m min(-1)) were 89.3- 63.4, 96.9 - 79.6 and 95 - 73.4 percent, respectively. The average biomass concentration per unit volume of the AFBR (as gVSSatt L(-1) expended bed) decreased with the increase of upflow velocity in the range of 0.5-1 m min(-1) at all applied organic loading rates. The total biomass in the reactor increased with increases in the organic loading rate. The peak biomass concentration per unit volume (as gVSSatt L(-1) expended bed) was observed at the bottom part of the reactor, then it droped off slowly towards the top. The biofilm thickness increased from the bottom to the top of the reactor representing a stratification of the media in the AFBR. The bed porosity increased from the bottom to the top of the reactor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-014-0139-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4256795PMC
December 2014

Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the olive mill wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Apr 20;22(8):6288-97. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran,

Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3832-5DOI Listing
April 2015

Effect of exposure to O₃ , NO₂, and SO₂ on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalizations in Tabriz, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Feb 13;22(4):2817-23. Epub 2014 Sep 13.

Environmental Health Department of East Azerbaijan Province Health Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran,

Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem especially in the developing countries. We examined the associations between gaseous pollutants and hospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) among people living in Tabriz, a city in north western of Iran. We used the approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) using the AirQ 2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Center for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division. To assess human exposure and health effect, data were used for ozone as a1h average; for nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide as daily average concentrations. The association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was assessed using AirQ 2.2.3 model. The results of this study showed that 3 % (95 % CI 1.2-4.8 %) of HA COPD were attributed to O3 concentrations over 10 μg/m(3). Also, 0.9 % (95 % CI 0.1-2.2 %) and 0.4 % (95 % CI 0-1.1 %) of HA COPD were attributed to NO2 and SO2 concentrations over 10 μg/m(3), respectively. For every 10 μg/m(3) increase in O3, NO2, and SO2 concentrations, the risk of HA COPD increase to about 0.58, 0.38, and 0.44 %, respectively. We found significant positive associations between the levels of all air pollution and hospital admissions COPD. Otherwise, O3, NO2, and SO2 have a significant impact on COPD hospitalization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3512-5DOI Listing
February 2015

Study of trace elements in wet atmospheric precipitation in Tehran, Iran.

Environ Monit Assess 2014 Aug 10;186(8):5059-67. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

In this study, measurements of the trace metals Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe and Al were performed on 53 wet atmospheric precipitation samples (snow and rainwater) collected at a central site of Tehran. Samples were collected using a bulk sampler equipped with a high-density polyethylene funnel from November to May in 2011 and 2012 on the roof of a building in the city centre. Trace metals in the filtered samples were measured with ICP-MS. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that Al, which is principally a crustal-derived element, was the highest mean measured concentration. The pH ranged from 4.2 to 7.1 with a mean value of 5.1. Crustal enrichment factors (EFc) related to the relative abundance of elements in crustal material was calculated using Al as reference crustal. EFc calculations indicated that samples were not enriched with Fe and Cr but were, fairly to extremely, enriched with Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu. Factor component analysis with varimax-normalized rotation was conducted to find the probable sources of the measured species. This resulted in two factors with eigenvalues greater than unity. Factor 1 showed an anthropogenic source, mostly industrial combustion and local traffic emissions, for Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cu while factor 2 showed a crustal contribution for Al, Fe and Cr.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3759-9DOI Listing
August 2014

Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014 Jun 27;21(12):7319-28. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran,

Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2659-4DOI Listing
June 2014
-->