Publications by authors named "Hui Li"

7,583 Publications

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Progress in the research of nanomaterial-based exosome bioanalysis and exosome-based nanomaterials tumor therapy.

Biomaterials 2021 May 5;274:120873. Epub 2021 May 5.

Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

Exosomes and their internal components have been proven to play critical roles in cell-cell interactions and intrinsic cellular regulations, showing promising prospects in both biomedical and clinical fields. Although conventional methods have so far been utilized to great effect, accurate bioanalysis remains a major challenge. In recent years, the fast-paced development of nanomaterials with unique physiochemical properties has led to a boom in the potential bioapplications of such materials. In particular, the application of nanomaterials in exosome bioanalysis provides a great opportunity to overcome the current challenges and limitations of conventional methods. A timely review of the research progress in this field is thus of great significance to the continued development of new methods. This review outlines the properties and potential uses of exosomes, and discusses the conventional methods currently used for their analysis. We then focus on exploring the current state of the art regarding the use of nanomaterials for the isolation, detection and even the subsequent profiling of exosomes. The main methods are based on principles including fluorescence, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, colorimetry, electrochemistry, and surface plasmon resonance. Additionally, research on exosome-based nanomaterials tumor therapy is also promising from a clinical perspective, so the research progress in this branch is also summarized. Finally, we look at ways in which the field might develop in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120873DOI Listing
May 2021

An MSCT-based radiomics nomogram combined with clinical factors can identify Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):572

Department of Radiology, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Background: We established and evaluated a radiomics nomogram based on multislice computed tomography (MSCT) arterial phase contrast-enhanced images to distinguish between Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) objectively, quantitatively, and reproducibly.

Methods: MSCT arterial phase-enhancement images of 165 lesions (99 CD, 66 UC) in 87 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) confirmed by endoscopy or surgical pathology were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 132 lesions (80%) were selected as the training cohort and 33 lesions (20%) as the test cohort. A total of 1648 radiomic features were extracted from each region of interest (ROI), and the Pearson correlation coefficient and tree-based method were used for feature selection. Five machine learning classifiers, including logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), stochastic gradient descent (SGD), and linear discriminative analysis (LDA), were trained. The best classifier was evaluated and obtained, and the results were transformed into the Rscore. Three clinical factors were screened out from 8 factors by univariate analysis. The logistic regression method was used to synthesize the significant clinical factors and the Rscore to generate the nomogram, which was compared with the clinical model and LR model.

Results: Among all machine learning classifiers, LR performed the best (AUC =0.8077, accuracy =0.697, sensitivity =0.8, specificity =0.5385), SGD model had the second best performance (AUC =0.8, accuracy =0.6667, sensitivity =0.75, specificity =0.5385), and the DeLong test results showed that there was no significant difference between LR and SGD (P=0.465>0.05), while the other models performed poorly. Texture features had the greatest impact on classification results among all imaging features. The significant features of the LR model were used to calculate the Rscore. The 3 significant clinical factors were perienteric edema or inflammation, CT value of arterial phase-enhancement (AP-CT value), and lesion location. Finally, a nomogram was constructed based on the 3 significant clinical factors and the Rscore, whose AUC (0.8846) was much higher than that of the clinical model (0.6154) and the LR model (0.8077).

Conclusions: The nomogram is expected to provide a new auxiliary tool for radiologists to quickly identify CD and UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-1023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105820PMC
April 2021

Identification and Validation of SNP-Containing Genes With Prognostic Value in Gastric Cancer Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:564296. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although the diagnosis and treatment of this disease have substantially improved in recent years, the five-year survival rate of gastric cancer is still low due to local recurrence and distant metastasis. An in-depth study of the molecular pathogenesis of gastric cancer and related prognostic markers will help improve the quality of life and prognosis of patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to identify and verify key SNPs in genes with prognostic value for gastric cancer.

Methods: SNP-related data from gastric cancer patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and the functions and pathways of the mutated genes were analyzed using DAVID software. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the STRING database and visualized by Cytoscape software, and molecular complex detection (MCODE) was used to screen the PPI network to extract important mutated genes. Ten hub genes were identified using cytoHubba, and the expression levels and the prognostic value of the central genes were determined by UALCAN and Kaplan-Meier Plotter. Finally, quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to verify the expression of the hub genes in gastric cancer cells.

Results: From the database, 945 genes with mutations in more than 25 samples were identified. The PPI network had 360 nodes and 1616 edges. Finally, cytoHubba identified six key genes (TP53, HRAS, BRCA1, PIK3CA, AKT1, and SMARCA4), and their expression levels were closely related to the survival rate of gastric cancer patients.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that TP53, HRAS, BRCA1, PIK3CA, AKT1, and SMARCA4 may be key genes for the development and prognosis of gastric cancer. Our research provides an important bioinformatics foundation and related theoretical foundation for further exploring the molecular pathogenesis of gastric cancer and evaluating the prognosis of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.564296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112818PMC
April 2021

Metagenomic analysis reveals oropharyngeal microbiota alterations in patients with COVID-19.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 May 13;6(1):191. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.

COVID-19 remains a serious emerging global health problem, and little is known about the role of oropharynx commensal microbes in infection susceptibility and severity. Here, we present the oropharyngeal microbiota characteristics identified by shotgun metagenomic sequencing analyses of oropharynx swab specimens from 31 COVID-19 patients, 29 influenza B patients, and 28 healthy controls. Our results revealed a distinct oropharyngeal microbiota composition in the COVID-19 patients, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens such as Veillonella and Megasphaera and depletion of Pseudopropionibacterium, Rothia, and Streptococcus. Based on the relative abundance of the oropharyngeal microbiome, we built a microbial classifier to distinguish COVID-19 patients from flu patients and healthy controls with an AUC of 0.889, in which Veillonella was identified as the most prominent biomarker for COVID-19 group. Several members of the genus Veillonella, especially Veillonella parvula which was highly enriched in the oropharynx of our COVID-19 patients, were also overrepresented in the BALF of COVID-19 patients, indicating that the oral cavity acts as a natural reservoir for pathogens to induce co-infections in the lungs of COVID-19 patients. We also found the increased ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Serratia sp. were correlated with both disease severity and elevated systemic inflammation markers (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, NLR), suggesting that these oropharynx microbiota alterations may impact COVID-19 severity by influencing the inflammatory response. Moreover, the oropharyngeal microbiome of COVID-19 patients exhibited a significant enrichment in amino acid metabolism and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. In addition, all 26 drug classes of antimicrobial resistance genes were detected in the COVID-19 group, and were significantly enriched in critical cases. In conclusion, we found that oropharyngeal microbiota alterations and functional differences were associated with COVID-19 severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00614-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Dimeric Her2-specific affibody mediated cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles for tumor enhanced chemo-radiotherapy.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 May 13;19(1):138. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, 250117, China.

Background: Solid tumor hypoxic conditions prevent the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation, which ultimately contributes to radiotherapy (RT) resistance. Recently, there have been significant technical advances in nanomedicine to reduce hypoxia by facilitating in situ O production, which in turn serves as a "radiosensitizer" to increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation. However, off-target damage to the tumor-surrounding healthy tissue by high-energy radiation is often unavoidable, and tumor cells that are further away from the focal point of ionizing radiation may avoid damage. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop an intelligent targeted nanoplatform to enable precise enhanced RT-induced DNA damage and combined therapy.

Results: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-specific dimeric affibody (Z) mediated cisplatin-loaded mesoporous polydopamine/MnO/polydopamine nanoparticles (Pt@mPDA/MnO/PDA-Z NPs) for MRI and enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of Her2-positive ovarian tumors is reported. These NPs are biodegradable under a simulated tumor microenvironment, resulting in accelerated cisplatin release, as well as localized production of O. Z, produced using the E. coli expression system, endowed NPs with Her2-dependent binding ability in Her2-positive SKOV-3 cells. An in vivo MRI revealed obvious T contrast enhancement at the tumor site. Moreover, these NPs achieved efficient tumor homing and penetration via the efficient internalization and penetrability of Z. These NPs exhibited excellent inhibition of tumor growth with X-ray irradiation. An immunofluorescence assay showed that these NPs significantly reduced the expression of HIF-1α and improved ROS levels, resulting in radiosensitization.

Conclusions: The nanocarriers described in the present study integrated Her2 targeting, diagnosis and RT sensitization into a single platform, thus providing a novel approach for translational tumor theranostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00885-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Phospholipids (PLs) know-how: exploring and exploiting phospholipase D for its industrial dissemination.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 May 13:1-22. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, P. R. China.

Owing to their numerous nutritional and bioactive functions, phospholipids (PLs), which are major components of biological membranes in all living organisms, have been widely applied as nutraceuticals, food supplements, and cosmetic ingredients. To date, PLs are extracted solely from soybean or egg yolk, despite the diverse market demands and high cost, owing to a tedious and inefficient manufacturing process. A microbial-based manufacturing process, specifically phospholipase D (PLD)-based biocatalysis and biotransformation process for PLs, has the potential to address several challenges associated with the soybean- or egg yolk-based supply chain. However, poor enzyme properties and inefficient microbial expression systems for PLD limit their wide industrial dissemination. Therefore, sourcing new enzyme variants with improved properties and developing advanced PLD expression systems are important. In the present review, we systematically summarize recent achievements and trends in the discovery, their structural properties, catalytic mechanisms, expression strategies for enhancing PLD production, and its multiple applications in the context of PLs. This review is expected to assist researchers to understand current advances in this field and provide insights for further molecular engineering efforts toward PLD-mediated bioprocessing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2021.1921690DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular simulation studies of the interactions between the human/pangolin/cat/bat ACE2 and the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Biochimie 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, PR China; Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, And School of Life Science and Technology, Shanghai Tech University, Shanghai 200031, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has had a profound effect on the world. Similar to that in SARS-CoV, the entry receptor of SARS-CoV-2 is ACE2. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to ACE2 is the critical to the virus infection. Recently multiple species (human, Chinese chrysanthemum, Malay pangolin and cat) have been reported to be susceptible to the virus infection. However, the binding capacity and the detailed binding mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to ACE2 of these species remains unexplored. Herein free energy calculations with MM-GBSA and Potential of Mean Forces together reveal that the Human-SARS-CoV-2 has a higher stability tendency than Human-SARS-CoV. Meanwhile, we uncover that SARS-CoV-2 has an enhanced ability to bind with the ACE2 in humans, pangolins and cats compared to that in bats. Analysis of key residues with energy decomposition and residue contact maps reveal several important consensus sites in ACE2s among the studied species, and determined the more favourable specified residues among the different types of amino acids. These results provide important implications for understanding SARS-CoV-2 host range which will make it possible to control the spread of the virus and use of animal models, targeted drug screening and vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2021.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110333PMC
May 2021

Real-Time Imaging of Short-Wave Infrared Luminescence Lifetimes for Anti-counterfeiting Applications.

Front Chem 2021 26;9:659553. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems, Center for Biomedical Photonics and College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

Rare-earth doped nanoparticles (RENPs) have been widely used for anti-counterfeiting and security applications due to their light frequency conversion features: they are excited at one wavelength, and they display spectrally narrow and distinguished luminescence peaks either at shorter wavelengths (i.e., frequency/energy upconversion) or at longer wavelengths (frequency/energy downconversion). RENPs with a downconversion (DC) photoluminescence (PL) in short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral range (~1,000-1,700 nm) have recently been introduced to anti-counterfeiting applications, allowing for multilevel protection based on PL imaging through opaque layers, due to a lesser scattering of SWIR PL emission. However, as the number and spectral positions of the discrete PL bands exhibited by rare-earth ions are well-known, it is feasible to replicate luminescence spectra from RENPs, which results in a limited anti-counterfeiting security. Alternatively, lifetime of PL from RENPs can be used for encoding, as it can be finely tuned in broad temporal range (i.e., from microseconds to milliseconds) by varying type of dopants and their content in RENPs, along with the nanoparticle morphology and size. Nevertheless, the current approach to decoding and imaging the RENP luminescence lifetimes requires multiple steps and is highly time-consuming, precluding practical applications of PL lifetime encoding for anti-counterfeiting. Herein, we report the use of a rapid lifetime determination (RLD) technique to overcome this issue and introduce real-time imaging of SWIR PL lifetime for anti-counterfeiting applications. NaYF:20% Yb, x% Er (x = 0, 2, 20, 80)@NaYF core@shell RENPs were synthesized and characterized, revealing DC PL in SWIR region, with maximum at ~1,530 nm and PL lifetimes ranging from 3.2 to 6 ms. Imaging of the nanoparticles with different lifetimes was performed by the developed time-gated imaging system engaging RLD method and the precise manipulation of the delay between the excitation pulses and camera gating windows. Moreover, it is shown that imaging and decrypting can be performed at a high rate (3-4 fps) in a cyclic manner, thus allowing for real-time temporal decoding. We believe that the demonstrated RLD-based fast PL lifetime imaging approach can be employed in other applications of photoluminescent RENPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.659553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107396PMC
April 2021

Ultrasmall amphiphilic zeolitic nanoreactors for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols in water.

Nanoscale 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P. R. China.

Organic reactors in a green solvent (water) is the goal of sustainable development. Green nanoreactors with excellent amphiphilicity and catalytic activity are strongly desired. Herein, a novel amphiphilic nanoreactor Pd@amZSM-5 with ultrasmall size has been successfully synthesized via a simple one-step oil bath method, subjected to the modification-etching-modification strategy and in situ reduction of Pd2+. Ultrasmall Pd@amZSM-5 nanoreactors (60 nm) with hierarchical structures showed outstanding amphiphilicity for forming Pickering emulsions with fine uniform droplets (50 μm). Fine droplets formed short diffusion distances, which can significantly improve the catalytic activity in biphasic reactions. Moroever, the ultrasmall Pd@amZSM-5 nanoreactors demonstrated excellent catalytic activity for the selective oxidation of alcohols in water using air as the oxidant. Alkali was not present in the reaction system. The hydrophilic aminopropyl groups on the surface of the Pd@amZSM-5 nanoreactors not only changed the affinity of the zeolite surface and provided targeting points for Pd nanoparticles but also provided an alkaline environment for the selective oxidation of alcohols. The ultrasmall Pd@amZSM-5 nanoreactors presented excellent universality for aromatic alcohols (with >90% conversion and >90% selectivity) and allylic alcohols (with 100% conversion and 100% selectivity).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00955aDOI Listing
May 2021

Camrelizumab Combined with FOLFOX4 Regimen as First-Line Therapy for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinomas: A Sub-Cohort of a Multicenter Phase Ib/II Study.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 3;15:1873-1882. Epub 2021 May 3.

Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapy can synergistically increase efficacy in a variety of malignancies. We conducted this phase Ib/II study to assess the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibody camrelizumab in combination with FOLFOX4 for treatment-naive advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC).

Methods: This open-label, multicenter phase Ib/II study (NCT03092895) enrolled patients with aHCC and without prior systemic treatment for treatment with camrelizumab (3 mg/kg) and FOLFOX4 every two weeks. First, six patients were enrolled, followed by an additional 28 patients after dose-limiting toxicity cases were determined to be <33% of patients. The primary endpoint was tolerability and safety of treatment.

Results: A total of 34 aHCC patients were enrolled and received study treatment. No dose-limiting toxicity were observed in the first six patients enrolled. Twenty-nine (85.3%) of the total 34 patients had grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), with the most common ones being decreased neutrophil count (55.9%) and decreased white blood cell count (38.2%). No TRAEs-related deaths occurred. The objective response and disease control rate were 29.4% (95% CI, 15.1-47.5) and 79.4% (95% CI, 62.1-91.3), respectively. The median duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival was 6.9 months (range, 3.3-11.5), 7.4 months (95% CI, 3.9-9.2), and 11.7 months (95% CI, 8.2-22.0), respectively.

Conclusion: Camrelizumab combined with FOLFOX4 for first-line treatment of patients with aHCC showed good safety and tolerability, with promising preliminary antitumor activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S304857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106453PMC
May 2021

Proteome and transcriptome analyses of wheat near isogenic lines identifies key proteins and genes of wheat bread quality.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9978. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Crop Genetics and Breeding Laboratory of Hebei, Shijiazhuang, China.

The regulation of wheat protein quality is a highly complex biological process involving multiple metabolic pathways. To reveal new insights into the regulatory pathways of wheat glutenin synthesis, we used the grain-filling period wheat grains of the near-isogenic lines NIL-723 and NIL-1010, which have large differences in quality, to perform a combined transcriptome and proteome analysis. Compared with NIL-1010, NIL-723 had 1287 transcripts and 355 proteins with significantly different abundances. Certain key significantly enriched pathway were identified, and wheat quality was associated with alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) or Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in amino acid synthesis pathways were upregulated primarily in the glycine (Gly), methionine (Met), threonine (Thr), glutamic acid (Glu), proline (proC), cysteine (Cys), and arginine (Arg) synthesis and downregulated in the tryptophan (trpE), leucine (leuC), citrulline (argE), and ornithine (argE) synthesis. Furthermore, to elucidate changes in glutenin in the grain synthesis pathway, we plotted a regulatory pathway map and found that DEGs and DEPs in ribosomes (RPL5) and the ER (HSPA5, HYOU1, PDIA3, PDIA1, Sec24, and Sec31) may play key roles in regulating glutenin synthesis. The transcriptional validation of some of the differentially expressed proteins through real-time quantitative PCR analysis further validated the transcriptome and proteomic results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89140-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113351PMC
May 2021

JWX-A0108, a positive allosteric modulator of α7 nAChR, attenuates cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice by suppressing NF-κB-mediated inflammation.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 8;96:107726. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Qingdao University School of Pharmacy, Qingdao 266000, China. Electronic address:

Neuroinflammation plays an early and prominent role in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies have shown that cholinergic lesion is a contributor for the pathophysiology of AD. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a subtype of nAChRs, are abundantly expressed in the brain regions related to cognition and memory, such as hippocampus and frontal cortex. The α7 nAChR is rapidly activated and desensitized by agonists. JWX-A0108 is a type I positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α7 nAChR, which mainly enhances agonist-evoked peak currents. Here, we used the Morris Water Maze to evaluate the effect of JWX-A0108 on cognition and memory functions in APP/PS1 mice, and the mechanism related to anti-inflammatory effect. The results showed that JWX-A0108 could improve the learning and memory function of APP/PS1 transgenic mice in Morris water maze, decrease the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 in the brain and lower the phosphorylation level of IκBα (Ser32/36) and NF-κB p65 (Ser536), decrease the expression of Iba1, the microglia activation marker. Nissl staining showed that the CA3 and DG regions of hippocampus were damaged in APP/PS1 mice, which was improved by JWX-A0108. All of these effects of JWX-A0108 were reversed by MLA (α7 nAChR specific blocker). Taken together, the results reveal that JWX-A0108 improved the learning and memory function of APP/PS1 mice by enhancing the anti-inflammatory effect of the endogenous choline system through α7 nAChR, inhibited the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway by inhibiting IκB phosphorylation, and ultimately inhibited inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107726DOI Listing
May 2021

Intra-tumoral CD39CD8 T cells predict response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in patients with NSCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade is currently widely used in the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite available biomarker stratification, clinical responses vary. Thus, the search for novel biomarkers with improved response prediction is ongoing. Previously, using mass cytometry deep immune-profiling (CyTOF), our group provided evidence that CD39CD8 T cells represent tumor antigen-specific, cytotoxic T cells in treatment-naïve NSCLC. We hypothesized that accurate quantitation of this T cell subset would predict immunotherapy outcome.

Methods: In order to translate this to a clinical setting, the present study compared CyTOF data to results obtained via a range of clinically relevant methods; including conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC), multiplex immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence (mIHC/IF), and gene expression assay by NanoString.

Results: Quantification using mIHC/IF but not conventional IHC or NanoString correlated with the CyTOF results. The specificity and sensitivity of mIHC/IF was then assessed in a separate retrospective NSCLC cohort. CD39CD8 T cell proportion, as determined by mIHC/IF, successfully stratified responders and non-responders to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors (Objective Response Rate 63.6%, compared to 0% for the negative group). This predictive capability was independent from other confounding factors, such as total CD8 T cell proportion, CD39 lymphocyte proportion, PD-L1 positivity, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status, and other clinicopathological parameters.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the mIHC/IF platform is a clinically relevant method to assess CD39CD8 T cell proportion and this marker can serve as a potential biomarker that predicts response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in NSCLC patients. Further validation in additional NSCLC cohorts is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.04.016DOI Listing
May 2021

Correction to: Disrupted intraflagellar transport due to IFT74 variants causes Joubert syndrome.

Genet Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of Chinese Ministry of Education, Department of Pathophysiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01191-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Agreement of Angiography-Derived and Wire-Based Fractional Flow Reserves in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 23;8:654392. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Cardiology, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Beijing Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Coronary angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (caFFR) measurements have shown good correlations and agreement with invasive wire-based fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements. However, few studies have examined the diagnostic performance of caFFR measurements before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study sought to compare the diagnostic performance of caFFR measurements against wire-based FFR measurements in patients before and after PCI. Patients who underwent FFR-guided PCI were eligible for the acquisition of caFFR measurements. Offline caFFR measurements were performed by blinded hospital operators in a core laboratory. The primary endpoint was the vessel-oriented composite endpoint (VOCE), defined as a composite of vessel-related cardiovascular death, vessel-related myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. A total of 105 pre-PCI caFFR measurements and 65 post-PCI caFFR measurements were compared against available wire-based FFR measurements. A strong linear correlation was found between wire-based FFR and caFFR measurements ( = 0.77; < 0.001) before PCI, and caFFR measurements also showed a high correlation ( = 0.82; < 0.001) with wire-based FFR measurements after PCI. A total of 6 VOCEs were observed in 61 patients during follow-up. Post-PCI FFR values (≤0.82) in the target vessel was the strongest predictor of VOCE [hazard ratio (HR): 5.59; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-27.96; = 0.036). Similarly, patients with low post-PCI caFFR values (≤0.83) showed an 8-fold higher risk of VOCE than those with high post-PCI caFFR values (>0.83; HR: 8.83; 95% CI: 1.46-53.44; = 0.017). The study showed that the caFFR measurements were well-correlated and in agreement with invasive wire-based FFR measurements before and after PCI. Similar to wire-based FFR measurements, post-PCI caFFR measurements can be used to identify patients with a higher risk for adverse events associated with PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.654392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102686PMC
April 2021

LncRNA DANCR regulates lymphatic metastasis of bladder cancer via the miR-335/VEGF-C axis.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1743-1753

Department of Urology, Yan'an Hospital Affiliated to Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Background: Substantial evidence indicate that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) act as key role in bladder cancer. Differentiation antagonistic ncRNA (DANCR) could be used as a biomarker in the occurrence and development of cancer. This study aims to explore the mechanism of DANCR/miR-335/VEGF-C axis affecting lymphatic metastasis of bladder cancer.

Methods: qRT-PCR detects the expression of DANCR in bladder cancer cell lines (SW780, 5637, T24, UM-UC-3) and normal bladder cell lines (SV-HUC-1), and selects T24 cell lines for subsequent experiments. The expression levels of DANCR, miR-335 and VEGF were measured by qRT-PCR, and the dual luciferase reporter gene verified the targeted regulation of DANCR on miR-335 and miR-335 on VEGF. CCK-8, Transwell and Wound healing assay detect the proliferation, invasion and migration ability of bladder cancer cells, Endothelial cell adhesion assay and Western blot further prove the lymphatic metastasis of bladder cancer.

Results: In this study, DANCR was highly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines. Transfection of si-DANCR significantly inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion and lymphatic metastasis of bladder cancer cells. Dual luciferase assay confirmed that DANCR targets miR-335/VEGF-C. Transfection of miR-335 mimic promotes the proliferation, migration, invasion and lymphatic metastasis of bladder cancer cells, overexpression of DANCR eliminates the promotion of miR-335 mimic on bladder cancer cells. Further experiments proved that inhibition of miR-335 and overexpression of VEGF-C can reverse the inhibitory effect of silencing DANCR on bladder cancer cells.

Conclusions: In bladder cancer, DARCR plays an important role, which regulates the proliferation, migration, invasion and lymphatic metastasis of bladder cancer cells through the miR-335/VEGF-C molecular axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100837PMC
April 2021

Ping Feng Qingfei mixture treats airway hyperresponsiveness: a network pharmacology and molecular docking study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr;10(4):4747-4759

Department of Critical Care, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China.

Background: As air pollution has increased in severity over recent years, fine particulate matter (PM) (<25 µm; PM2.5) has led to a greater incidence of disease, including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Ping Feng Qingfei Mixture (PFQF) is effective in treating AHR caused by PM2.5. As there is a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of PFQF in the treatment of AHR, we conducted a network pharmacology study to clarify this issue.

Methods: We obtained the composition of PFQF from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) systems pharmacology database and its potential targets. The potential targets of AHR were obtained from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man and Gene Cards databases. Then psychophysiological interaction, KEGG pathway, and Gene Ontology biological process analyses were carried out for targeting PFQF in treating AHR. We further constructed a related network diagram and verified the experimental results in molecular docking.

Results: We identified a total of 4 core active compounds, and through KEGG analysis obtained multiple signaling pathways, including T helper17 (Th17) cell differentiation and interleukin-17 (IL-17) signaling pathway. Our molecular docking also verified that PFQF could effectively regulate the imbalance of Th17-T regulatory (Treg) cells.

Conclusions: PFQF can effectively treat the AHR caused by PM2.5 through Th17-Treg immune balance. The combination of molecular docking and network pharmacology provides a way to elucidate the complex mechanism of action of this Chinese herbal medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-802DOI Listing
April 2021

Distribution, behaviour, bioavailability and remediation of poly- and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in solid biowastes and biowaste-treated soil.

Environ Int 2021 May 5;155:106600. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Aqueous film-forming foam, used in firefighting, and biowastes, including biosolids, animal and poultry manures, and composts, provide a major source of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) input to soil. Large amounts of biowastes are added to soil as a source of nutrients and carbon. They also are added as soil amendments to improve soil health and crop productivity. Plant uptake of PFAS through soil application of biowastes is a pathway for animal and human exposure to PFAS. The complexity of PFAS mixtures, and their chemical and thermal stability, make remediation of PFAS in both solid and aqueous matrices challenging. Remediation of PFAS in biowastes, as well as soils treated with these biowastes, can be achieved through preventing and decreasing the concentration of PFAS in biowaste sources (i.e., prevention through source control), mobilization of PFAS in contaminated soil and subsequent removal through leaching (i.e., soil washing) and plant uptake (i.e., phytoremediation), sorption of PFAS, thereby decreasing their mobility and bioavailability (i.e., immobilization), and complete removal through thermal and chemical oxidation (i.e., destruction). In this review, the distribution, bioavailability, and remediation of PFAS in soil receiving solid biowastes, which include biosolids, composts, and manure, are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106600DOI Listing
May 2021

Tributyltin perturbs femoral cortical architecture and polar moment of inertia in rat.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 7;22(1):427. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Lu, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, China.

Background: Tributyltin, a well-known endocrine disruptor, is widely used in agriculture and industry. Previous studies have shown that tributyltin could cause deleterious effects on bone health by impairing the adipo-osteogenic balance in bone marrow.

Methods: To investigate further the effects of tributyltin on bone, weaned male SD rats were treated with tributyltin (0.5, 5 or 50 μg·kg) or corn oil by gavage once every 3 days for 60 days in this study. Then, we analyzed the effects of tributyltin on geometry, the polar moment of inertia, mineral content, relative abundances of mRNA from representative genes related to adipogenesis and osteogenesis, serum calcium ion and inorganic phosphate levels.

Results: Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that treatment with 50 μg·kg tributyltin caused an obvious decrease in femoral cortical cross sectional area, marrow area, periosteal circumference and derived polar moment of inertia in rats. However, other test results showed that exposure to tributyltin resulted in no significant changes in the expression of genes detected, femoral cancellous architecture, ash content, as well as serum calcium ion and inorganic phosphate levels.

Conclusions: Exposure to a low dose of tributyltin from the prepubertal to adult stage produced adverse effects on skeletal architecture and strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04298-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106170PMC
May 2021

A novel use for an old drug: resistance reversal in by combining dihydroartemisinin with fluconazole.

Future Microbiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Shandong Cancer Hospital & Institute, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, 250117, China.

To investigate the effects of dihydroartemisinin combined with fluconazole against and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Checkerboard microdilution assay and time-kill curve method were employed to evaluate the static and dynamic antifungal effects against . Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by a fluorescent probe. Combination of dihydroartemisinin and fluconazole exerted potent synergy against planktonic cells and biofilms of fluconazole-resistant , with the fractional inhibitory concentration index values less than 0.07. A potent fungistatic activity of this drug combination could still be observed after 18 h. The accumulation of ROS induced by the drug combination might contribute to the synergy. Dihydroartemisinin reversed the resistance of to fluconazole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2020-0148DOI Listing
May 2021

Facile and Scalable Fabrication of High-Performance Microsupercapacitors Based on Laser-Scribed Heteroatom-Doped Porous Graphene.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

This study proposes an efficient, facile, and scalable strategy to synthesize heteroatom-doped porous graphene via laser direct writing on the precursor-doped polyimide (PI) film, which is fabricated for the first time through incorporating PI powder and precursors with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder by a drop-casting and low-temperature drying process. The resulting microsupercapacitors (MSCs) based on the as-prepared heteroatom-doped porous graphene exhibit remarkable capacitive performance. The typical boron-doped MSC prepared on borax-doped polyimide film possesses an ultrahigh areal capacitance of 60.6 mF cm at 0.08 mA cm, which is approximately 20 times larger than that of undoped MSC. Furthermore, the boron-doped MSC has impressive cycling stability (with the capacitance retention of 96.3% after 20 000 cycles), exceptional mechanical flexibility, tunable capacitance, and voltage output through arbitrary modular serial and parallel integration. Besides, the nitrogen-doped porous graphene with excellent capacitive performance is also prepared by laser direct scribing on the sulfonated melamine-doped polyimide film, demonstrating excellent scalability and generality of this strategy. Hence, one-step laser direct writing on precursor-doped polyimide films can realize heteroatom doping and generation of hierarchical porous graphene electrodes simultaneously, which opens a new avenue for the facile, cost-effective, and scalable fabrication of heteroatom-doped porous graphene, thus promising for MSCs and various flexible and wearable electronics at large-scale production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03219DOI Listing
May 2021

-Formed Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Boosting the Cycle Stability of Si-Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Hubei Key Lab of Electrochemical Power Sources, College of Chemistry & Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

Si is being actively developed as one of the most promising high-capacity anodes for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, low cycling coulombic efficiency (CE) due to the repetitive growth of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film is still an issue for its application in full batteries. Here, we propose a strategy to form an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (ASEI) on the ferrosilicon/carbon (FeSi/C) anode surface by a purposely designed nucleophilic reaction of polysulfides with vinylene carbonate (VC) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) molecules. The as-formed ASEI layer is mechanically dense and ionically conducting and therefore can effectively prevent the electrolyte infiltration and decomposition while allowing Li transport across, thus stabilizing the interface of the FeSi/C anode. As a result, the ASEI-modified FeSi/C anode exhibits a large reversible capacity of 1409.4 mA h g, an excellent cycling stability over 650 cycles, and a greatly elevated cycling CE of 99.8%, possibly serving as a high-capacity anode of LIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03902DOI Listing
May 2021

An improved PD-AsLS method for baseline estimation in EDXRF analysis.

Anal Methods 2021 May;13(17):2037-2043

Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan 610000, China. and Applied Nuclear Techniques in Geosciences Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu, Sichuan 610000, China.

Baseline correction is an important step in energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The asymmetric least squares method (AsLS), adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares method (airPLS), and asymmetrically reweighted penalized least squares method (arPLS) are widely used to automatically select the data points for the baseline. Considering the parametric sensitivity of the aforementioned methods and the statistical characteristics of the X-ray energy spectrum, this paper proposes an asymmetrically reweighted penalized least squares method based on the Poisson distribution (PD-AsLS) to automatically correct the baseline of X-ray spectra. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to obtain the background spectrum, and PD-AsLS is used to estimate the baseline of the background. The relative error and the absolute error between the simulated background and PD-AsLS estimated background are used to determine the accuracy of PD-AsLS. The correlation coefficient (COR) and the root mean square error (RMSE) between the estmated baseline and the real baseline are calculated, and results of PD-AsLS are compared with results of three other classical methods (arPLS, airPLS and AsLS) to evaluate the reliability of PD-AsLS. The results of PD-AsLS show that the COR is above 0.95 and RMSE is less than 6. The stability and the practicability of PD-AsLS are also evaluated in experiments. A sample is measured five time to get its X-ray energy spectra, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the estimated baseline is smaller than that of measured spectra. Experiments show that PD-AsLS can estimate baselines better than arPLS without any overestimation. Those results indicate that PD-AsLS can reliably estimate the baselines of X-ray spectra and effectively suppress the statistical fluctuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ay00122aDOI Listing
May 2021

Oxygen Promotes the Formation of MoSe at the Interface of CuZnSnSe/Mo.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 6;12(18):4447-4452. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Photoelectronic Thin Film Devices and Technology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.

The contact, and thus the hole collection between CuZnSnSe (CZTSe) and Mo, is a crucial issue to improve the performance of CZTSe solar cells. In this work, a method to improve the back contact is explored by spraying NaPO on the surface of the Mo back contact. With the O provided from NaPO, extra MoO and MoO are formed at the surface of the back contact, and partial MoO is transformed into MoSe under high Se partial pressure during the selenization process. The formation of MoSe progresses from dispersed spots to a continuous layer but not from the reaction between CZTSe and Mo. Although a thick MoSe layer is formed, the CZTSe device performance increases from 7.2% to 8.3% on average. This study affords new insight into the formation of MoSe, thus deeply strengthening the understanding of the back contact of kesterite solar cells and of two-dimensional chalcogenide devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01094DOI Listing
May 2021

Protective effects of calorie restriction on insulin resistance and islet function in STZ-induced type 2 diabetes rats.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 May 5;18(1):48. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, China.

Background: Caloric restriction (CR) has become increasingly attractive in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because of the increasingly common high-calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to evaluate the role of CR in T2DM treatment and further explore its potential molecular mechanisms.

Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The diabetes model was induced by 8 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) followed by a single dose of streptozotocin injection (30 mg/kg). Subsequently, the diabetic rats were fed HFD at 28 g/day (diabetic control) or 20 g/day (30% CR regimen) for 20 weeks. Meanwhile, normal rats fed a free standard chow diet served as the vehicle control. Body mass, plasma glucose levels, and lipid profiles were monitored. After diabetes-related functional tests were performed, the rats were sacrificed at 10 and 20 weeks, and glucose uptake in fresh muscle was determined. In addition, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect alterations in AKT/AS160/GLUT4 signaling.

Results: We found that 30% CR significantly attenuated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, leading to alleviation of glucolipotoxicity and thus protection of islet function. Insulin resistance was also markedly ameliorated, as indicated by notably improved insulin tolerance and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). However, the improvement in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle was not significant. The upregulation of AKT/AS160/GLUT4 signaling in muscle induced by 30% CR also attenuated gradually over time. Interestingly, the consecutive decrease in AKT/AS160/GLUT4 signaling in white adipose tissue was significantly reversed by 30% CR.

Conclusion: CR (30%) could protect islet function from hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, and improve insulin resistance. The mechanism by which these effects occurred is likely related to the upregulation of AKT/AS160/GLUT4 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00575-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097947PMC
May 2021

Characterization of umami compounds in bone meal hydrolysate.

J Food Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, R&D Center of Separation and Extraction Technology in Fermentation Industry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

The objective of this research was to identify and characterize the chemical compounds that exhibited monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like taste in the hydrolyzed bone meal produced by using flavourzyme. The free amino acids and peptides in the bone meal hydrolysate were analyzed. The results showed that the glutamic acid and the aspartic acid in the bone meal increased by 13.1 times and 14.2 times, respectively, after the flavourzyme hydrolysis. The peptides' isolation identified six MSG-like peptides in the hydrolysate, including APGPVGPAG, DAINWPTPGEIAH, FLGDEETVR, GVDEATIIEILTK, PAGPVGPVG, and VAPEEHPTL, which should contribute to the taste. The human sensory evaluation results indicated that the six peptides showed MSG-like taste, and the electronic tongue analysis indicated that the six peptides showed sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and astringency. The findings of this study demonstrated that the MSG-like taste of the bone meal hydrolysate should be attributed to the generation of MSG-like amino acids and peptides from the flavourzyme hydrolysis. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The manuscript describes the umami compounds in the bone meal hydrolysate. The findings from this study should further confirm the feasibility of using bone meal to prepare meat-flavor essence and provide a better understanding of preparing bio-source flavoring peptides, which is very important to the artificial meat development and gene breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15751DOI Listing
May 2021

Genipin Attenuates Tau Phosphorylation and Aβ Levels in Cellular Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Ecology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Epigenetics, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, People's Republic of China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating brain disorder characterized by neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Inhibiting Tau protein and amyloid-beta (Aβ) production or removing these molecules is considered potential therapeutic strategies for AD. Genipin is an aglycone and is isolated from the extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit. In this study, the effect and molecular mechanisms of genipin on the inhibition of Tau aggregation and Aβ generation were investigated. The results showed that genipin bound to Tau and protected against heparin-induced Tau fibril formation. Moreover, genipin suppressed Tau phosphorylation probably by downregulating the expression of CDK5 and GSK-3β, and activated mTOR-dependent autophagy via the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in Tau-overexpressing cells. In addition, genipin decreased Aβ production by inhibiting BACE1 expression through the PERK/eIF2α signaling pathway in N2a/SweAPP cells. These data indicated that genipin could effectively lead to a significant reduction of phosphorylated Tau level and Aβ generation in vitro, suggesting that genipin might be developed into an effective therapeutic complement or a potential nutraceutical for preventing AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02389-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Tablet Use Affects Preschoolers' Executive Function: fNIRS Evidence from the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518061, China.

This study aims to examine the impact of heavy use of tablets on preschoolers' executive function during the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Altogether, 38 Chinese preschoolers ( = 5.0 years, = 0.69 years, 17 girls) completed the tasks before the COVID-19 lockdown. Eight children never used tablets, while 16 children were diagnosed as the 'heavy-user'. The results indicated that: (1) the 'non-user' outperformed the 'heavy-user' with a significantly higher correct rate in the DCCS task; (2) the two groups differed significantly in the activation of the prefrontal cortex (BA 9): the 'non-user' pattern is normal and healthy, whereas the 'heavy-user' pattern is not normal and needs further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050567DOI Listing
April 2021

Parental Behavioral Control and Bullying and Victimization of Rural Adolescents in China: The Roles of Deviant Peer Affiliation and Gender.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 30;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Education, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.

Bullying and victimization (BAV) have been widely studied, but the potential mechanism of parental behavioral control (PBC) on bullying and victimization in Chinese adolescents has not been explored. This study aimed to examine a moderated mediation model for the association between PBC and BAV mediated by deviant peer affiliation (DPA) and moderated by gender. A total of 3779 adolescents ( = 1679, = 14.98 years, = 0.95) from southwest China has completed the Peer Bullying, Peer Victimization, PBC, and DPA questionnaires. The results indicated that: (1) PBC significantly predicted adolescents' BAV (-12%); (2) DPA mediated the effect of PBC on BAV only for those adolescents who were both bullies and victims; (3) the mediating role of DPA was moderated by gender only in the relationship between PBC and victimization, with a relatively stronger effect in girls than in boys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094816DOI Listing
April 2021

Binding mechanism and functional evaluation of quercetin 3-rhamnoside on lipase.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 28;359:129960. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610010, China.

The interaction between lipase and quercetin 3-rhamnoside was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, enzyme kinetics, and molecular dynamics simulation. The results showed that quercetin 3-rhamnoside had a strong quenching effect on the intrinsic fluorescence of lipase. The binding constant decreased with increasing temperature, and the number of binding sites approached 1. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces are the dominant forces when the interaction occurs. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy proved that the ligand perturbed the structure of lipase. Enzyme kinetics results showed that quercetin 3-rhamnoside inhibited lipase, and the inhibitory effect was dose-dependent. Molecular dynamics simulation further explained the interaction mechanism and inhibitory effect. This study confirmed the inhibitory effect of quercetin 3-rhamnoside on lipase explained their binding mechanism, which will contribute to guiding the development of fat-reducing functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129960DOI Listing
April 2021