Publications by authors named "Huan Wang"

1,996 Publications

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Characterization of Americium and Curium Complexes with the Protein Lanmodulin: A Potential Macromolecular Mechanism for Actinide Mobility in the Environment.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States.

Anthropogenic radionuclides, including long-lived heavy actinides such as americium and curium, represent the primary long-term challenge for management of nuclear waste. The potential release of these wastes into the environment necessitates understanding their interactions with biogeochemical compounds present in nature. Here, we characterize the interactions between the heavy actinides, Am and Cm, and the natural lanthanide-binding protein, lanmodulin (LanM). LanM is produced abundantly by methylotrophic bacteria, including , that are widespread in the environment. We determine the first stability constant for an Am-protein complex (AmLanM) and confirm the results with CmLanM, indicating a ∼5-fold higher affinity than that for lanthanides with most similar ionic radius, Nd and Sm, and making LanM the strongest known heavy actinide-binding protein. The protein's high selectivity over Am's daughter nuclide Np enables lab-scale actinide-actinide separations as well as provides insight into potential protein-driven mobilization for these actinides in the environment. The luminescence properties of the Cm-LanM complex, and NMR studies of Gd-LanM, reveal that lanmodulin-bound f-elements possess two coordinated solvent molecules across a range of metal ionic radii. Finally, we show under a wide range of environmentally relevant conditions that lanmodulin effectively outcompetes desferrioxamine B, a hydroxamate siderophore previously proposed to be important in trivalent actinide mobility. These results suggest that natural lanthanide-binding proteins such as lanmodulin may play important roles in speciation and mobility of actinides in the environment; it also suggests that protein-based biotechnologies may provide a new frontier in actinide remediation, detection, and separations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c07103DOI Listing
September 2021

Biomechanical Effects of Lateral Inclination C and C Pedicle Screws on Atlantoaxial Fixation.

Authors:
Lei Zhang Huan Wang

Orthop Surg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Spine Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objective: To assess the biomechanical effect of lateral inclination C and C pedicle screws on the atlantoaxial fixation through vitro human cadaveric study.

Methods: From January 2016 to December 2017, fresh-frozen cadaveric cervical spines with intact ligaments from eight donated cadavers at an average age of 71.5 ± 10.6 years, comprising of six males and two females, were collected. There were no fracture and congenital malformation in all specimens according to the imaging examination. The range of motion (ROM) of the specimens were tested in their intact condition and destabilized condition. Next, the specimens were randomly divided into two groups to ensure no differences in sex and age: Group 1 was medial inclination C pedicle screw and C pedicle screws (C MPS-C PS) and Group 2 was lateral inclination C pedicle screw and C pedicle screws (C LPS-C PS). The ROM of the fixation scenarios were recorded. Thereafter, all the specimens with fixation constructs were tested for 1,000 cycles of axial rotation and tensile loading to failure was carried out collinearly to the longitudinal axis of all the screws, the data were documented as screw pullout strength (SPS) in newtons. All the recorded data subjected to quantitative analysis.

Results: The ROM of specimens was increased significantly in destabilized condition and significantly reduced in fixation condition compared with intact condition. In C LPS-C PS groups, the C -C cervical segment showed 3.96° ±1.21° and 3.75° ± 1.33° in flexion and extension direction, 2.85° ± 0.91° and 2.96° ± 0.71° in right and left lateral bending, 2.20° ± 0.43° and 2.15° ± 0.40° in right and left axial rotation. In C MPS-C PS groups, it showed 4.24° ±1.31° and 3.98° ± 1.21° in flexion and extension direction, 2.76° ± 1.10° and 3.23° ± 0.62° in right and left lateral bending, 2.20° ± 0.46° and 2.21° ± 0.42° in right and left axial rotation. There was no statistically significant difference on ROM and screw pullout strengths (764.29 ± 129.00 N vs 714.55 ± 164.63 N) between the two groups. However, there was one specimen in the C MPS-C PS group showing rupture the inferior wall of the left screw trajectory owing to the relatively thin posterior arch of the atlas, the screw pullout strength was significantly reduced (left pullout strength value: 430.5 N, right pullout strength value: 748.4 N). Therefore, in the case of the thin posterior arch of the atlas, the C LPS-C PS group had strong long-term biomechanics.

Conclusion: The lateral inclination C pedicle screw can achieve the same biomechanical strength as the traditional atlas pedicle screw. However, for the case where the posterior arch of the atlas is relatively thin, a lateral inclination C pedicle screw is more suitable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.13137DOI Listing
September 2021

Cyclohexanone and Phenolic Acid Derivatives from Endophytic Fungus .

Front Chem 2021 1;9:738307. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Chemical investigation of an endophytic fungus SCBG-15, led to the isolation of eight new cyclohexanone derivatives, foeniculins A-H (1-8) and three new phenolic acid derivatives, foeniculins I-K (9-11). Their structures were extensively established on the basis of H and C NMR spectra together with COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments. The absolute configurations were confirmed by quantum chemical ECD calculations and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Moreover, the cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of isolated compounds 1-11 were also evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.738307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440800PMC
September 2021

Tailoring glucocorticoids in patients with severe COVID-19: a narrative review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(15):1261

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To discuss the pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and the pharmacological effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) toward this infection. To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using GCs to treat patients with severe COVID-19, and investigate whether GC timing, dosage, or duration affect clinical outcomes. Finally. to discuss the use of biological markers, respiratory parameters, and radiological evidence to select patients for improved GC therapeutic precision.

Background: COVID-19 has become an unprecedented global challenge. As GCs have been used as key immunomodulators to treat inflammation-related diseases, they may play key roles in limiting disease progression by modulating immune responses, cytokine production, and endothelial function in patients with severe COVID-19, who often experience excessive cytokine production and endothelial and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) dysfunction. Current clinical trials have partially proven this efficacy, but GC timing, dosage, and duration vary greatly, with no unifying consensus, thereby creating confusion.

Methods: Publications through March 2021 were retrieved from the Web of Science and PubMed. Results from cited references in published articles were also included.

Conclusions: GCs play key roles in treating severe COVID-19 infections. Pharmacologically, GCs could modulate immune cells, reduce cytokine and chemokine, and improve endothelial functions in patients with severe COVID-19. Benefits of GCs have been observed in multiple clinical trials, but the timing, dosage and duration vary across studies. Tapering as an option is not widely accepted. However, early initiation of treatment, a tailored dosage with appropriate tapering may be of particular importance, but evidence is inconclusive and more investigations are needed. Biological markers, respiratory parameters, and radiological evidence could also help select patients for specific tailored treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-1783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421952PMC
August 2021

Seroprevalence of IgM and IgG Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Asymptomatic People in Wuhan: Data from a General Hospital Near South China Seafood Wholesale Market during March to April in 2020.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Sep;34(9):743-749

National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic people in Wuhan. This was a cross-sectional study, which enrolled 18,712 asymptomatic participants from 154 work units in Wuhan. Pearson Chi-square test, -test, and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the standardized seroprevalence of IgG and IgM for age and gender between different groups. The results indicated the standardized seroprevalence of IgG and IgM showed a downward trend and was significantly higher among females than males. Besides, different geographic areas and workplaces had different seroprevalence of IgG among asymptomatic people, and the number of abnormalities in CT imaging were higher in IgG antibody-positive cases than IgG-negative cases. We hope these findings can provide references for herd immunity investigation and provide basis for vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.103DOI Listing
September 2021

Molecules, the Ultimate Nanomotor: Linking Chemical Reaction Intermediates to their Molecular Diffusivity.

ACS Nano 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for Soft and Living Matter, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Ulsan 44919, South Korea.

The intellectual community focused on nanomotors has recently become interested in extending these concepts to individual molecules. Here, we study a chemical reaction according to whose mechanism some intermediate species should speed up while others slow down in predictable ways, if the nanomotor hypothesis of boosted diffusion holds. Accordingly, we scrutinize the absolute diffusion coefficient () during intermediate steps of the catalytic cycle for the CuAAC reaction (copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reaction), using proton pulsed field-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance to discriminate between the diffusion of various reaction intermediates. We observe time-dependent diffusion that is enhanced for some intermediate molecular species and depressed for those whose size increases owing to complex formation. These findings point to the failure of the conventional Stokes-Einstein equation to fully explain diffusivity during chemical reaction. Without attempting a firm explanation, this paper highlights aspects of the physics of chemical reactions that are imperfectly understood and presents systematic data that can be used to assess hypotheses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c05168DOI Listing
September 2021

FPS-ZM1 inhibits LPS-induced microglial inflammation by suppressing JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 9;100:108117. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

FPS-ZM1 is an inhibitor of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Nevertheless, there are few reports about its direct effects on microglial inflammation, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be clarified. The present study investigated the potential effects of FPS-ZM1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated microglial inflammation both in vivo and in vitro, and further elucidated the possible molecular mechanisms of action. FPS-ZM1 decreased LPS-induced overproduction of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), in both BV-2 cells and primary microglial cells. FPS-ZM1 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) ameliorated proliferation and activation of microglia in the hippocampus of C57BL/6J mice subjected to LPS challenge (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Meanwhile, overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in the hippocampus was alleviated after treatment with FPS-ZM1. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis showed involvement of Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway in the regulation of FPS-ZM1 on LPS-induced microglial inflammation. Further investigations demonstrated that FPS-ZM1 downregulated LPS-mediated increases in the phosphorylation levels of JAK/STAT both in vivo and in vitro. FPS-ZM1 also suppressed the nuclear translocation of transcription factor STAT1/3/5 in BV-2 cells. In addition, inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling pathway had an anti-inflammatory effect similar to FPS-ZM1 treatment. Taken together, our results verified the inhibitory effects of FPS-ZM1 against LPS-stimulated microglial inflammation, and for the first time demonstrated such anti-inflammatory activities on microglia are associated with regulation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway both in vivo and in vitro, which may shed new light on the pharmacological mechanisms of FPS-ZM1 against microglial inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108117DOI Listing
September 2021

Lipin 1 modulates mRNA splicing during fasting adaptation in liver.

JCI Insight 2021 Sep 8;6(17). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine.

Lipin 1 regulates cellular lipid homeostasis through roles in glycerolipid synthesis (through phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity) and transcriptional coactivation. Lipin 1-deficient individuals exhibit episodic disease symptoms that are triggered by metabolic stress, such as stress caused by prolonged fasting. We sought to identify critical lipin 1 activities during fasting. We determined that lipin 1 deficiency induces widespread alternative mRNA splicing in liver during fasting, much of which is normalized by refeeding. The role of lipin 1 in mRNA splicing was largely independent of its enzymatic function. We identified interactions between lipin 1 and spliceosome proteins, as well as a requirement for lipin 1 to maintain homeostatic levels of spliceosome small nuclear RNAs and specific RNA splicing factors. In fasted Lpin1-/- liver, we identified a correspondence between alternative splicing of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes and dysregulated phospholipid levels; splicing patterns and phospholipid levels were partly normalized by feeding. Thus, lipin 1 influences hepatic lipid metabolism through mRNA splicing, as well as through enzymatic and transcriptional activities, and fasting exacerbates the deleterious effects of lipin 1 deficiency on metabolic homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.150114DOI Listing
September 2021

Cleavage of E-cadherin by porcine respiratory bacterial pathogens facilitates airway epithelial barrier disruption and bacterial paracellular transmigration.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):2296-2313

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Airway epithelial cells are the first line of defense against respiratory pathogens. Porcine bacterial pathogens, such as () , and , breach this barrier to lead to local or systematic infections. Here, we demonstrated that respiratory bacterial pathogen infection disrupted the airway epithelial intercellular junction protein, E-cadherin, thus contributing to impaired epithelial cell integrity. E-cadherin knocking-out in newborn pig tracheal cells via CRISPR/Cas9 editing technology confirmed that E-cadherin was sufficient to suppress the paracellular transmigration of these porcine respiratory bacterial pathogens, including , and . The E-cadherin ectodomain cleavage by these pathogens was probably attributed to bacterial HtrA/DegQ protease, but not host HtrA1, MMP7 and ADAM10, and the prominent proteolytic activity was further confirmed by a serine-to-alanine substitution mutation in the active center of HtrA/DegQ protein. Moreover, deletion of the gene in led to severe defects in E-cadherin ectodomain cleavage, cell adherence and paracellular transmigration , as well as bacterial breaking through the tracheal epithelial cells, systemic invasion and dissemination . This common pathogenic mechanism shared by other porcine respiratory bacterial pathogens explains how these bacterial pathogens destroy the airway epithelial cell barriers and proliferate in respiratory mucosal surface or other systemic tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2021.1966996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425755PMC
December 2021

Hyperactivity of basolateral amygdala mediates behavioral deficits in mice following exposure to bisphenol A and its analogue alternative.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 27;287(Pt 1):132044. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

CAS Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027, People's Republic of China.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known endocrine disruptor and has been gradually replaced in industrial applications by other bisphenols, such as bisphenol S (BPS). However, whether these analogues are any safer for the central nervous system remains elusive. Here, we investigated behavioral impairments in mice after BPA and BPS exposure from postnatal days 21-49 (P21~P49). Results showed that BPA (0.1 and 1 mg/kg/d) and BPS (1 mg/kg/d) impaired emotion and social interaction of mice, while low dose exposure (0.1 mg/kg/d) induced no observable changes on emotion in mice. The behavioral deficits were accompanied by hyperactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), i.e., dose-dependent increase in neuronal firing rates and local field potential power. In addition, glutamate receptors were up-regulated in the BLA, showing the same activation trend after exposure to different doses of BPA and BPS. Taken together, these findings imply that BPA and BPS cause behavioral impairments in juvenile mice by disrupting local neuronal activation in the BLA. Although BPS exerted less adverse effects on mice than BPA at the low dose, it does not appear to be a safe alternative to BPA in regard to brain function after prolonged high-volume exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132044DOI Listing
August 2021

The prevalence and correlates of vision impairment and glasses ownership among ethnic minority and Han schoolchildren in rural China.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(8):e0256565. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Division of Preventive Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of visual impairment and glasses ownership among Han Chinese and Hui minority junior high school children in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.

Design: Population-based cross-sectional study.

Methods: Vision screening was conducted on 20,376 children (age 12-15 years) in all 124 rural junior high schools in Ningxia. Personal and family characteristics, glasses ownership, and academic performance were assessed through a survey questionnaire and standardized mathematics test, respectively.

Results: The prevalence of visual acuity (VA) ≤6/12 in either eye was significantly higher among Han (54.5%) than Hui (45.2%) children (P<0.001), and was significantly positively associated with age, female sex, Han ethnicity, parental outmigration for work, shorter time spent outside during recess, shorter time spent watching television and higher time spent studying. Among children with VA≤6/12 in both eyes, only 56.8% of Han and 41.5% of Hui children had glasses (P<0.001). Glasses ownership was significantly associated with worse vision, greater family wealth, female sex, higher test scores, age, parental outmigration for work, understanding of myopia and glasses, higher time spent studying and Han ethnicity.

Conclusion: One of the first of its kind, this report on Han and Hui ethnic schoolchildren confirms a high prevalence of visual impairment among both populations, but slightly higher among the Han. Both groups, especially the Hui, have low rates of glasses ownership. Future interventions and policies designed to improve glasses usage should focus on populations with lower incomes and seek to correct erroneous beliefs about the safety of glasses and efficacy of traditional eye exercises.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256565PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405009PMC
August 2021

Development of silica molecularly imprinted polymer on carbon dots as a fluorescence probe for selective and sensitive determination of cetirizine in saliva and urine.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Aug 19;264:120293. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050017, China. Electronic address:

A fluorescence probe based on carbon dots (CDs) coated with silica molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs) was synthesized for selective and sensitive determination of cetirizine (CTZ). Green source carbon dots were firstly derived from orange peels through a microwave method, and had the merits of eco-friendly and low toxicity. Then a thin silica film was formed on the surface of CDs by reverse microemulsion technique, and molecularly imprinted polymer coated on silica-carbon dots. In this scene, CTZ, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) were employed as a template, a functional monomer and cross linker, respectively. The obtained CDs-MIPs can selectively bind CTZ through the specific interaction between recognition sites and template, and obey photoinduced electron transfer fluorescence quenching mechanism. Fluorescence dropped linearly in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL, under the optimal conditions, with a detection limit of 0.41 ng mL. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully intended for the determination of trace CTZ in human saliva and urine samples without the interference of other molecules and ions. And recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 99.8% with relative standard deviation less than 3.0%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120293DOI Listing
August 2021

A bibliometric of publication trends in medical image segmentation: Quantitative and qualitative analysis.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Research and Technology Department, Alzahra University, Vanak, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Medical images are important in diagnosing disease and treatment planning. Computer algorithms that describe anatomical structures that highlight regions of interest and remove unnecessary information are collectively known as medical image segmentation algorithms. The quality of these algorithms will directly affect the performance of the following processing steps. There are many studies about the algorithms of medical image segmentation and their applications, but none involved a bibliometric of medical image segmentation.

Methods: This bibliometric work investigated the academic publication trends in medical image segmentation technology. These data were collected from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection and the Scopus. In the quantitative analysis stage, important visual maps were produced to show publication trends from five different perspectives including annual publications, countries, top authors, publication sources, and keywords. In the qualitative analysis stage, the frequently used methods and research trends in the medical image segmentation field were analyzed from 49 publications with the top annual citation rates.

Results: The analysis results showed that the number of publications had increased rapidly by year. The top related countries include the Chinese mainland, the United States, and India. Most of these publications were conference papers, besides there are also some top journals. The research hotspot in this field was deep learning-based medical image segmentation algorithms based on keyword analysis. These publications were divided into three categories: reviews, segmentation algorithm publications, and other relevant publications. Among these three categories, segmentation algorithm publications occupied the vast majority, and deep learning neural network-based algorithm was the research hotspots and frontiers.

Conclusions: Through this bibliometric research work, the research hotspot in the medical image segmentation field is uncovered and can point to future research in the field. It can be expected that more researchers will focus their work on deep learning neural network-based medical image segmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acm2.13394DOI Listing
August 2021

Complete Mitochondrial Genome of (Carangidae, Perciformes) Provides Insight into Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Relationship among Carangidae Family.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Aug 11;12(8). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.

(white trevally) which belongs to the Carangidae family, is an important commercial fishery and aquaculture resource in Asia. However, its evolution and population genetics have received little attention which was limited by the mitogenome information absence. Here, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of which was 16,569 bp in length, containing twenty-two tRNAs (transfer RNAs), thirteen PCGs (protein-coding genes), two rRNAs (ribosomal RNAs), and one non-coding region with conservative gene arrangement. The Ka/Ks ratio analysis among Carangidae fishes indicated the PCGs were suffering purify selection and the values were related to the taxonomic status and further influenced by their living habits. Phylogenetic analysis based on the PCGs sequences of mitogenomes among 36 species presented three major clades in Carangidae. According to the phylogenetic tree, we further analyzed the taxonomic confusion of which was on the same branch with but a different branch with spp. We inferred should be the accepted name and belong to the independent genus which was the sister genus of . This work provides mitochondrial genetic information and verifies the taxonomic status of , and further helps to recognize the phylogenetic relationship and evolutionary history of Carangidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12081234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392498PMC
August 2021

Evaluation of Dietary Probiotic ( BG0001) Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profile, Fecal Gas Emission, and Fecal Microbiota in Weaning Pigs.

Authors:
Huan Wang In-Ho Kim

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 29;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.

A total of 180, 4-week-old crossbred weaning piglets ((Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc; 6.67 ± 1.40 kg) were used in a 42 day experiment to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotics ( BG0001) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota, and noxious gas emission. All pigs were randomly allotted to one of four treatment diets in a completely randomized block design. Each treatment had nine replicates with five pigs/pen (mixed sex) Designated dietary treatments were as: (1) basal diet (NC), (2) NC + 0.2% antibiotics (chlortetracycline) (PC), (3) NC + 0.1% BG0001 ( BG0001) (NC1), (4) NC + 0.2% BG0001 (NC2). On d 42, BW and G:F were lower ( < 0.05) in pigs fed NC diet compared with PC diet and probiotic diets. Throughout this experiment, the average daily gain increased ( < 0.05) in pigs when fed with PC and probiotic diets than the NC diet. The average daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.05) in pigs fed PC diet during day 0-7 and 22-42, and probiotic diets during day 0-7 compared with NC diet, respectively. The count was increased and count was decreased ( < 0.05) in the fecal microbiota of pigs fed probiotic diets, and were decreased ( < 0.05) when fed a PC diet compared with the NC diet on day 21. Moreover, the apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, blood profile, and the concentration of noxious gas emission had no negative effects by the probiotic treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with BG0001 significantly improved the growth performance, increased fecal , and decreased counts in weaning pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11082232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388486PMC
July 2021

Exploration of the Characteristics of Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolomics in Different Rat Models of Mongolian Medicine.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 3;2021:5532069. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Mongolian Medical College, Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 028000, China.

Background: Mongolian medicine is a systematic theoretical system, which is based on the balance among Heyi, Xila, and Badagan. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of intestinal microbiota and metabolites in different rat models of Mongolian medicine.

Methods: After establishing rat models of Heyi, Xila, and Badagan, we integrated 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics.

Results: Heyi, Xila, and Badagan rats had significantly altered intestinal microbial composition compared with rats in the MCK group. They showed 11, 18, and 8 significantly differential bacterial biomarkers and 22, 11, and 15 differential metabolites, respectively. The glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway was enriched only in Heyi rats; the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids pathway and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were enriched only in Xila rats; the isoflavonoid biosynthesis pathway, the glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism pathway, and the arginine and proline metabolism pathway were enriched only in Badagan rats.

Conclusions: The intestinal microbiota, metabolites, and metabolic pathways significantly differed among Heyi, Xila, and Badagan rats compared with control group rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5532069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356010PMC
August 2021

Synergistic effects of warming and eutrophication alert zooplankton predator-prey interactions along the benthic-pelagic interface.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Aug 14. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Contemporary evidence suggests that climate change and other co-occurring large-scale environmental changes, such as eutrophication, will have a considerable impact on aquatic communities. However, the interactions of these environmental changes on trophic interactions among zooplankton remain largely unknown. Here we present results of a mesocosm experiment examining how a couple of zooplankton predator and prey taxa with different life-history strategies respond to the combined effect of an increase in temperature (4.5°C) and in eutrophication (phosphorus addition), during the crucial recruiting and growing season. We show that the addition of phosphorus alone significantly weakened the top-down effects by the cyclopoid copepod predators on their rotifer prey. In contrast, warming strengthened the top-down effects from the predator, leading to a reduction in the abundance of the rotifer prey. These effects of warming were enhanced by phosphorus addition. Together, our results demonstrate that warming made plankton prey organisms more susceptible to top-down effects from predators, but reduced their sensitivity to nutrient enrichment. In terms of the phenological effects, warming advanced the termination of diapause for both rotifers and cyclopoid copepods by about 2 weeks, but these temporal shifts, akin for both groups, resulted in no apparent trophic mismatch. Hence, from a future perspective, cyclopoid copepods are likely to benefit more from the combination of nutrient enrichment and climate warming to the detriment of their rotifer prey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15838DOI Listing
August 2021

[Application of autologous costal cartilage-based open rhinoplasty in secondary unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Aug;35(8):1021-1026

Center of Rhinoplasty and Nasal Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100043, P.R.China.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of autologous costal cartilage-based open rhinoplasty in the correction of secondary unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity.

Methods: Between January 2013 and June 2020, 30 patients with secondary unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity were treated, including 13 males and 17 females; aged 14-41 years, with an average of 21.7 years. Among them, 18 cases were cleft lip, 9 cases were cleft lip and palate, and 3 cases were cleft lip and palate with cleft alveolar. The autologous costal cartilage-based open rhinoplasty was used for the treatment, and the alar annular graft was used to correct the collapsed alar of the affected side. Before operation and at 6-12 months after operation, photos were taken in the anteroposterior position, nasal base position, oblique position, and left and right lateral positions, and the following indicators were measured: rhinofacial angle, nasolabial angle, deviation angle of central axis of columella, nostril height to width ratio, and bilateral nasal symmetry index (including nostril height, nostril width, and nostril height to width ratio).

Results: The incisions healed by first intention after operation, and no complications such as acute infection occurred. All 30 patients were followed up 6 months to 2 years, with an average of 15.2 months. During the follow-up, the patients' nasal shape remained good, the tip of the nose and columella were basically centered, the back of the nose was raised, the collapse of the affected side of nasal alar and the movement of the feet outside the nasal alar were all lessened than preoperatively. The basement was elevated compared to the front, and no cartilage was exposed or infection occurred. None of the patients had obvious cartilage absorption and recurrence of drooping nose. Except for the bilateral nostril width symmetry index before and after operation, there was no significant difference ( =1.950, =0.061), the other indexes were significantly improved after operation when compared with preoperatively ( <0.05). Eleven patients (36.7%) requested revision operation, and the results were satisfactory after revision. The rest of the patients' nasal deformities were greatly improved at one time, and they were satisfied with the effectiveness.

Conclusion: Autologous costal cartilage-based open rhinoplasty with the alar annular graft is a safe and effective treatment for secondary unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202012066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404001PMC
August 2021

Electrochemically Promoted Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of 2,2,2-Trifluoroacetophenone.

J Org Chem 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China.

The study reported an electrochemically promoted asymmetric hydrogen transfer reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone with a chiral Ru complex. ()-α-(Trifluoromethyl) benzyl alcohol with a 96% yield and 94% ee could be obtained with only a 0.5 F mol charge amount at room temperature and normal pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c01030DOI Listing
August 2021

The Cardamine enshiensis genome reveals whole genome duplication and insight into selenium hyperaccumulation and tolerance.

Cell Discov 2021 Aug 10;7(1):62. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Hubei Minzu University Affiliated Enshi Clinical Medical School, The Central Hospital of Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, Hubei, China.

Cardamine enshiensis is a well-known selenium (Se)-hyperaccumulating plant. Se is an essential trace element associated with many health benefits. Despite its critical importance, genomic information of this species is limited. Here, we report a chromosome-level genome assembly of C. enshiensis, which consists of 443.4 Mb in 16 chromosomes with a scaffold N50 of 24 Mb. To elucidate the mechanism of Se tolerance and hyperaccumulation in C. enshiensis, we generated and analyzed a dataset encompassing genomes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes. The results reveal that flavonoid, glutathione, and lignin biosynthetic pathways may play important roles in protecting C. enshiensis from stress induced by Se. Hi-C analysis of chromatin interaction patterns showed that the chromatin of C. enshiensis is partitioned into A and B compartments, and strong interactions between the two telomeres of each chromosome were correlated with histone modifications, epigenetic markers, DNA methylation, and RNA abundance. Se supplementation could affect the 3D chromatin architecture of C. enshiensis at the compartment level. Genes with compartment changes after Se treatment were involved in selenocompound metabolism, and genes in regions with topologically associated domain insulation participated in cellular responses to Se, Se binding, and flavonoid biosynthesis. This multiomics research provides molecular insight into the mechanism underlying Se tolerance and hyperaccumulation in C. enshiensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00286-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352907PMC
August 2021

[Effect of acupoint thread-embedding on tight junction of intestinal mucosa epithelium in rats with ulcerative colitis].

Authors:
Huan Wang Ying Zhu

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Aug;41(8):899-905

First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan University of CM, Changsha 410007.

Objective: To observe the effect of acupoint thread-embedding on tight junction of intestinal mucosal epithelial barrier in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC) under the state of "deficiency and stasis", and to explore its mechanism.

Methods: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group (=12) and a UC model group (=48). The rats were gavaged with adenine and folium sennae by stages to prepare the "deficiency and stasis" state, and then 5% 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 100 mg/kg) and 0.25 mL 50% ethanol were used to induce UC model. Thirty rats with successful model establishment were selected and randomly divided into a model group, a medication group and a thread-embedding group, 10 rats in each group. The rats in the thread-embedding group were intervened with thread-embedding at "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Tianshu" (ST 25), "Geshu" (BL 17), "Pishu" (BL 20), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Dachangshu" (BL 25), once every 14 days, totaling 3 times. The rats in the medication group were gavaged with sulfasalazine, once a day. The rats in the control group, model group and thread-embedding group were gavaged with the same amount of 0.9% sodium chloride solution at the same time for 42 days. The general condition and body weight of rats in each group were observed. The appearance and morphological changes of colonic tissue were observed by naked eye and HE staining. The serum levels of calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseⅡ(CaMKⅡ) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were detected by ELISA. The mRNA levels of colonic tight junction (TJ) proteins including occludin, claudin1, claudin2 and ZO-1were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expressions of occludin, claudin1, claudin2, ZO-1 and CaMKⅡ, MLCK were detected by Western blot.

Results: Compared with the control group, in the model group the body weight was decreased (<0.01), colon tissue was significantly swelled with bleeding and a large number of inflammatory cells infiltration, and the colon tissues damage index score was increased (<0.01), serum CaMKⅡ and MLCK levels were increased (<0.01), and the mRNA and protein expression levels of occludin, claudin1 and ZO-1 in colon tissue were decreased (<0.01), the mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin2 were increased (<0.01), and the protein expression levels of CaMKⅡ and MLCK were increased (<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the medication group and thread-embedding group the weight was increased (<0.01), the colonic lesions were significantly alleviated, the tissues damage index scores were decreased (<0.01), the serum CaMKⅡ and MLCK contents were decreased (<0.01), the mRNA and protein expression levels of occludin, claudin1 and ZO-1 in colonic tissue were increased (<0.01, <0.05), the mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin2 were decreased (<0.01), and the protein expression levels of CaMKⅡ and MLCK were decreased (<0.01, <0.05). There was no significant difference of each index between the medication group and thread-embedding group >0.05).

Conclusion: The thread-embedding could repair the tight junction of intestinal mucosa epithelium and reduce the permeability of intestinal mucosa epithelium, which may be related to the decrease of the expression of CaMKⅡ, MLCK and other protein kinases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20200629-k0003DOI Listing
August 2021

The Landscape of Genetic Alterations Stratified Prognosis in Oriental Pancreatic Cancer Patients.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:717989. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Naval Military Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai, China.

Background: Pancreatic cancer is a life-threatening malignant disease with significant diversity among geographic regions and races leading to distinct carcinogenesis and prognosis. Previous studies mainly focused on Western patients, while the genomic landscape of Oriental patients, especially Chinese, remained less investigated.

Methods: A total of 408 pancreatic cancer patients were enrolled. A panel containing 436 cancer-related genes was used to detect genetic alterations in tumor samples.

Results: We profiled the genomic alteration landscape of pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDAC), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), periampullary carcinoma (PVC), and solid-pseudopapillary tumor (SPT). Comparison with a public database revealed specific gene mutations in Oriental PDAC patients including higher mutation rates of DNA damage repair-related genes. Analysis of mutational signatures showed potential heterogenous carcinogenic factors caused by diabetes mellitus. KRAS mutation, especially KRAS G12D mutation, was associated with poor survival, while patients not harboring the 17 significant copy number variations (CNVs) had a better prognosis. We further identified multiple correlations between clinicopathologic variables and genetic mutations, as well as CNVs. Finally, by network-based stratification, three classes of PDAC patients were robustly clustered. Among these, class 1 (characterized by the Fanconi anemia pathway) achieved the best outcome, while class 2 (involved in the platinum drug resistance pathway) suffered from the worst prognosis.

Conclusions: In this study, we reported for the first time the genetic alteration landscape of Oriental PDAC patients identifying many Oriental-specific alterations. The relationship between genetic alterations and clinicopathological factors as well as prognosis demonstrated important genomic impact on tumor biology. This study will help to optimize clinical treatment of Oriental PDAC patients and improve their survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.717989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340855PMC
July 2021

Clinical Outcomes of Salvage Endoscopic Nasopharyngectomy for Patients With Advanced Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:716729. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Salvage endoscopic nasopharyngectomy has better survival prognosis and fewer complications in the management of early stage rNPC, compared to re-irradiation. However, the treatment modality of advanced recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) remains controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics, clinical outcomes, and prognostic factors associated with salvage endoscopic nasopharyngectomy in advanced rNPC.

Methods: This study conducted a retrospective analysis of advanced rNPC patients who underwent salvage surgery betweenm January 2014 and December 2019. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable analyses of OS and PFS were performed using the Cox regression model. The predicted values of the parameters were determined by means of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: Among the 120 patients included, there were 75 patients with rT3 stage and 45 patients with rT4 stage. With the median follow-up time of 18 months,the 3 -year OS and PFS were 55.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the rNPC patients with older age, low BMI (Body Mass Index), rT4 stage, tumor necrosis, and tumor invasion into the ICA was predictive of worse OS, whereas low BMI and rT4 stage were associated with worse PFS. In addition, the rT stage was identified as a better predictor of OS (area under the ROC curve: 0.669; =0.003) than the other clinical features.

Conclusions: Salvage treatment using endoscopic nasopharyngectomy appears to be an effective treatment in the management of patients with advanced rNPC. In addition, case matching studies and prospective studies with larger clinical samples are required to further evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic surgery compared with re-irradiation in advanced rNPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.716729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340003PMC
July 2021

Comparison between Intra-Articular Injection of Infrapatellar Fat Pad (IPFP) Cell Concentrates and IPFP-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) for Cartilage Defect Repair of the Knee Joint in Rabbits.

Stem Cells Int 2021 27;2021:9966966. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic method in regenerative medicine. Our previous research adopted a simple nonenzymatic strategy for the preparation of a new type of ready-to-use infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) cell concentrates. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of intra-articular (IA) injection of autologous IPFP cell concentrates and allogeneic IPFP-MSCs obtained from these concentrates in a rabbit articular cartilage defect model. IPFP-MSCs sprouting from the IPFP cell concentrates were characterized via flow cytometry as well as based on their potential for differentiation into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. In the rabbit model, cartilage defects were created on the trochlear groove, followed by treatment with IPFP cell concentrates, IPFP-MSCs, or normal saline IA injection. Distal femur samples were evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks posttreatment via macroscopic observation and histological assessment based on the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) macroscopic scoring system as well as the ICRS visual histological assessment scale. The macroscopic score and histological score were significantly higher in the IPFP-MSC group compared to the IPFP cell concentrate group at 12 weeks. Further, both treatment groups had higher scores compared to the normal saline group. In comparison to the latter, the groups treated with IPFP-MSCs and IPFP cell concentrates showed considerably better cartilage regeneration. Overall, IPFP-MSCs represent an effective therapeutic strategy for stimulating articular cartilage regeneration. Further, due to the simple, cost-effective, nonenzymatic, and safe preparation process, IPFP cell concentrates may represent an effective alternative to stem cell-based therapy in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9966966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8337123PMC
July 2021

In Situ Construction of ZnO/NiS Composite on Ni Foam by Combing Potentiostatic Deposition with Cyclic Voltammetric Electrodeposition.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Jul 16;12(7). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Key Laboratory for Comprehensive Energy Saving of Cold Regions Architecture of Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Architectural Electricity & Comprehensive Energy Saving, Jilin Jianzhu University, Changchun 130118, China.

The ZnO/NiS composite has been designed and in situ synthesized on Ni foam substrate by two steps of electrodeposition. ZnO was achieved on Ni foam by a traditional potentiostatic deposition, followed by cyclic voltammetric (CV) electrodeposition, to generate NiS, where the introduction of ZnO provides abundant active sites for the subsequent NiS electrodeposition. The amount of deposit during CV electrodeposition can be adjusted by setting the number of sweep segment and scan rate, and the electrochemical characteristics of the products can be readily optimized. The synergistic effect between the ZnO as backbones and the deposited NiS as the shell enhances the electrochemical properties of the sample significantly, including a highly specific capacitance of 2.19 F cm at 2 mA cm, good coulombic efficiency of 98%, and long-term cyclic stability at 82.35% (4000 cycles).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12070829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306812PMC
July 2021

The middle lipin domain adopts a membrane-binding dimeric protein fold.

Nat Commun 2021 08 5;12(1):4718. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Phospholipid synthesis and fat storage as triglycerides are regulated by lipin phosphatidic acid phosphatases (PAPs), whose enzymatic PAP function requires association with cellular membranes. Using hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, we find mouse lipin 1 binds membranes through an N-terminal amphipathic helix, the Ig-like domain and HAD phosphatase catalytic core, and a middle lipin (M-Lip) domain that is conserved in mammalian and mammalian-like lipins. Crystal structures of the M-Lip domain reveal a previously unrecognized protein fold that dimerizes. The isolated M-Lip domain binds membranes both in vitro and in cells through conserved basic and hydrophobic residues. Deletion of the M-Lip domain in lipin 1 reduces PAP activity, membrane association, and oligomerization, alters subcellular localization, diminishes acceleration of adipocyte differentiation, but does not affect transcriptional co-activation. This establishes the M-Lip domain as a dimeric protein fold that binds membranes and is critical for full functionality of mammalian lipins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24929-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342540PMC
August 2021

The rs2227481 C>T Polymorphism in the Gene Promoter Significantly Reduces the Risk of Liver, Lung, and Gastric Cancer in a Han Chinese Population.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Jul;34(7):572-576

Department of Biological Science and Technology, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.079DOI Listing
July 2021

The 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate proteome links folates with C/N metabolism and reveals feedback regulation of folate biosynthesis.

Plant Cell 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

CAS Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China.

Folates are indispensable for plant development, but their molecular mode of action remains elusive. We synthesized a probe, '5-F-THF-Dayne', comprising 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate coupled to a photoaffinity tag. Exploiting this probe in an affinity proteomics study in Arabidopsis thaliana, we retrieved 51 hits. 30 interactions were independently validated with in vitro expressed proteins to bind 5-F-THF with high or low affinity. Interestingly, the interactors reveal associations beyond one-carbon metabolism, covering also connections to nitrogen metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism/photosynthesis and proteostasis. Two of the interactions, one with the folate biosynthetic enzyme DIHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE-THYMIDYLATE SYNTHASE 1 (AtDHFR-TS1) and another with nitrogen metabolism-associated glutamine synthetase 1;4 (AtGLN1;4), were further characterized. In silico and experimental analyses revealed G35/K36 and E330 as key residues for the binding of 5-F-THF in AtDHFR-TS1 and AtGLN1;4, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of AtGLN1;4 E330, which co-localizes with the ATP-binding pocket, abolished 5-F-THF binding as well as AtGLN1;4 activity. Further, 5-F-THF was noted to competitively inhibit the activities of AtDHFR-TS1 and AtGLN1;4. In summary, we demonstrated a regulatory role for 5-F-THF in nitrogen metabolism, revealed 5-F-THF-mediated feedback regulation of folate biosynthesis, and identified a total of 14 previously unknown high-affinity binding cellular targets of 5-F-THF. Together, this sets a landmark towards understanding the role of folates in plant development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab198DOI Listing
August 2021

Calcium phosphate bone cement with enhanced physicochemical properties via in situ formation of an interpenetrating network.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Sep 4;9(34):6802-6810. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC), which exhibits excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, is a well-established material for the repair of bone defects. However, its disadvantages such as poor washout resistance and low mechanical strength limit its clinical applications. In this study, CPC with enhanced washout resistance and mechanical properties has been developed by the in situ crosslinking of glycidyl methacrylate modified γ-polyglutamic acid (m-PGA) within the cement matrix, forming an interpenetrating network. Compared with unmodified CPC, the final setting time of the composite cements was shortened and its washout resistance was significantly improved. In addition, the composite cements showed enhanced mechanical strength and degradation properties. An in vitro study demonstrated that the composite cements exhibited good biocompatibility. The in vivo results showed that the composite cements promoted bone formation. These results suggest that the biocompatible, injectable α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)/m-PGA cements may have the potential to be used as bone filling materials for future clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00867fDOI Listing
September 2021

Artesunate relieves acute kidney injury through inhibiting macrophagic Mincle-mediated necroptosis and inflammation to tubular epithelial cell.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Sep 1;25(18):8775-8788. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Research Center of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Affiliated Traditional Medicine Hospital, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Artesunate is a widely used derivative of artemisinin for malaria. Recent researches have shown that artesunate has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on many diseases. However, its effect on acute kidney injury with a significant inflammatory response is not clear. In this study, we established a cisplatin-induced AKI mouse model and a co-culture system of BMDM and tubular epithelial cells (mTEC) to verify the renoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of artesunate on AKI, and explored the underlying mechanism. We found that artesunate strongly down-regulated the serum creatinine and BUN levels in AKI mice, reduced the necroptosis of tubular cells and down-regulated the expression of the tubular injury molecule Tim-1. On the other hand, artesunate strongly inhibited the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), protein levels of inflammatory signals (iNOS and NF-κB) and necroptosis signals (RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL) in kidney of AKI mouse. Notably, the co-culture system proved that Mincle in macrophage can aggravate the inflammation and necroptosis of mTEC induced by LPS, and artesunate suppressed the expression of Mincle in macrophage of kidney in AKI mouse. Overexpression of Mincle in BMDM restored the damage and necroptosis inhibited by artesunate in mTEC, indicating Mincle in macrophage is the target of artesunate to protect tubule cells in AKI. Our findings demonstrated that artesunate can significantly improve renal function in AKI, which may be related to the inhibition of Mincle-mediated macrophage inflammation, thereby reducing the damage and necroptosis to tubular cells that provide new option for the treatment of AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435453PMC
September 2021
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