Publications by authors named "Iyer Aarti"

15 Publications

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Mobilized or marginalized? Understanding low-status groups' responses to social justice efforts led by high-status groups.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2021 May 6;120(5):1287-1316. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

School of Psychology.

Members of high-status groups (e.g., men) often lead social justice efforts that seek to benefit low-status groups (e.g., women), but little is known about how observers respond to such instances of visible and influential solidarity. We presented information about a nonprofit organization seeking to address gender (Study 1, = 198) or racial (Study 2, = 216) inequality, in which the leadership team was manipulated to include a numerical majority of either high-status group members or low-status group members. Members of low-status groups who read about the majority high-status leadership team reported lower levels of collective action intentions, compared with those who read about the majority low-status leadership team. Mediation analyses (Studies 1 and 2) and an experimental-causal-chain design (Study 3, = 405) showed that lower collective action intentions in response to the majority high-status leadership team were mediated by participants' perception of a specific problem presented by high-status group leaders (lower awareness of inequality) and lower levels of hope. Study 4 ( = 555) demonstrated that low-status group members responded more negatively to a majority high-status leadership team in an organization seeking to benefit their low-status ingroup (solidarity context), compared with organizations seeking to benefit other groups (nonsolidarity contexts). Results provide the first evidence that the presence of influential high-status group leaders can discourage members of low-status groups from joining a social justice effort that seeks to benefit their ingroup, and that these negative responses extend beyond preferences predicted by frameworks of ingroup bias and role congruity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000325DOI Listing
May 2021

The promise of a better group future: Cognitive alternatives increase students' self-efficacy and academic performance.

Br J Soc Psychol 2017 Dec 25;56(4):750-765. Epub 2017 May 25.

Department of Applied Psychology, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Drawing on classic social identity theorizing (Tajfel, Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations, London, UK, Academic Press, 1978), we propose that low-status minority group members' self-efficacy and performance on intellectual tasks can be enhanced by prompting them to believe in a better future for their group (i.e., increasing awareness of cognitive alternatives to the existing low-status position). Study 1 manipulated cognitive alternatives among 157 migrant workers' children in China, showing that self-efficacy was enhanced in the high compared to the low cognitive alternative condition. Study 2 extended this experimental finding among 114 migrant workers' children: Participants in the high cognitive alternative condition performed better on mathematics and attention tasks than did participants in the low cognitive alternative condition. Results highlight the power of believing in a better future for the collective as a means of enhancing self-efficacy and educational outcomes among members of disadvantaged groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12201DOI Listing
December 2017

JAB1/CSN5 inhibits the activity of Luman/CREB3 by promoting its degradation.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Sep 11;1829(9):921-9. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Luman/CREB3 (also called LZIP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound transcription factor that has been implicated in the ER stress response. In this study, we used the region of Luman containing the basic DNA-binding domain as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified the Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) or the COP9 signalosome complex unit 5 (CSN5) as an interacting protein. We confirmed their direct binding by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays, and verified the existence of such interaction in the cellular environment by mammalian two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Deletion mapping studies revealed that the MPN domain in JAB1 was essential and sufficient for the binding. JAB1 also colocalized with Luman in transfected cells. More interestingly, the nuclear form of Luman was shown to promote the translocation of JAB1 into the nucleus. We found that overexpression of JAB1 shortened the half-life of Luman by 67%, and repressed its transactivation function on GAL4 and unfolded protein response element (UPRE)-containing promoters. We therefore propose that JAB1 is a novel binding partner of Luman, which negatively regulates the activity of Luman by promoting its degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2013.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5023426PMC
September 2013

What's left behind: Identity continuity moderates the effect of nostalgia on well-being and life choices.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2011 Jul;101(1):94-108

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Australia.

Previous research has demonstrated that nostalgia for the past can have positive consequences for individuals' psychological well-being and their perceived ability to cope with challenges in the present (Wildschut, Sedikides, Arndt, & Routledge, 2006). We propose that this effect is limited to circumstances in which individuals have maintained identity continuity between the past and the present. Support for this moderation hypothesis is obtained in a longitudinal survey (Study 1) and two experiments (Studies 2 and 3) among students entering university. Whereas previously observed positive effects of nostalgia were confirmed when identity continuity had been maintained, feeling nostalgic about the past in the context of lower identity continuity had negative consequences for well-being (Studies 1 and 3), perceived ability to cope with challenges (Studies 1 and 2), and interest in new opportunities (Studies 2 and 3) rather than focusing on familiar experiences (Study 3). Taken together, results indicate that the extent to which individuals view the present as linked to the past has important implications for the outcome of their nostalgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022496DOI Listing
July 2011

What's left behind: Identity continuity moderates the effect of nostalgia on well-being and life choices.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2011 Jul;101(1):94-108

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Australia.

Previous research has demonstrated that nostalgia for the past can have positive consequences for individuals' psychological well-being and their perceived ability to cope with challenges in the present (Wildschut, Sedikides, Arndt, & Routledge, 2006). We propose that this effect is limited to circumstances in which individuals have maintained identity continuity between the past and the present. Support for this moderation hypothesis is obtained in a longitudinal survey (Study 1) and two experiments (Studies 2 and 3) among students entering university. Whereas previously observed positive effects of nostalgia were confirmed when identity continuity had been maintained, feeling nostalgic about the past in the context of lower identity continuity had negative consequences for well-being (Studies 1 and 3), perceived ability to cope with challenges (Studies 1 and 2), and interest in new opportunities (Studies 2 and 3) rather than focusing on familiar experiences (Study 3). Taken together, results indicate that the extent to which individuals view the present as linked to the past has important implications for the outcome of their nostalgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022496DOI Listing
July 2011

Different meanings of the social dominance orientation concept: predicting political attitudes over time.

Br J Soc Psychol 2010 Jun 25;49(Pt 2):385-404. Epub 2009 Apr 25.

University of Exeter, UK.

We examined predictors of political attitude change by assessing the independent and interactive effect of social dominance orientation (SDO) as a context-dependent versus an individual difference construct. In a longitudinal study, British students' political orientation was assessed before entering university (T1) and after being at university for 2 months (T2) and 6 months (T3; N=109). Results showed that initial SDO (T1) did not predict political attitudes change nor did it predict self-selected entry into course with hierarchy enhancing or hierarchy-attenuating ideologies. More support was obtained for a contextually determined model whereby SDO (T2) mediated the relationship between social class (T1) and political attitude change (T3). We also found support for mediated moderation in accounting for effects of initial SDO on political attitude change. Findings suggest that SDO as a concept that is sensitive to group dynamics is best suited to explain shifts in political attitudes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466609X435723DOI Listing
June 2010

The more (and the more compatible) the merrier: multiple group memberships and identity compatibility as predictors of adjustment after life transitions.

Br J Soc Psychol 2009 Dec 5;48(Pt 4):707-33. Epub 2009 Feb 5.

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Two longitudinal studies considered the role of social identity factors in predicting well-being after students' transition to university. The transition (assessed before starting university and after 2 months at university) had a detrimental effect on well-being, but identification as a university student improved well-being. Both studies showed that the social context in which the change occurred either facilitated or hindered university identification. Specifically, perceived compatibility between old and new identities and having multiple group memberships (which were each influenced by social class background, Study 2) both increased likelihood of identification with the new group. These predictive relationships remained statistically reliable when controlling for other factors relevant to the transition. The results suggest that life transitions are difficult partly because they entail changes in group membership. Both studies also demonstrate that identification with a new group can help buffer individuals from the negative well-being consequences of change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466608X397628DOI Listing
December 2009

Maintaining group memberships: social identity continuity predicts well-being after stroke.

Neuropsychol Rehabil 2008 Oct-Dec;18(5-6):671-91

School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

A survey study of patients recovering from stroke (N = 53) examined the extent to which belonging to multiple groups prior to stroke and the maintenance of those group memberships (as measured by the Exeter Identity Transitions Scales, EXITS) predicted well-being after stroke. Results of correlation analysis showed that life satisfaction was associated both with multiple group memberships prior to stroke and with the maintenance of group memberships. Path analysis indicated that belonging to multiple groups was associated with maintained well-being because there was a greater likelihood that some of those memberships would be preserved after stroke-related life transition. Furthermore, it was found that cognitive failures compromised well-being in part because they made it hard for individuals to maintain group memberships post-stroke. These findings highlight the importance of social identity continuity in facilitating well-being following stroke and, more broadly, show the theoretical contribution that a social identity approach to mental health can make in the context of neuropsychological rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09602010701643449DOI Listing
April 2009

Intersubunit and interprotein interactions of alpha- and beta-subunits of human eIF2: Effect of phosphorylation.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 Sep 17;374(2):336-40. Epub 2008 Jul 17.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Purified recombinant human subunits of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) expressed in bacteria are found to interact with each other to form alphabeta, alphagamma, and betagamma complexes in a pull-down experiment. Recombinant phosphorylated human eIF2alpha that cannot interact with purified eIF2B, the GDP/GTP exchange factor of eIF2, however interacts efficiently with eIF2B along with the beta-subunit of eIF2 of the rabbit reticulocyte lysates and also with the purified recombinant beta-subunit. These findings therefore suggest that the beta-subunit of eIF2 mediates the productive and non-productive interactions between eIF2 and 2B. Recombinant alpha and beta-subunits serve as substrates for not only kinases but also for caspase 3 and interestingly phosphorylated subunits resist caspase action. Phosphorylation also modifies the beta-subunit's interaction with Nck1, a cofactor of eIF2alpha phosphatase, but not with eIF5, the GTPase activating protein. These findings suggest that subunits of mammalian eIF2 interact with each other and the beta-subunit plays a critical role both in the regulation and function of eIF2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.07.022DOI Listing
September 2008

Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country: the role of anger, shame, and guilt.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2007 Apr;33(4):572-87

School of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, England.

The present research examined emotions as predictors of opposition to policies and actions of one's country that are perceived to be illegitimate. Two studies investigated the political implications of American (Study 1) and British (Study 2) citizens' anger, guilt, and shame responses to perceived harm caused by their countries' occupation of Iraq. In both studies, a manipulation of pervasive threat to the country's image increased participants' shame but not guilt. The emotions predicted political action intentions to advocate distinct opposition strategies. Shame predicted action intentions to advocate withdrawal from Iraq. Anger predicted action intentions to advocate compensation to Iraq, confrontation of agents responsible, and withdrawal from Iraq. Anger directed at different targets (ingroup, ingroup representative, and outgroup representative) predicted action intentions to support distinct strategies (Study 2). Guilt did not independently predict any political action intentions. Implications for the study of political action and emotions in intergroup contexts are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167206297402DOI Listing
April 2007

Angry opposition to government redress: when the structurally advantaged perceive themselves as relatively deprived.

Br J Soc Psychol 2007 Mar;46(Pt 1):191-204

Department of Psychology, University of California Santa Cruz, CA, USA.

We examined (structurally advantaged) non-Aborigines' willingness for political action against government redress to (structurally disadvantaged) Aborigines in Australia. We found non-Aborigines opposed to government redress to be high in symbolic racism and to perceive their ingroup as deprived relative to Aborigines. However, only perceived relative deprivation was associated with feelings of group-based anger. In addition, consistent with relative deprivation and emotion theory, it was group-based anger that fully mediated a willingness for political action against government redress. Thus, the specific group-based emotion of anger explained why symbolic racism and relative deprivation promoted a willingness for political action against government redress to a structurally disadvantaged out-group. Theoretical and political implications are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466606X99360DOI Listing
March 2007

Anger and guilt about ingroup advantage explain the willingness for political action.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2006 Sep;32(9):1232-45

University of California, Santa Cruz, USA.

Three studies examined non-Aboriginal Australians' guilt and anger about their ingroup's advantage over structurally disadvantaged Aborigines. Study 1 showed that participants who perceived their ingroup as relatively advantaged perceived this inequality as unfair and felt guilt and anger about it. Anger, and to a lesser degree guilt, predicted the willingness to engage in political action regarding ingroup advantage. Study 2 showed both guilt and anger to be relatively self-focused because both were associated with appraising the ingroup's (rather than the government's) discrimination as responsible for ingroup advantage. Study 3 examined on participants especially willing to engage in political action to bring about systemic compensation to Aborigines. Anger about ingroup advantage was a potent predictor. Although guilt was associated with the abstract goal of systemic compensation, guilt did not explain willingness for political action. Results underline the importance of examining specific group-based emotions in intergroup relations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167206289729DOI Listing
September 2006

Understanding affirmative action.

Annu Rev Psychol 2006 ;57:585-611

Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.

Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190029DOI Listing
March 2006

White guilt and racial compensation: the benefits and limits of self-focus.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2003 Jan;29(1):117-29

Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz 95064, USA.

In two studies, the authors investigated guilt as a response to group-based advantage. Consistent with its conceptualization as a self-focused emotion, White guilt was based in self-focused beliefs in racial inequality. Thus, guilt was associated with belief in White privilege (Study 1) and resulted from seeing European Americans as perpetrators of racial discrimination (Study 2). Just as personal guilt is associated with efforts at restitution, White guilt was predictive of support for affirmative action programs aimed at compensating African Americans. White guilt was not, however, predictive of support for noncompensatory efforts at promoting equality, such as affirmative action programs that increase opportunities (Study 2). In contrast, the other-focused emotion of group-based sympathy was a more general predictor of support for different affirmative action policies. Our findings demonstrate the benefits and limits of group-based guilt as a basis of support for social equality and highlight the value of understanding the specific emotions elicited in intergroup contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167202238377DOI Listing
January 2003

Affirmative action. Psychological data and the policy debates.

Am Psychol 2003 Feb;58(2):93-115

Department of Psychology, Social Sciences II, Room 277, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

The authors bring psychological research to bear on an examination of the policy of affirmative action. They argue that data from many studies reveal that affirmative action as a policy has more benefits than costs. Although the majority of pro-affirmative action arguments in the social sciences stress diversity, the authors' argument focuses on issues of merit. The merit-based argument, grounded in empirical studies, concludes that the policy of affirmative action conforms to the American ideal of fairness and is a necessary policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.58.2.93DOI Listing
February 2003
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