Publications by authors named "Hyun Min Cho"

84 Publications

Moderate dietary boron supplementation improved growth performance, crude protein digestibility and diarrhea index in weaner pigs regardless to the sanitary condition.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the impact of boron supplementation on nutrient digestibility, inflammatory responses, blood metabolites and diarrhea index, and their relevance to growth performance in weaned pigs housed in good and poor sanitary environments for 14 days after weaning.

Methods: A total of 108 male pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] weaned at 21 days of age were used in a randomized complete block design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Pigs were assigned to three boron treatments (0, 5, and 10 mg/kg) under two environments (good and poor sanitary) to give six replicates per treatment (3 pigs per replicate). On 0, 7 and 14 days, one pig per replicate was euthanized to collect, ileum tissue samples, and rectal fecal samples.

Results: Boron supplementation quadratically influenced (p<0.001) feed intake and weight gain in pigs housed in good sanitary conditions from 1 to 14 days post-weaning where pigs offered 5 mg/kg boron optimized weight gain and feed intake. There is a quadratic interaction (p=0.019) on feed intake for 1-14 days post-weaning where 5 mg/kg boron increased feed intake in good sanitary conditions. Pigs housed in the poor sanitary environment decreased (p<0.001) villus height and crypt depth in ileum at days 7 and 14. On day 7 and 14, crude protein digestibility was quadratically influenced (p<0.05) by boron supplementation. Boron supplementation linearly increased (p<0.05) plasma calcium and cholesterol levels whilst linearly (p=0.005) reducing plasma triglyceride concentrations. Diarrhea index was quadratically influenced (p<0.05) by boron supplementations regardless to sanitary conditions where 5 mg/kg boron inclusion achieved the lowest diarrhea index.

Conclusion: Pigs offered 5 mg/kg of boron increased weight gain which may be deduced by improved dry matter, crude protein, and energy digestibility regardless of the sanitary conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0110DOI Listing
June 2021

Microtubule Dynamics Plays a Vital Role in Plant Adaptation and Tolerance to Salt Stress.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Although recent studies suggest that the plant cytoskeleton is associated with plant stress responses, such as salt, cold, and drought, the molecular mechanism underlying microtubule function in plant salt stress response remains unclear. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis between control suspension-cultured cells (A0) and salt-adapted cells (A120) established from root callus to investigate plant adaptation mechanisms to long-term salt stress. We identified 50 differentially expressed proteins (45 up- and 5 down-regulated proteins) in A120 cells compared with A0 cells. Gene ontology enrichment and protein network analyses indicated that differentially expressed proteins in A120 cells were strongly associated with cell structure-associated clusters, including cytoskeleton and cell wall biogenesis. Gene expression analysis revealed that expressions of cytoskeleton-related genes, such as , , , , , and , and a cell wall biogenesis-related gene, , were induced in salt-adapted A120 cells. Moreover, the loss-of-function mutant of   gene, , showed a hypersensitive phenotype to salt stress. Consistent overexpression of   gene in rice transgenic plants enhanced tolerance to salt stress. Our results suggest that microtubules play crucial roles in plant adaptation and tolerance to salt stress. The modulation of microtubule-related gene expression can be an effective strategy for developing salt-tolerant crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199277PMC
May 2021

Acupuncture combined with multidisciplinary care for recovery after traumatic multiple rib fractures: a prospective feasibility cohort study.

Acupunct Med 2021 May 28:9645284211009539. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Nursing, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, South Korea.

Introduction: Acute pain significantly delays early physiological recovery and results in chronic functional disability in patients with traumatic multiple rib fractures (MRFs). This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the feasibility of acupuncture combined with multidisciplinary care during recovery in patients with traumatic MRFs.

Methods: Twenty patients with traumatic MRFs who were admitted to a regional trauma centre in South Korea were enrolled. A combination of acupuncture and multidisciplinary inpatient ward management was provided at the trauma ward. Patients were permitted to continue acupuncture treatments at outpatient clinics for 3 months after the traumatic events. Clinical outcomes, including pain, acute physiological recovery, quality of life, patient satisfaction with the care provided, respiratory function and use of opioids, were evaluated up to 6 months after trauma.

Results: Seventeen (85%) participants completed the 6-month follow-up. One patient withdrew consent during admission due to discomfort after three sessions of acupuncture. The proportion of patients with above-moderate level of pain decreased from 95% at baseline to 41% at 6 months. Quality of life appeared to deteriorate consistently throughout the study period. Around 80% of respondents expressed satisfaction with the acupuncture treatments and stated that they found acupuncture to be acceptable. Over 94% of respondents reported slight or considerable improvement.

Conclusion: The provision of acupuncture combined with multidisciplinary care for recovery in patients with traumatic MRFs was feasible in a regional trauma centre in South Korea. Randomised trials are needed to investigate the role of acupuncture combined with multidisciplinary care in the future.

Trial Registration Number: KCT0002911 (Clinical Research Information Service).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09645284211009539DOI Listing
May 2021

Responses in growth performance and nutrient digestibility to a multi-protease supplementation in amino acid-deficient broiler diets.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Nov 30;62(6):840-853. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of a multi-protease on production indicators of broiler chickens fed a crude protein and amino acid deficient-diets for 35 days immediately after hatch. A total of 448 one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were allocated in a completely randomized design into one of eight dietary treatments (positive control [PC], negative control [NC: minus 0.5% from PC, and minus 2% of lysine, methionine, threonine and methionine plus cysteine], extreme negative control [ENC: minus 1% from PC, minus 4% of lysine, methionine, threonine and methionine plus cysteine], and plus multi-protease 150 or 300 g per ton [e. g., PC-150]; PC, PC-150, NC, NC-150, NC-300, ENC, ENC-150, ENC-300) to give eight replicates with seven birds in a battery cage. Body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were measured every week. Carcass traits, proximate analysis of breast meat, and ileum digestibility were analyzed on day 21 and 35. Feeding a multi-protease (i.e., more than 150 g/ton) for 35 days immediately after hatching improved feed efficiency and ileum digestibility (i.e., dry matter, crude protein, and energy) compared to their counterparts (i.e., diets without multi-protease: PC, NC, and ENC). In conclusion, our results indicated that broiler chickens fed nutrients deficient-diet (i.e., crude protein and amino acids) supplemented a multi-protease had an ability to compensate and (or) improve their growth performance commensurate with increased ileal digestibility for 35 days immediately after hatch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.6.840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721581PMC
November 2020

Diversification in Functions and Expressions of Soybean Genes Fine-Tunes Seasonal Flowering.

Front Plant Sci 2021 26;12:613675. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Four), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea.

The proper timing of flowering in response to environmental changes is critical for ensuring crop yields. () homologs of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein family play important roles as floral integrators in many crops. In soybean, we identified 17 genes of this family, and characterized biological functions in flowering for ten homologs. Overexpression of homologs in revealed that a set of homologs, including , , and , promoted flowering similar to ; in contrast, , , and delayed flowering. Consistently, expressions of , , and were induced in soybean leaves in response to floral inductive short days, whereas expressions of and were induced in response to long days. Exon swapping analysis between floral activator and floral repressor revealed that the segment B region in the fourth exon is critical for their antagonistic functions. Finally, expression analysis of , , and in soybean accessions exhibiting various flowering times indicated that the mRNA levels of and were higher in early flowering accessions than in late-flowering accessions, while showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, the relative mRNA levels between / and was important in determining day length-dependent flowering in soybean accessions. Taken together, our results suggest that the functions of homologs have diversified into floral activators and floral repressors during soybean evolution, and the timing of flowering in response to changing day length is determined by modulating the activities of antagonistic homologs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.613675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107440PMC
April 2021

One-Step Etching Characteristics of ITO/Ag/ITO Multilayered Electrode in High-Density and High-Electron-Temperature Plasma.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 17;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Applied Physics, Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong 30019, Korea.

This paper presents the dry etching characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO)/Ag/ITO multilayered thin film, used as a pixel electrode in a high-resolution active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) device. Dry etching was performed using a combination of H and HCl gases in a reactive ion etching system with a remote electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source, in order to achieve high electron temperature. The effect of the gas ratio (H/HCl) was closely observed, in order to achieve an optimal etch profile and an effective etch process, while other parameters-such as the radio frequency (RF) power, ECR power, chamber pressure, and temperature-were fixed. The optimized process, with an appropriate gas ratio, constitutes a one-step serial dry etch solution for ITO and Ag multilayered thin films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14082025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073132PMC
April 2021

CCoAOMT1 Plays a Role in Drought Stress Response via ROS- and ABA-Dependent Manners.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Plants possess adaptive reprogramed modules to prolonged environmental stresses, including adjustment of metabolism and gene expression for physiological and morphological adaptation. encodes a caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase and is known to play an important role in adaptation of plants to prolonged saline stress. In this study, we showed that the gene plays a role in drought stress response. Transcript of was induced by salt, dehydration (drought), and methyl viologen (MV), and loss of function mutants of , and exhibit hypersensitive phenotypes to drought and MV stresses. The mutants accumulated higher level of HO in the leaves and expressed lower levels of drought-responsive genes including , , , and as well as and encoding ABA biosynthesis enzymes during drought stress compared to wild-type plants. A seed germination assay of mutants in the presence of ABA also revealed that functions in ABA response. Our data suggests that plays a positive role in response to drought stress response by regulating HO accumulation and ABA signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10050831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143326PMC
April 2021

Maternal high-fructose intake during pregnancy and lactation induces metabolic syndrome in adult offspring.

Nutr Res Pract 2021 Apr 11;15(2):160-172. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea.

Background/objectives: Nutritional status and food intake during pregnancy and lactation can affect fetal programming. In the current metabolic syndrome epidemic, high-fructose diets have been strongly implicated. This study investigated the effect of maternal high-fructose intake during pregnancy and lactation on the development of metabolic syndrome in adult offspring.

Subjects/methods: Drinking water with or without 20% fructose was administered to female C57BL/6J mice over the course of their pregnancy and lactation periods. After weaning, pups ate regular chow. Accu-Chek Performa was used to measure glucose levels, and a tail-cuff method was used to examine systolic blood pressure. Animals were sacrificed at 7 months, their livers were excised, and sections were stained with Oil Red O and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Kidneys were collected for gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time Polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Adult offspring exposed to maternal high-fructose intake during pregnancy and lactation presented with heavier body weights, fattier livers, and broader areas under the curve in glucose tolerance test values than control offspring. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure in the maternal high-fructose group were higher than that in controls. However, there were no significant differences in mRNA expressions of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes and sodium transporter genes.

Conclusions: These results suggest that maternal high-fructose intake during pregnancy and lactation induces metabolic syndrome with hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in adult offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2021.15.2.160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007412PMC
April 2021

Growth and gut performance of young pigs in response to different dietary cellulose concentration and rearing condition.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jan 1. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of insoluble cellulose supplementation to diets on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, the incidence of diarrhea, nutrients digestibility, and inflammatory responses in altering environmental conditions of animals housing.

Methods: A total of 108 male pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (cellulose 0, 1, 2%) and two environmental conditions (good sanitary condition vs. poor sanitary condition) to give 6 replicate pens per treatment with three pigs per each pen at 14 days post-weaning.

Results: Pigs were in good sanitary condition had higher average daily gain (p<0.01) and improved feed efficiency (p<0.05) from day 1 to 14 after weaning compared to their counterparts. The interactions were found between environmental conditions and dietary treatments [day 7: crypt depth (p<0.01), villous height to crypt depth (p<0.001); day 14: crypt depth (p<0.001), villous to crypt ratio (p<0.01)] in ileum morphology. Crypt depth was decreased (p<0.05), and villous to crypt ratio was increased (p<0.05) only in poor sanitary conditions. Pigs exposed to the good sanitary condition had higher (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (day 7: gross energy; day 14: dry matter), apparent total tract digestibility (day 14: dry matter and crude protein) compared to pigs housed in the poor sanitary condition. Meanwhile, pigs fed a diet supplemented with 2% cellulose had decreased (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (day 7: dry matter; day 14: crude protein), apparent total tract digestibility (day 7: dry matter; day 14: crude protein, gross energy) compared to pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0 or 1% cellulose.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that a diet supplemented with 1% cellulose increased villous to crypt ratio, however feeding a diet containing cellulose (1 or 2%) impaired nutrient digestibility for 14 day after weaning in both good sanitary and poor sanitary conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0721DOI Listing
January 2021

High-Temperature Conditions Promote Soybean Flowering through the Transcriptional Reprograming of Flowering Genes in the Photoperiod Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 28;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Four), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju Daero 501, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Global warming has an impact on crop growth and development. Flowering time is particularly sensitive to environmental factors such as day length and temperature. In this study, we investigated the effects of global warming on flowering using an open-top Climatron chamber, which has a higher temperature and CO concentration than in the field. Two different soybean cultivars, Williams 82 and IT153414, which exhibited different flowering times, were promoted flowering in the open-top Climatron chamber than in the field. We more specifically examined the expression patterns of soybean flowering genes on the molecular level under high-temperature conditions. The elevated temperature induced the expression of soybean floral activators, and as well as a set of genes. In contrast, it suppressed floral repressors, and homologs. Moreover, high-temperature conditions affected the expression of these flowering genes in a day length-independent manner. Taken together, our data suggest that soybean plants properly respond and adapt to changing environments by modulating the expression of a set of flowering genes in the photoperiod pathway for the successful production of seeds and offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865498PMC
January 2021

Prevalence of chronic post-thoracotomy pain in patients with traumatic multiple rib fractures in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 28;11(1):2615. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Trauma Surgery, Cheju Halla Hospital, 65 Doryeong-ro, Jeju, 63127, South Korea.

Chronic post-thoracotomy pain is a debilitating condition after traumatic multiple rib fractures and surgery. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of chronic post-thoracotomy pain after traumatic multiple rib fractures in South Korea and explore factors associated with it. From October 2017 to June 2019, a cross-sectional survey of 100 adults, who had undergone thoracotomy due to traumatic fractures of two or more ribs 2 years to 3 months prior to the survey, was conducted in the regional trauma center in South Korea. In total, 80% and 65% patients reported any level and above moderate chronic pain, respectively. Quality of life was mostly below the normative value of the US general population. Forty-six percent patients had restrictive respiratory dysfunction, and 47% and 59% patients were classified as being at risk of above mild-level anxiety and depression, respectively. More than 70% of patients had a current opioid prescription. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed weak evidence of association between acute, severe postoperative pain and chronic postsurgical pain (adjusted odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence intervals 0.9 to 6.4). Collectively, chronic post-thoracotomy pain and associated incomplete recovery regarding respiratory, functional, and psychological outcomes were prevalent in patients with traumatic multiple rib fractures in South Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82273-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844269PMC
January 2021

Cardiomyocyte Death and Genome-Edited Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Aug 25;17(4):1264-1279. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Biochemistry, BK21 PLUS Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro1, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742, South Korea.

Massive death of cardiomyocytes is a major feature of cardiovascular diseases. Since the regenerative capacity of cardiomyocytes is limited, the regulation of their death has been receiving great attention. The cell death of cardiomyocytes is a complex mechanism that has not yet been clarified, and it is known to appear in various forms such as apoptosis, necrosis, etc. In ischemic heart disease, the apoptosis and necrosis of cardiomyocytes appear in two types of programmed forms (intrinsic and extrinsic pathways) and they account for a large portion of cell death. To repair damaged cardiomyocytes, diverse stem cell therapies have been attempted. However, despite the many positive effects, the low engraftment and survival rates have clearly limited the application of stem cells in clinical therapy. To solve these challenges, the introduction of the desired genes in stem cells can be used to enhance their capacity and improve their therapeutic efficiency. Moreover, as genome engineering technologies have advanced significantly, safer and more stable delivery of target genes and more accurate deletion of genes have become possible, which facilitates the genetic modification of stem cells. Accordingly, stem cell therapy for damaged cardiac tissue is expected to further improve. This review describes myocardial cell death, stem cell therapy for cardiac repair, and genome-editing technologies. In addition, we introduce recent stem cell therapies that incorporate genome-editing technologies in the myocardial infarction model. Graphical Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10096-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Erythromycin Treatment of Seedlings Impacts the Photosynthetic and Protein Synthesis Pathways.

Life (Basel) 2020 Nov 26;10(12). Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21four), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju-daero 501, Jinju 52665, Korea.

Erythromycin (Ery) is a commonly used veterinary drug that prevents infections and promotes the growth of farm animals. Ery is often detected in agricultural fields due to the effects of manure application in the ecosystem. However, there is a lack of information on Ery toxicity in crops. In this study, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis to identify the molecular mechanisms of Ery toxicity during seedling growth based on our observation of a decrease in chlorophyll (Chl) contents using . A total of 452 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were identified including a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO). The proteomic analysis according to gene ontology (GO) classification revealed that many of these DAPs responding to Ery treatment functioned in a cellular process and a metabolic process. The molecular function analysis showed that DAPs classified within catalytic activity were predominantly changed by Ery, including metabolite interconversion enzyme and protein modifying enzyme. An analysis of functional pathways using MapMan revealed that many photosynthesis components were downregulated, whereas many protein biosynthesis components were upregulated. A good relationship was observed between protein and transcript abundance in a photosynthetic pathway, as determined by qPCR analysis. These combined results suggest that Ery affects plant physiological activity by downregulating protein abundance in the photosynthetic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life10120311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759809PMC
November 2020

Physiological Effects of a Tallow-Incorporated Diet Supplemented With an Emulsifier and Microbial Lipases on Broiler Chickens.

Front Vet Sci 2020 22;7:583998. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary emulsifiers and lipase supplementation on growth performance, blood metabolites, intestinal organ weight, gut morphology, nutrient digestibility, carcass measurements, and meat quality in broiler chickens. A total of 384, 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to one of eight dietary treatments arranged in a completely randomized design with 6 replications per treatment and 8 birds per cage. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based and formulated to meet the nutritional requirements for Ross 308 specifications. Beef tallow used as the fat source in all diets. Dietary treatments were as follows, (1) positive control (PC; energy sufficient diet); (2) negative control (NC; energy deficient,-100 ME, kcal/kg); (3) NC+POL (0.1%, Polysorbate-20); (4) NC+CET (0.1%, Ceteth-20); (5) NC+POL+TLL (0.1%, lipase); (6) NC+POL+CRL (0.1%, lipases); (7) NC+CET+CRL and (8) NC+LL (0.05%, Lysolecithin). Growth performances were measured weekly. One bird per pen was selected and sacrificed to collect blood, ileal digesta, jejunum sample, viscera organ weight, and meat samples on day 21 and 35. Results revealed that birds fed NC+POL+CRL diet had higher ( < 0.05) body weight, weight gain, and the improved ( < 0.05) feed efficiency compared to birds fed other low energy diets, and the effect was more prominent at the grower phase from day 21 to 35. Similarly, higher ( < 0.05) villi height and lower ( < 0.05) crypt depth commensurate with higher ( < 0.05) V:C ratio were observed with the broiler chickens fed NC+POL+CRL diet compared to broiler chickens fed NC diet on day 21 and 35. Moreover, broiler chickens fed NC+POL+CRL diet showed improved fat and energy digestibility compared NC diet counterpart on day 35. This study, therefore indicated that Polysorbate-20 together with lipases had promising ability to improve growth performance of broiler chickens fed with low energy diet and curtail the growth depression without affecting blood metabolites, carcass, and visceral organs weights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.583998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536262PMC
September 2020

Stimbiotic supplementation improved performance and reduced inflammatory response via stimulating fiber fermenting microbiome in weaner pigs housed in a poor sanitary environment and fed an antibiotic-free low zinc oxide diet.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(11):e0240264. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

AB Vista, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.

This study investigated whether the inclusion of a stimbiotic (STB) can improve performance, influence intestinal microbiota and fermentation activity, and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines in piglets fed a low zinc oxide diet without antimicrobial growth promotors compared to fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) when housed either in good sanitary (GS) or poor sanitary (PS) environments. One hundred forty-four male pigs (28-day-old) were sorted by initial body weight (BW) and allocated to one of six experimental treatments: 1) GS environment without any additive (GS-CTR); 2) GS environment with 0.01% stimbiotic (GS-STB); 3) PS environment (without cleaning and disinfection of a previously populated room) without any additive (PS-CTR); 4) PS environment with 0.01% STB (PS-STB); 5) PS environment with 0.1% MOS (PS-MOS); and 6) PS environment with 0.2% FOS (PS-FOS). Each treatment had six replicates, with four animals each. Three feeding phases, based on corn, wheat, and soybean meal were available ad libitum for the 42-days of the study. Housing piglets under PS conditions negatively influenced performance, increased plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), affected the fecal microbial populations and increased concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared to GS. Stimbiotic improved 42-d-BW under PS conditions (P < 0.05) whereas MOS or FOS had no effect. On d35, plasma TNF-α was reduced with STB in PS (P < 0.05). The ratio between VFA:BCFA increased (P < 0.05) with STB, MOS or FOS in PS, and under GS condition, STB also increased the ratio. Stimbiotic increased the proportion of Clostridiales Family XIII Incertae Sedis and Clostridiaceae, while MOS and FOS increased Selenomonadaceae, Catabacteriaceae and Fibrobacteraceae. These results indicate that STB shifted the intestinal microbiome to favor fiber fermentation which likely contributed to reduced inflammatory response and improved performance, particularly in piglets reared in PS conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240264PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654836PMC
December 2020

Evaluation of crude protein levels in White Pekin duck diet for 21 days after hatching.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Sep 30;62(5):628-637. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

In poultry diets, a requirement of crude protein is one of the most important factors in poultry productivity. Besides, the Pekin duck requirement of crude protein is still not clear. This experiment was conducted to determine the crude protein requirement of Pekin duck on diet formulation by investigation of growth performance, carcass trait, and analysis of blood parameter for a hatch to 21-day (d) of age. A total of 432 male White Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to six levels of crude protein (i.e., 15%, 17%, 19%, 21%, 23%, and 25%) to give six replicate pens per treatment with 12 ducklings per each pen. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly by calculating feed conversion ratio and protein intake. Two ducklings each pen was euthanized via cervical dislocation for analysis of carcass trait and plasma blood on 21-d of age. Data were applied on both prediction linear-plateau and quadratic-plateau models by estimation of the crude protein requirements. Data were applied on both prediction linear-plateau and quadratic-plateau models by estimation of the crude protein requirements. The level of crude protein requirements of Pekin ducks for 21 days after the hatch was estimated to be 20.63% and 23.25% diet for maximum daily gain, and minimum feed conversion ratio, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.5.628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553845PMC
September 2020

Estimating total lysine requirement for optimised egg production of broiler breeder hens during the early-laying period.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Jul 31;62(4):521-532. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The production performance of broiler breeder hens in response to different levels of total lysine during the early laying period was investigated. A total of 126 Ross 308 parent stock hens were offered one of seven dietary treatments formulating elevated contents of total lysine ranging from 0.55% to 0.79% (0.04 scale; 133 g of feed) from 23 to 29 weeks of age. Each treatment had six replicates with three birds per pen. Body weight was recorded triweekly and eggs were collected and weighted at 9:00 am daily. One hen from each pen was euthanized to collect blood samples and visceral organs were harvested and weighed. Egg production, egg weight and egg mass were lower ( < 0.05) in hens offered a diet containing 0.55% total lysine compared to those fed the diet containing higher total lysine. Hens offered a diet containing 0.71%, 0.75%, and 0.79% total lysine had greater ( = 0.008) egg production rate compared to those offered a diet containing lysine less than 0.71%. The number of total eggs produced tended to be greater ( = 0.083) in hens offered a diet containing 0.71 and 0.75% total lysine compared to the other treatments. The number of settable egg production was higher ( < 0.001) in hens offered a diet contacting 0.79% total lysine compared to those fed the diet containing lower levels of total lysine. The relative weights of oviduct and ovary were lower ( < 0.05) in hens offered a diet containing 0.59% total lysine compared to the other treatments. No difference found in body weight, the number of total eggs, double-yolk eggs and abnormal shell eggs among the treatments. The urea nitrogen, estradiol-17 beta and progesterone in plasma were not affected by treatments. Based on linear- and quadratic-plateau models, total lysine requirements for egg production, settable egg production and egg mass at the early laying period were to be 0.73%, 0.77%, and 0.71%, respectively. Modern broiler breeder hens likely require higher total lysine than NRC recommendation in a diet for enhancing productivity during the early-laying period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.4.521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416165PMC
July 2020

Maternal high-fructose intake induces hypertension through activating histone codes on the (pro)renin receptor promoter.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 06 16;527(3):596-602. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Cardiovascular Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Department of Biomedical Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

High-fructose intake induces hypertension via the renal expression of (pro)renin receptor (PRR) that stimulates the expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3, Na/K/2Cl cotransporter 2, and genes of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. We hypothesize that maternal high-fructose intake induces hypertension in subsequent generation offspring through activating histone codes on the PRR promoter. Mice dams were offered 20% fructose solution during pregnancy and lactation, while the subsequent 1st to 4th generation offspring were raised without fructose. Blood pressure was measured via tail-cuff method. The mRNA and protein expression were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Histone modification was evaluated using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Maternal high-fructose intake statistically significantly increased blood pressure in the 1st and 2nd generations of offspring compared to the control group. Expression levels of sodium transporters and PRR were increased in the kidneys of the 1st to 3rd generation offspring. Increased enrichment of active histone codes such as H3Ac and H3K4me2 but decreased enrichment of repressive histone codes such as H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 on the PRR promoter were observed in the 1st to 3rd not the 4th generation. Moreover, there was increased the mRNA expression for histone acetyltransferase and methyl transferases for H3K4 in the 1st and 2nd generation offspring compared to the control group. This study implicates that maternal high-fructose intake induces hypertension in multigenerational offspring through activating histone codes on the PRR promoter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.081DOI Listing
June 2020

Transplantation of hMSCs Genome Edited with LEF1 Improves Cardio-Protective Effects in Myocardial Infarction.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2020 Mar 18;19:1186-1197. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Department of Biochemistry, BK21 PLUS Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Stem cell-based therapy is one of the most attractive approaches to ischemic heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated the cardio-protective effects of the human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) stably expressing lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1; LEF1/hUCB-MSCs) in a rat model of MI. LEF1 overexpression in hUCB-MSCs promoted cell-proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects in hypoxic conditions. For the application of its therapeutic effects in vivo, the LEF1 gene was introduced into an adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1) locus, known as a safe harbor site on chromosome 19 by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene integration in hUCB-MSCs. Transplantation of LEF1/hUCB-MSCs onto the infarction region in the rat model significantly improved overall survival. The cardio-protective effect of LEF1/hUCB-MSCs was proven by echocardiogram parameters, including greatly improved left-ventricle ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS). Moreover, histology and immunohistochemistry successfully presented reduced MI region and fibrosis by LEF1/hUCB-MSCs. We found that these overall positive effects of LEF1/hUCB-MSCs are attributed by increased proliferation and survival of stem cells in oxidative stress conditions and by the secretion of various growth factors by LEF1. In conclusion, this study suggests that the stem cell-based therapy, conjugated with genome editing of transcription factor LEF1, which promotes cell survival, could be an effective therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2020.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019046PMC
March 2020

Bioaccumulation and Toxicity Studies of Lead and Mercury in Laying Hens: Effects on Laying Performance, Blood Metabolites, Egg Quality and Organ Parameters.

J Poult Sci 2019 Oct;56(4):277-284

Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea.

This study investigated bioaccumulation and toxicity derived from heavy metals in laying hens. The 160 52-week old laying hens were divided into 5 treatments with 8 replicates of 4 birds per pen. The treatments consisted of the control diet (without heavy metals), control diet with half the available dosage (AD, 5 ppm lead and 0.2 ppm mercury), AD (10 ppm lead and 0.4 ppm mercury), 2-fold AD (20 ppm lead and 0.8 ppm mercury), and 3-fold AD (30 ppm lead and 1.2 ppm mercury), and were provided to the laying hens for 8 weeks. Food and water were provided on an basis at all times. Body weight and food intake were recorded once every two weeks, and eggs were collected and recorded daily. Two birds from each pen were euthanized to collect blood and organ samples on week 4 and 8. The 3-fold AD diet reduced food intake compared to that of the control and AD diets (<0.05). Hens fed the half AD diet had darker yolk compared to those fed the control and AD diet on week 4 (<0.05). Hens fed the 2- and 3-fold AD diets had increased relative liver weight, blood glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels (<0.05), while F1 follicle weights decreased on week 4 and 8. No difference was found in egg production rate, egg quality, ovarian follicle, blood metabolites including protein, globulin, albumin, and urea nitrogen throughout the study (>0.05). Heavy metal concentrations in the liver, eggs, and feathers were not detected at both week 4 and 8. Our results indicate that in-feed heavy metals for layer diets up to 30 ppm of lead and 1.2 ppm of mercury brought on hepatic dysfunction increasing blood metabolites that are associated with liver inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0180118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005395PMC
October 2019

Differential Effects of Dietary Methionine Isomers on Broilers Challenged with Acute Heat Stress.

J Poult Sci 2019 Jul;56(3):195-203

CJ Cheil Jedang Corporation, 330, Dongho-ro, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100-400, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we investigated the effect of methionine isomers (D- and L-methionine) on growth performance, blood metabolite levels, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and foot pad dermatitis in broilers challenged with acute heat stress. In total, 240 broilers were randomly allocated in a 2×2 factorial arrangement consisting of two dietary treatments (D- vs. L-methionine) and two thermal environmental conditions (thermo-neutral vs. acute heat stress). Methionine isomers were added to the diet as an ingredient according to the diet formulation. The broilers were exposed to acute heat stress at 33°C for 5 h on day 14. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of birds fed L-methionine were higher than those fed D-methionine (<0.05) from the time of hatching till 21 days. Induced acute heat stress impaired (<0.05) the daily gain and feed intake of the broilers on day 21. Furthermore, the blood urea nitrogen levels of birds subjected to acute heat stress on days 14 and 21 were higher (<0.05) than those of their counterparts. Longer villi (<0.05) were observed in broilers fed L-methionine-supplemented diet than in those fed D-methionine-supplemented diet on day 14, irrespective of thermal environmental conditions. Heat stress reduced (<0.01) nutrient digestibility of the broilers on days 14 and 21. Higher incidence and severity of foot pad dermatitis were observed (<0.05) in broilers fed diet containing D-methionine than in those fed L-methionine-supplemented diet. In conclusion, L-methionine-supplemented diet improved growth performance, overcame growth depression, and reduced the incidence of foot pad dermatitis when broilers were exposed to acute heat stress in the starter period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0180072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005384PMC
July 2019

Effect of calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate and lipase supplementation on growth performance, gut health, and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Jun 12;33(6):981-991. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: To evaluate calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate (CSL) performance as an exogenous emulsifier together with lipase for broiler diets.

Methods: In total, 252 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated in a completely randomized design to give 6 replications per treatment with 7 birds in each cage. There were six dietary treatments representing a 2×3 factorial arrangement consisted of two energy levels (standard energy [positive control, PC] and -100 kcal/kg of the requirement level [negative control, NC]) and three dietary treatments (without additives [CON], CON+CSL [CSL], and CON+CSL+lipase [CSL-Lipase]). Corn and soybean meal-based experimental diets containing vegetable oil were formulated. Growth performance, blood parameters, visceral organ weights, ileal morphology, nutrient digestibility, and cytokine gene expression were measured.

Results: Birds fed a diet including CSL increased (p<0.05) lipase level in blood compared to birds fed a diet including CSL-Lipase on day 21. Similarly, higher (p<0.05) liver weight was observed in birds fed a diet including either CSL or CSL-Lipase on day 21. Birds fed NC diet with CSL improved (p<0.05) nutrient digestibility compared to the NC diet on day 21. However, birds fed a diet supplemented with CSL or CSL-Lipase did not affect (p>0.05) the weight gain, feed efficiency, ileal morphology, and cytokine concentrations during the experiment period, regardless of dietary energy levels.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that CSL has a role in improving nutrient digestibility in young birds when supplemented to a corn-soybean meal based broiler diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206371PMC
June 2020

Broilers fed a low protein diet supplemented with synthetic amino acids maintained growth performance and retained intestinal integrity while reducing nitrogen excretion when raised under poor sanitary conditions.

Poult Sci 2020 Feb 6;99(2):949-958. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the effects of supplementing a low protein (LP) diet supplemented with key essential amino acids (AA) to broilers on growth performance, intestinal tract function, blood metabolites, and nitrogen excretion when the animals were maintained under various sanitary conditions for 35 D after hatching. Three hundred eighty-four one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to groups that received one of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (i.e., 2 environmental conditions and 3 dietary treatments) to give 8 replicates per treatment. Broilers were challenged with 2 environmental conditions (sanitary vs. poor sanitary). The dietary treatments were (1) high protein (HP) diet, (2) LP diet, and (3) LP diet with synthetic key essential AA (LPA): the LP diet was supplemented with synthetic AA up to the required levels for broilers. On day 14, birds consumed the LP diet impaired growth performance compared with those fed the HP diet, while the average daily weight gain-to-feed conversion ratio of birds fed the LPA diet improved to the level of birds fed the HP diet under poor sanitary conditions (P < 0.05). Broilers raised under poor sanitary conditions and fed the LP diet displayed higher (P < 0.05) zonula occludens (ZO-1) expression on day 14 than broilers fed either the HP or LPA diet. Under sanitary conditions, birds fed HP and LPA diets showed higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those of broilers fed the LP diet on day 35. Moreover, broilers raised in the poor sanitary environment had higher (P < 0.05) serum endotoxins than those raised in the sanitary environment. Broilers fed the LPA diet showed reduced (P < 0.05) nitrogen excretion on days 14 and 35 compared with those fed the LP and HP diets independent of the environment. In conclusion, the LPA diet did not impair growth performance under poor sanitary conditions for 14 D after hatch while resulting in lower nitrogen excretion in any environment conditions throughout the experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.10.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587901PMC
February 2020

Micropuncture Access Set Use During Implantation of Totally Implantable Venous Access Device May Reduce Upper Extremity DVT Incidence Among Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer.

World J Surg 2020 04;44(4):1302-1308

Department of Surgery, Myongji Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the perioperative outcomes when using a micropuncture access set (MS) to those when using a conventional puncture set (CS) for implantation of totally implantable venous access device (TAVID).

Methods: A total of 314 patients undergoing chemotherapy for colorectal cancer were included between June 2015 and July 2018. Of these, 123 (39.2%) received TAVID implantation using MS and 191 patients (60.8%) received TAVID using CS. Perioperative outcomes and complications were compared between both groups.

Results: Baseline characteristics, including body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia, were not significantly different between the groups. Postoperative complications occurred in 25 patients (8.0%), and the rate and incidence of venous thrombosis were significantly higher in the CS group. There were no significant differences between the groups in other complications such as the rate of port site infection, deep vein thrombosis, obstruction, catheter dislocation, and skin complications (exposure). No incidence of catheter infection, port rotation, intraoperative bleeding, or pneumothorax was observed in this cohort.

Conclusions: MS is a safe and feasible procedure and results in less thrombosis. MS may play an important role in improving outcomes for the implantation of TAVID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-019-05336-wDOI Listing
April 2020

Physiological impact on layer chickens fed corn distiller's dried grains with solubles naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Feb 1;33(2):313-322. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the response of laying hens fed corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) that are naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON).

Methods: One hundred and sixty 52-week-old Lohmann Brown Lite hens were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 8 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were formulated to provide a range of corn DDGS contaminated with DON from 0% to 20% (i.e., 5% scale of increment). All laying hens were subjected to the same management practices in a controlled environment. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured biweekly for the entire 8-week experiment. The egg quality was measured biweekly for 8 weeks. On weeks 4 and 8, visceral organ weights, blood metabolites, intestinal morphology, and blood cytokine concentrations were measured.

Results: The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet did not alter (p> 0.05) the body weight, feed intake, hen-day egg production, egg mass and feed efficiency of the laying hens. No difference was found (p>0.05) in the egg quality of hens that were fed the dietary treatments. Furthermore, hens that were fed a diet containing corn DDGS contaminated with DON showed no change (p>0.05) in the visceral organ weights, the blood metabolites, and the cytokine concentrations. The crypt depth increased (p<0.05) as the amount of corn DDGS contaminated with DON increased. Proportionately, the villus height to crypt depth ratio of the laying hens decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet.

Conclusion: The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON up to 20% in layer diets did not cause changes in egg production performance and egg quality, which indicates that DON is less toxic at the concentration of 1.00 mg DON/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946975PMC
February 2020

Maternal High-Fructose Intake Induces Multigenerational Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System.

Hypertension 2019 09 22;74(3):518-525. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

From the Department of Pharmacology (H.Y.S., H.M.C., M.K., I.K.), School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Although maternal high-fructose intake induces cardiometabolic syndrome in adult offspring, whether it induces hypertension in successive multiple generations has not yet been studied. We hypothesized that maternal high-fructose intake induces multigenerational activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Pregnant mice were offered 20% fructose in drinking water, of which subsequent first to fourth generation offspring were raised without being offered fructose. Blood pressure was measured via the tail-cuff method, mRNA expression was determined using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fibrosis was evaluated using trichrome staining. Maternal high-fructose intake statistically significantly increased blood pressure in the first and second, but not the third and fourth, generation offspring as compared to the control group, with maximal increases in serum renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone in the third generation offspring. It increased the mRNA expression of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes as well as the expression of renin in the kidneys in the first to third generation offspring, with the exception of the vasodilatory Mas1 gene, the mRNA expression of which was the lowest in the second generation offspring. Moreover, it maximally increased fibrosis and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the second generation offspring and increased the mRNA expression of oxidative factors in the first to third generation offspring, but maximally decreased the mRNA expression of antioxidant-encoding Sod1 in the second generation offspring. Maternal high-fructose intake induces multigenerational activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the results of this study implicate that it epigenetically induces cardiometabolic syndrome in multiple generations of offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.12941DOI Listing
September 2019

Chest Trauma Scoring Systems for Predicting Respiratory Complications in Isolated Rib Fracture.

J Surg Res 2019 12 4;244:84-90. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: We retrospectively compared chest trauma scoring systems in patients with rib fractures without major extrathoracic injury for predicting respiratory complications. We also evaluated the predictive power according to the presence or absence of pulmonary contusion.

Materials And Methods: Data from 177 patients with isolated rib fractures were included (December 2013 to April 2018). The primary outcome was respiratory complications (pneumonia, respiratory failure, or empyema). The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), Thoracic Trauma Severity Score (TTSS), Chest Trauma Score (CTS), Rib Fracture Score (RFS), and RibScore were evaluated using univariate and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to determine their predictive value for pulmonary complications. We divided patients into two groups according to the presence or absence of pulmonary contusion, and constructed ROC curves for both groups.

Results: Twenty-eight patients (15.8%) had ≥1 respiratory complication, with significantly higher numbers of standard, segmental, and displaced rib fractures as well as significantly higher TTSS, CTS, RFS, and AIS scores. In all patients, the TTSS (0.723, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.651-0.788) showed the highest area under the ROC curve (AUROC), followed by the CTS, RFS, AIS, and RibScore. In patients with pulmonary contusion, TTSS also showed the highest AUROC (0.704, 95% CI 0.613-0.784). In patients without pulmonary contusion, RFS showed the highest AUROC (0.759, 95% CI 0.630-0.861).

Conclusions: TTSS was the most useful system for predicting respiratory complications in isolated rib fracture patients with pulmonary contusion. By contrast, RFS was the most useful in patients without pulmonary contusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.06.009DOI Listing
December 2019

Lignin biosynthesis genes play critical roles in the adaptation of plants to high-salt stress.

Plant Signal Behav 2019 3;14(8):1625697. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

a Institute of Agriculture & Life Science , Gyeongsang National University , Jinju , Korea.

Salinity is a major abiotic stressor that limits the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Our previous metabolic analysis of high salt-adapted callus suspension cell cultures from roots indicated that physical reinforcement of the cell wall is an important step in adaptation to saline conditions. Compared to normal cells, salt-adapted cells exhibit an increased lignin content and thickened cell wall. In this study, we investigated not only the lignin biosynthesis gene expression patterns in salt-adapted cells, but also the effects of a loss-of-function of CCoAOMT1, which plays a critical role in the lignin biosynthesis pathway, on plant responses to high-salt stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, including , and , in salt-adapted cells relative to normal cells, which suggests activation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in salt-adapted cells. Moreover, plants harboring the mutants, and , were phenotypically hypersensitive to salt stress. Our study has provided molecular and genetic evidence indicating the importance of enhanced lignin accumulation in the plant cell wall during the responses to salt stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2019.1625697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6619940PMC
May 2020

Concise approach for screening long non-coding RNAs functionally linked to human breast cancer associated genes.

Exp Mol Pathol 2019 06 3;108:89-96. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biochemistry, BK21 Plus and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Cancer research studies using next-generation sequencing have revealed a number of genes of which aberrant expression is associated with various cancers. Recently, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been highlighted due to its tissue-specific expression and cell cancerization functions, such as the regulation of key tumor suppressors. In this study, we suggest a very efficient approach to survey lncRNAs putatively associated with breast cancer. We targeted lncRNAs linked with breast cancer associated genes (BCAGs) and analyzed their expression pattern in human breast cancer cell lines. A total of 337 BCAGs were retrieved from literature review and the existence of 121 lncRNAs were identified from the 15 kb up- and downstream regions of the list of genes. Twenty lncRNAs' expression were detectable in human breast cancer cell lines with different expression patterns. Interestingly, the expression of three lncRNAs, two up-regulated (RAD51C v.4, LOC105371849) and one down-regulated (LOC102724064), were closely correlated with adjacent BCAGs (RAD51C, HEATR6 and BRMS1) in breast cancer cell lines. We thus demonstrated association between the lncRNA and its adjacent BCAG using LOC105371849-HEATR6, of which the function and regulation in breast cancer are still unknown. Knockdown of LOC105371849 by siRNA decreased the expression of HEATR6 mRNA in the MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. In conclusion, this study provides a better understanding about the biological roles of lncRNAs in breast cancer and may be useful in the investigation of proper targets for diagnostic and/or therapeutic breast cancer markers using public databases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2019.04.003DOI Listing
June 2019

Prediction of therapeutic effects of human cardiomyocytes in myocardial infarction using non-human primates model.

Ann Transl Med 2018 Nov;6(Suppl 1):S64

Department of Biochemistry, BK21 PLUS Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.10.33DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291572PMC
November 2018
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