Publications by authors named "Hiromasa Yabe"

128 Publications

Combined impact of HLA-allele matching and the CD34-positive cell dose on optimal unit selection for single-unit cord blood transplantation in adults.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jun 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Central Japan Cord Blood Bank, Seto, Japan.

The combined effects of HLA-allele matching at six-loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1) and CD34 cell dose on clinical outcomes were analyzed in 1,226 adult cases with single-unit unrelated cord blood transplantation. In the six-loci analysis, low HLA-allele matches did not significantly increase the overall mortality compared to higher matches, whereas in the five-loci analysis excluding HLA-DPB1, they caused a higher overall mortality (HR 1.42,  = .002), possibly due to the graft-versus-leukemia effect of HLA-DPB1 mismatches. A lower CD34 cell dose (<.50 × 10/kg) resulted in higher mortality and lower engraftment; these inferior outcomes were offset by high HLA-allele matches (7-10/10 match), while the inferior outcomes of low HLA-allele matches were improved by increasing the CD34 cell dose. Consideration of the combined effects of the CD34 cell dose and HLA matching may expand the options for transplantable units when HLA matching or the CD34 cell dose is inadequate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1929958DOI Listing
June 2021

Cryopreservation of Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cells from a Blood and Marrow Donor Bank During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nationwide Survey by the Japan Marrow Donor Program.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Japan Marrow Donor Program, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Japan.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, donor hematopoietic stem cell grafts are frequently cryopreserved to ensure the availability of graft before starting a conditioning regimen. However, the safety of cryopreservation has been controversial in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), especially for bone marrow (BM) grafts. In addition, in unrelated HSCT, the effect of the time from harvest to cryopreservation of donor grafts required for the transportation of donor graft has not been fully clarified. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the first 112 patients with available data who underwent cryopreserved unrelated blood and marrow transplantation through the Japan Marrow Donor Program during the COVID-19 pandemic. There were 112 patients, including 83 who received BM grafts and 29 who received peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts. The median time from stem cell harvest to cryopreservation was 9.9 hours (range, 2.6 to 44.0 hours), and the median time from cryopreservation to infusion was 231.2 hours. The incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 28 after HSCT was 91.1%, and among 109 patients (excluding 3 patients with early death), all but 1 patient achieved neutrophil engraftment within 60 days after HSCT. The time to neutrophil engraftment and time to platelet engraftment were shorter in PBSC transplantation compared with BM transplantation (BMT), but the differences were not statistically significant (P = .064 and .18). Multivariate analysis among BM recipients revealed that a higher number of frozen nucleated cells and the absence of HLA mismatch were associated with faster neutrophil engraftment. The time to neutrophil engraftment after unrelated cryopreserved BMT was not different from that after unrelated BMT without cryopreservation. Our findings suggest that unrelated donor BM and PBSC grafts can be safely cryopreserved even after transit from the harvest center to the transplantation center. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, cryopreservation can be considered as an option while balancing the risks and benefits of the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098035PMC
May 2021

Two Aldehyde Clearance Systems Are Essential to Prevent Lethal Formaldehyde Accumulation in Mice and Humans.

Mol Cell 2020 12 3;80(6):996-1012.e9. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Innovative Medical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

Reactive aldehydes arise as by-products of metabolism and are normally cleared by multiple families of enzymes. We find that mice lacking two aldehyde detoxifying enzymes, mitochondrial ALDH2 and cytoplasmic ADH5, have greatly shortened lifespans and develop leukemia. Hematopoiesis is disrupted profoundly, with a reduction of hematopoietic stem cells and common lymphoid progenitors causing a severely depleted acquired immune system. We show that formaldehyde is a common substrate of ALDH2 and ADH5 and establish methods to quantify elevated blood formaldehyde and formaldehyde-DNA adducts in tissues. Bone-marrow-derived progenitors actively engage DNA repair but also imprint a formaldehyde-driven mutation signature similar to aging-associated human cancer mutation signatures. Furthermore, we identify analogous genetic defects in children causing a previously uncharacterized inherited bone marrow failure and pre-leukemic syndrome. Endogenous formaldehyde clearance alone is therefore critical for hematopoiesis and in limiting mutagenesis in somatic tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758861PMC
December 2020

Long-term outcome in patients with Fanconi anemia who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective nationwide analysis.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jan 19;113(1):134-144. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Innovative Medical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193, Japan.

We retrospectively analyzed nationwide records of 163 Fanconi anemia (FA) patients [aplastic anemia (AA), n = 118; myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), n = 30; acute leukemia, n = 15] who underwent first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 1987 and 2015 in Japan. An alternative donor was used in 119 (73%) patients, and 160 (98%) patients received a non-T-cell-depleted graft. With an 8.7-year median follow-up, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 81%. The 5-year OS was significantly higher in AA patients than in MDS and acute leukemia patients (89%, 71%, and 44%, respectively). In the MDS/leukemia group, factors associated with poor outcome in univariate analysis were older age at HSCT (≥ 18 years), conditioning regimen without anti-thymocyte or lymphocyte globulin, and grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease. After 1 year, of 137 survivors, 15 developed subsequent malignancies, of whom 12 were diagnosed with head and neck (HN)/esophageal cancer. An irradiation regimen and older age were associated with the risk of HN/esophageal cancer. Five of seven deaths were attributed to subsequent malignancies more than 5 years after HSCT. On the basis of the risk factors for HSCT in MDS/leukemia patients and subsequent malignancies, a more effective HSCT approach is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02991-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Reduced-intensity conditioning is effective for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in young pediatric patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 05 18;56(5):1013-1020. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for the hematologic manifestations of Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). However, data regarding the optimal conditioning regimen for DBA patients are limited. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of DBA patients who underwent HSCT using either myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens. The patients belonged to a cohort treated at our hospitals between 2000 and 2018. HSCT was performed in 27 of 165 patients (16.4%). The median age at the time of HSCT was 3.6 years. Stem cell sources included bone marrow for 25 patients (HLA-matched sibling donors, n = 5; HLA-mismatched related donors, n = 2; HLA-matched/mismatched unrelated donors, n = 18) or cord blood for 2 patients. MAC or RIC regimens were used in 12 and 15 patients, respectively. Engraftment was successful in all 27 patients who underwent HSCT. Three patients who underwent HSCT using MAC regimens developed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and failure-free survival rates (FFS) post-transplantations were 95.2% and 88.4%, respectively, with no significant differences between MAC and RIC regimens. Our data suggest that HSCTs using RIC regimens are effective and obtain engraftment with excellent OS and FFS for young DBA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01056-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children with acquired bone marrow failure: fludarabine/melphalan vs. fludarabine/cyclophosphamide.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 07 23;55(7):1272-1281. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-based conditioning regimens are standard in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acquired bone marrow failure in children, however, graft failure may occur. Using the data from a nationwide transplantation registry, we compared the outcomes of children aged <16 years with acquired aplastic anemia and refractory cytopenia of childhood who underwent allogeneic BMT with either fludarabine/melphalan (n = 71) or fludarabine/cyclophosphamide (n = 296) between 2000 and 2016. The fludarabine/melphalan regimen provided excellent outcomes, with 3-year overall survival and failure-free survival rates of 98% and 97%, respectively. The 83% 3-year failure-free survival in the fludarabine/cyclophosphamide group was significantly inferior (P = 0.002), whereas the overall survival did not differ between the two groups. Late graft failure was the most common cause of treatment failure in the fludarabine/cyclophosphamide group, which experienced a significantly higher incidence of late graft failure than the fludarabine/melphalan group (11% vs. 3%; P = 0.035). Multivariate analyses showed that the fludarabine/melphalan regimen was associated with a better failure-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.12; P = 0.005) and lower risk of late graft failure (HR 0.16; P = 0.037). Fludarabine/melphalan-based conditioning regimen can be a promising option for children with acquired bone marrow failure receiving BMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0948-8DOI Listing
July 2020

Impact of graft-versus-host disease on the clinical outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-malignant diseases.

Int J Hematol 2020 Jun 12;111(6):869-876. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Community Pediatrics, Perinatal and Maternal Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510, Japan.

The impact of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on clinical outcomes was retrospectively analyzed in 960 patients with non-malignant diseases (NMD) who underwent a first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Grade III-IV acute GVHD (but not grade I-II) was significantly associated with a lower rate of overall survival (OS), and higher non-relapse mortality (NRM) than that seen in patients without acute GVHD. Extensive (but not limited) GVHD was significantly associated with a lower OS rate and higher NRM than that seen in patients without chronic GVHD. Any grade of acute (but not chronic) GVHD was significantly associated with a lower incidence of relapse and a lower proportion of patients requiring a second HSCT or donor lymphocyte infusion for graft failure or mixed chimerism, but its impact on OS was almost negligible. Acute GVHD was significantly associated with lower OS rates in all disease groups, whereas chronic GVHD was significantly associated with lower OS rates in the primary immunodeficiency and histiocytosis groups. In conclusion, acute and chronic GVHD, even if mild, was associated with reduced OS in patients receiving HSCT for NMD and effective strategies should, therefore, be implemented to minimize GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02839-4DOI Listing
June 2020

The effect of graft-versus-host disease on outcomes after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for refractory lymphoblastic lymphoma in children and young adults.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 04 26;67(4):e28129. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: Patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) have a poor prognosis. The efficacy of allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation for treatment of this disease remains unclear in terms of transplantation-related toxicity. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host diseases (GVHD) are both harmful to patients after allogeneic transplantation, but may have some positive effects through a substitute graft-versus-lymphoma effect.

Methods: To investigate the effect of GVHD on the survival of patients with refractory LBL, we retrospectively studied the outcomes of 213 patients with LBL who underwent first allogeneic stem cell transplantation before the age of 18 years, between 1990 and 2015 in Japan.

Results: The five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival rates after stem cell transplantation were 50.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.2-56.9) and 47.8% (95% CI, 40.8-54.4), respectively. In univariate landmark analyses, the probability of OS was significantly better in patients with aGVHD than in those without (P = 0.002, five-year OS 58.1% vs 39.0%). The probability of OS was also better in patients with cGVHD than in those without (P = 0.036, five-year OS 72.2% vs 54.7%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only aGVHD was associated with better OS (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94, P = 0.024). Progression and recurrence statuses at SCT were associated with poor prognosis. The patients with grade II aGVHD showed the best prognosis (five-year OS: 65.6%).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the occurrence of aGVHD may be associated with better outcomes in patients with relapsed/refractory LBL who undergo allogeneic transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28129DOI Listing
April 2020

A founder variant in the South Asian population leads to a high prevalence of FANCL Fanconi anemia cases in India.

Hum Mutat 2020 01 26;41(1):122-128. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Cytogenetics, National Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, predisposition to cancer, and congenital abnormalities. FA is caused by pathogenic variants in any of 22 genes involved in the DNA repair pathway responsible for removing interstrand crosslinks. FANCL, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an integral component of the pathway, but patients affected by disease-causing FANCL variants are rare, with only nine cases reported worldwide. We report here a FANCL founder variant, anticipated to be synonymous, c.1092G>A;p.K364=, but demonstrated to induce aberrant splicing, c.1021_1092del;p.W341_K364del, that accounts for the onset of FA in 13 cases from South Asia, 12 from India and one from Pakistan. We comprehensively illustrate the pathogenic nature of the variant, provide evidence for a founder effect, and propose including this variant in genetic screening of suspected FA patients in India and Pakistan, as well as those with ancestry from these regions of South Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362330PMC
January 2020

Retrospective analysis of children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following complete remission with initial induction chemotherapy in the AML-05 clinical trial.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 10 16;66(10):e27875. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Medical Center, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

In the AML-05 clinical trial conducted by the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Group from 2006 to 2010, children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (HR AML) received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) at first complete remission (CR1). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of allo-HSCT on the outcome of HR AML. Patients with either monosomy 7, 5q-, t(16;21), Ph1, FLT3-ITD, or induction failure after the first course of chemotherapy were eligible for transplant. Of 53 children with HR AML, 51 received allo-HSCT-45 in CR1, five in CR2, and one with non-CR. t(8;21), t(9;11), and t(16;21) abnormalities were identified in eight, five, and four patients, respectively. The stem cell sources varied-bone marrow in 30 patients, peripheral blood in three, and cord blood in 18. The median follow-up was 62 months. The overall survival (OS) rates at 3 years were 73% and 25% for patients who received transplant at CR1 and ≥CR2, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) had better OS. This study supports that allo-HSCT is a suitable treatment for HR AML in CR1. The favorable outcome associated with cGVHD indicates that a graft-versus-leukemia effect might be occurring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27875DOI Listing
October 2019

[Genetic analysis of Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia: novel findings].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2019 ;60(6):691-701

Laboratory of DNA Damage Signaling, Department of Late Effects Studies, Radiation Biology Center, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by multiple congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure, and a predisposition to malignancies, resulting from mutations in one of the 22 known FANC genes (from FANCA to FANCW). The proteins encoded by these genes participate in a deoxyribonucleic acid interstrand cross-link repair pathway, the so-called FA/BRCA pathway. The 22 FANC genes include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2. Patients with FA display a wide range of clinical phenotypes owing to the genetic heterogeneity of the disease; therefore, the molecular diagnosis is critical for the appropriate management of such patients. Recently, we successfully subtyped 97% of the 117 Japanese patients with FA and identified 215 mutant alleles through a comprehensive strategy. In this review, the characteristics of genetic subtyping and mutated FANC gene variants in Japanese patients with FA and the genotype-phenotype correlation in FA are summarized. In addition, the carrier frequency of pathogenic FANC genes and risk of cancer among the FANC gene mutation carriers in general Japanese population are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.60.691DOI Listing
August 2019

Long-term outcome and chimerism in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation: a retrospective nationwide survey.

Int J Hematol 2019 Sep 11;110(3):364-369. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

We analyzed the outcomes of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and risk factors for chimerism in 108 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) who were registered with The Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation between January 1985 and December 2016. A preparative conditioning regimen consisting of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) was provided to 76 patients, and reduced-intensity conditioning was provided to 30 patients. Fifty-one patients received prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) with cyclosporine, and 51 patients received tacrolimus (Tac). Chimerism analyses had been performed in 91 patients. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved in 91 patients (84.3%). The engraftment rate was significantly higher in patients who received Tac for GVHD prophylaxis (p = 0.028). Overall survival rate (OS) was significantly higher in patients with complete chimerism than in patients with mixed chimerism (88.2 ± 6.1% and 66.7 ± 9.9%, respectively, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the rate of complete chimerism in patients who received MAC including cyclophosphamide (CY) at a dose of 200 mg/kg was significantly higher (p = 0.021) than that in patients who received other conditioning. Thus, MAC including CY at a dose of 200 mg/kg and Tac for GVHD prophylaxis were optimal conditions of SCT for patients with WAS under existing study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02686-yDOI Listing
September 2019

Human NK cell development in hIL-7 and hIL-15 knockin NOD/SCID/IL2rgKO mice.

Life Sci Alliance 2019 04 1;2(2). Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Laboratory for Human Disease Models, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan

The immune system encompasses acquired and innate immunity that matures through interaction with microenvironmental components. Cytokines serve as environmental factors that foster functional maturation of immune cells. Although NOD/SCID/IL2rgKO (NSG) humanized mice support investigation of human immunity in vivo, a species barrier between human immune cells and the mouse microenvironment limits human acquired as well as innate immune function. To study the roles of human cytokines in human acquired and innate immune cell development, we created NSG mice expressing hIL-7 and hIL-15. Although hIL-7 alone was not sufficient for supporting human NK cell development in vivo, increased frequencies of human NK cells were confirmed in multiple organs of hIL-7 and hIL-15 double knockin (hIL-7xhIL-15 KI) NSG mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells. hIL-7xhIL-15 KI NSG humanized mice provide a valuable in vivo model to investigate development and function of human NK cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.201800195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445396PMC
April 2019

Pathogenic mutations identified by a multimodality approach in 117 Japanese Fanconi anemia patients.

Haematologica 2019 10 21;104(10):1962-1973. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Laboratory of DNA Damage Signaling, Department of Late Effects Studies, Radiation Biology Center, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Fanconi anemia is a rare recessive disease characterized by multiple congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure, and a predisposition to malignancies. It results from mutations in one of the 22 known genes. The number of Japanese Fanconi anemia patients with a defined genetic diagnosis was relatively limited. In this study, we reveal the genetic subtyping and the characteristics of mutated genes in Japan and clarify the genotype-phenotype correlations. We studied 117 Japanese patients and successfully subtyped 97% of the cases. and pathogenic variants accounted for the disease in 58% and 25% of Fanconi anemia patients, respectively. We identified one and two hot spot mutations, which are found at low percentages (0.04-0.1%) in the whole-genome reference panel of 3,554 Japanese individuals (Tohoku Medical Megabank). was the third most common complementation group and only one case was identified in our series. Based on the data from the Tohoku Medical Megabank, we estimate that approximately 2.6% of Japanese are carriers of disease-causing gene variants, excluding missense mutations. This is the largest series of subtyped Japanese Fanconi anemia patients to date and the results will be useful for future clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.207241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6886416PMC
October 2019

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Mucopolysaccharidoses: Past, Present, and Future.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 07 14;25(7):e226-e246. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Biomedical, Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware; Department of Pediatrics, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Shimane, Japan; Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan; Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has proven to be a viable treatment option for a selected group of patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), including those with MPS types I, II, IVA, VI, and VII. Early diagnosis and timely referral to an expert in MPS are critical, followed by a complete examination and evaluation by a multidisciplinary team, including a transplantation physician. Treatment recommendations for MPS are based on multiple biological, sociological, and financial factors, including type of MPS, clinical severity, prognosis, present clinical signs and symptoms (disease stage), age at onset, rate of progression, family factors and expectations, financial burden, feasibility, availability, risks and benefits of available therapies such as HSCT, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), surgical interventions, and other supportive care. International collaboration and data review are critical to evaluating the therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of HSCT for MPS. Collaborative efforts to assess HSCT for MPS have been ongoing since the first attempt at HSCT in a patient with MPS reported in 1981. The accumulation of data since then has made it possible to identify early outcomes (ie, transplantation outcomes) and long-term disease-specific outcomes resulting from HSCT. The recent identification of predictive factors and the development of innovative regimens have significantly improved the outcomes of both engraftment failure and transplantation-related mortality. Assessment of long-term outcomes has considered a variety of factors, including type of MPS, type of graft, age at transplantation, and stage of disease progression, among others. Studies on long-term outcomes are considered a key factor in the use of HSCT in patients with MPS. These studies have shown the effects and limitations of HSCT on improving disease manifestations and quality of life. In this review, we summarize the efficacy, side effects, risks, and cost of HSCT for each type of MPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.02.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6615945PMC
July 2019

Co-activation of macrophages and T cells contribute to chronic GVHD in human IL-6 transgenic humanised mouse model.

EBioMedicine 2019 Mar 13;41:584-596. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Laboratory for Human Disease Models, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Graft-versus host disease (GVHD) is a complication of stem cell transplantation associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Non-specific immune-suppression, the mainstay of treatment, may result in immune-surveillance dysfunction and disease recurrence.

Methods: We created humanised mice model for chronic GVHD (cGVHD) by injecting cord blood (CB)-derived human CD34CD38CD45RA haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) into hIL-6 transgenic NOD/SCID/Il2rgKO (NSG) newborns, and compared GVHD progression with NSG newborns receiving CB CD34 cells mimicking acute GVHD. We characterised human immune cell subsets, target organ infiltration, T-cell repertoire (TCR) and transcriptome in the humanised mice.

Findings: In cGVHD humanised mice, we found activation of T cells in the spleen, lung, liver, and skin, activation of macrophages in lung and liver, and loss of appendages in skin, obstruction of bronchioles in lung and portal fibrosis in liver recapitulating cGVHD. Acute GVHD humanised mice showed activation of T cells with skewed TCR repertoire without significant macrophage activation.

Interpretation: Using humanised mouse models, we demonstrated distinct immune mechanisms contributing acute and chronic GVHD. In cGVHD model, co-activation of human HSPC-derived macrophages and T cells educated in the recipient thymus contributed to delayed onset, multi-organ disease. In acute GVHD model, mature human T cells contained in the graft resulted in rapid disease progression. These humanised mouse models may facilitate future development of new molecular medicine targeting GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441951PMC
March 2019

Early enzyme replacement therapy enables a successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in mucopolysaccharidosis type IH: Divergent clinical outcomes in two Japanese siblings.

Brain Dev 2019 Jun 10;41(6):546-550. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (MPS IH, Hurler syndrome) is a progressive, multisystem autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting in the consequent accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. It is well recognized that early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) prevents neurocognitive decline in MPS IH. We followed the divergent clinical course in two Japanese siblings with MPS IH. The elder sister (proband) received a diagnosis of MPS IH at 6 months old. At the time of this diagnosis enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was not available in Japan. She developed severe and recurrent respiratory disease and died at 1 year 10 months of age. Her younger sister also received a diagnosis of MPS IH, but at 18 days of age, and started ERT at 34 days of age. ERT continued until 8 months of age and prevented the progression of somatic manifestations of MPS IH. She received HSCT at 9 months old. Five years after HSCT she had no symptoms of MPS IH except for mild signs of dysostosis multiplex and mild cardiac valvular disease. Her neurological function was generally preserved compared with her elder sister. The prognosis and quality of life differed significantly between the sisters. Therefore, early HSCT can preserve neurocognition by preventing the neurodegeneration from MPS IH. In addition, ERT initiated during the asymptomatic period prevented the patient from developing somatic manifestations and enabled successful HSCT in this case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.01.008DOI Listing
June 2019

High probability of follow-up termination among AYA survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Blood Adv 2019 02;3(3):397-405

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

The need for long-term follow-up (LTFU) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been increasingly recognized for managing late effects such as subsequent cancers and cardiovascular events. A substantial population, however, has already terminated LTFU at HCT centers. To better characterize follow-up termination, we analyzed the Japanese transplant registry database. The study cohort included 17 980 survivors beyond 2 years who underwent their first allogeneic HCT between 1974 and 2013. The median patient age at HCT was 34 years (range, 0-76 years). Follow-up at their HCT center was terminated in 4987 patients. The cumulative incidence of follow-up termination was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27%-29%) at 10 years, increasing to 67% (95% CI, 65%-69%) at 25 years after HCT. Pediatric patients showed the lowest probability of follow-up termination for up to 16 years after HCT, whereas adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients showed the highest probability of follow-up termination throughout the period. Follow-up termination was most often made by physicians based on the patient's good physical condition. Multivariate analysis identified 6 factors associated with follow-up termination: AYA patients, female patients, standard-risk malignancy or nonmalignant disease, unrelated bone marrow transplantation, HCT between 2000 and 2005, and absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. These results suggest the need for education of both physicians and patients about the importance of LTFU, even in survivors with good physical condition. The decreased risk for follow-up termination after 2005 may suggest the increasing focus on LTFU in recent years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018026039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373751PMC
February 2019

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in children with refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 09 4;54(9):1489-1498. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Mibuhigashitakadacho, Nakagyo Ward, Kyoto, 604-8845, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be used to treat children with refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This retrospective analysis aimed to describe the outcomes and risk factors in such children. Data were collected through the nation-wide registry program in Japan. A total of 417 AML (median age: 13 years) patients 20 years or younger at HSCT, between January 2001 and December 2015, were included. A total of 314 patients died, and the median follow-up duration of the survivors was 1052 days. The most frequent cause of death was leukemia progression (58%). The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 23% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19-28%). Chronic GVHD was associated with improved 3-year OS (47%, 95% CI, 36-57%, hazard ratio: 0.603, p = 0.001). Low performance status, presence of more than 25% of marrow blasts, presence of blasts in the blood at transplantation, FAB (other than M1 or M2), male donors, and number of transplantations ≥ 2 were adverse pre-HSCT variables. Patients with 0, 1-2, 3-4, 5, and 6-7 pre-HSCT variables had 3-year OS rates of 52%, 32%, 19%, 8, and 0%, respectively. Our findings may help experts decide if HSCT should be performed in such cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0461-0DOI Listing
September 2019

Prophylaxis and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil in children with graft-versus-host disease undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a nationwide survey in Japan.

Int J Hematol 2019 Apr 29;109(4):491-498. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Medical Center, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, 3-35 Michishita-cho, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya, 453-8511, Japan.

We investigated the safety and efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a nationwide retrospective survey in Japanese children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Overall, 141 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT for hematological malignancy (n = 84), non-malignancy (n = 52), and solid tumors (n = 5) were administered MMF orally (median 8 years; range 0-15 years; 89 males and 52 females) during 1995-2011. Donors were primarily unrelated and mismatched related. In the GVHD prophylaxis group, 29% and 8.6% of patients developed grade II-IV and III-IV GVHD, respectively. Of the 32 evaluable patients, 16% developed chronic [limited (n = 4) and extensive (n = 1)] GVHD. In the acute GVHD treatment group, 61% had decreased grade. In the chronic GVHD treatment group, 36% had improved symptoms. Combined immunosuppressant was reduced or discontinued in 61% patients. Major adverse events (AEs) were neutropenia (4.3%), infection (3.5%), thrombocytopenia (2.1%), myelosuppression (2.1%), and diarrhea (1.4%). MMF dosage was reduced in two children due to grade ≥ 3 AEs; two children died from infection. MMF thus may be well tolerated in children, and may be an effective option for prophylaxis and treatment of acute and chronic GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02601-5DOI Listing
April 2019

Impact of low-dose irradiation and in vivo T-cell depletion on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-malignant diseases using fludarabine-based reduced-intensity conditioning.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 08 7;54(8):1227-1236. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Community Pediatrics, Perinatal and Maternal Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Reduced-intensity conditioning is widely used with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-malignant diseases: however, the optimal conditioning to ensure stable engraftment has not been established. In this study, we retrospectively compared the impact of low-dose (1-6 Gy) irradiation and in vivo T-cell depletion on the clinical outcome of 523 patients with non-malignant disease who underwent a first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using fludarabine-based reduced-intensity conditioning. Use of low-dose irradiation, but not of anti-thymocyte globulin/anti-lymphocyte globulin, showed a beneficial effect on overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.91, P = 0.018). Furthermore, use of low-dose irradiation was strongly associated with lower transplant-related mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.96, P = 0.034). The addition of low-dose irradiation to the conditioning regimen was beneficial, at least to the short-term clinical outcome. A large prospective study with long-term follow-up is now required to extend these findings and establish the optimal hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioning for patients with at least some subgroups of non-malignant diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0418-8DOI Listing
August 2019

Associations of complementation group, ALDH2 genotype, and clonal abnormalities with hematological outcome in Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia.

Ann Hematol 2019 Feb 27;98(2):271-280. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Cell Transplantation and Regenerative Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193, Japan.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder that predisposes patients to bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To study which genetic and phenotypic factors predict clinical outcomes for Japanese FA patients, we examined the FA genes, bone marrow karyotype, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotype; variants of which are associated with accelerated progression of BMF in FA. In 88 patients, we found morphologic MDS/AML in 33 patients, including refractory cytopenia in 16, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) in 7, and AML in 10. The major mutated FA genes observed in this study were FANCA (n = 52) and FANCG (n = 23). The distribution of the ALDH2 variant alleles did not differ significantly between patients with mutations in FANCA and FANCG. However, patients with FANCG mutations had inferior BMF-free survival and received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at a younger age than those with FANCA mutations. In FANCA, patients with the c.2546delC mutation (n = 24) related to poorer MDS/AML-free survival and a younger age at HSCT than those without this mutation. All patients with RAEB/AML had an abnormal karyotype and poorer prognosis after HSCT; specifically, the presence of a structurally complex karyotype with a monosomy (n = 6) was associated with dismal prognosis. In conclusion, the best practice for a clinician may be to integrate the morphological, cytogenetic, and genetic data to optimize HSCT timing in Japanese FA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-018-3517-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Clinical effects of recombinant thrombomodulin and defibrotide on sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 05 20;54(5):674-680. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a lethal complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Defibrotide (DF) is the only drug internationally recommended for SOS treatment in Western countries. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM), which is promising for the treatment of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, is also reported to be potentially effective for SOS. To clarify the safety and efficacy of DF and rhTM, we conducted a retrospective survey of these agents in Japan. Data from 65 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT and received DF (n  =  24) or rhTM (n  =  41) for SOS treatment were collected. The complete response rates for SOS on day 100 were 50% and 54% in the DF and rhTM groups, respectively. The 100-day overall survival rates were 50% in the DF group, and 48% in the rhTM group. Several severe hemorrhagic adverse events were observed in one patient in the DF group and five patients in the rhTM group. The main causes of death were SOS-related death, and no patient died of direct adverse events of DF or rhTM. Our results suggest that rhTM, as well as DF, can be effective as a novel treatment option for SOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0304-4DOI Listing
May 2019

Outcomes of patients who developed subsequent solid cancer after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Blood Adv 2018 08;2(15):1901-1913

St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

To characterize the outcomes of patients who developed a particular subsequent solid cancer after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), age at cancer diagnosis, survival, and causes of death were compared with the respective primary cancer in the general population, using data from the national HCT registry and population-based cancer registries in Japan. Among 31 867 patients who underwent a first HCT between 1990 and 2013 and had progression-free survival at 1 year, 713 patients developed subsequent solid cancer. The median age at subsequent solid cancer diagnosis was 55 years, which was significantly younger than the 67 years for primary cancer patients in the general population ( < .001). The overall survival probability was 60% at 3 years after diagnosis of subsequent solid cancer and differed according to cancer type. Development of most solid cancers was associated with an increased risk of subsequent mortality after HCT. Subsequent solid cancers accounted for 76% of causes of death. Overall survival probabilities adjusted for age, sex, and year of diagnosis were lower in the HCT population than in the general population for colon, bone/soft tissue, and central nervous system cancers and did not differ statistically for other cancers. In conclusion, most subsequent solid cancers occurred at younger ages than primary cancers, emphasizing the need for cancer screening at younger ages. Subsequent solid cancers showed similar or worse survival compared with primary cancers. Biological and genetic differences between primary and subsequent solid cancers remain to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018020966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093736PMC
August 2018

Treatment outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG) Study L04-16.

Int J Hematol 2018 Jul 27;108(1):98-108. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Toho University, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8541, Japan.

The survival rate of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has increased to approximately 90% after substantial progress in risk-oriented treatment strategies. Between 2005 and 2013, the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG) conducted a risk-oriented, non-randomized study, L04-16. The principal aim of this study was to assemble background characteristics and treatment outcomes, and gather genetic information on leukemic cells under central diagnosis. This report outlines the background characteristics and treatment outcomes of 1033 children with ALL treated according to a TCCSG platform. The 5-year event-free and overall survival (OS) rates for all children were 78.1 ± 1.3 and 89.6 ± 1.0%, respectively. The OS rate was significantly higher in children with B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL (91.9 ± 1.0%, n = 916) than in those with T-ALL (71.9 ± 4.3%, n = 117, p < 0.001). In univariate analysis for BCP-ALL, children aged 1-6 years (5y-OS: 94.2 ± 1.0%), with an initial white blood cell count of < 20,000/μL (94.0 ± 1.0%), high hyperdiploidy (95.4 ± 1.6%), ETV6-RUNX1 (97.4 ± 1.2%) or TCF3-PBX1 (96.9 ± 2.1%), and "Day8NoBlasts" (96.4 ± 1.1%) had the best outcomes. Genetic investigation revealed two novel fusion genes within this cohort: ETV6-ZNF385A and ZNF362-TCF4. Our study highlighted the clinical aspects of genomic features of ALL in Japanese children. We provide fundamental information for the further molecular investigation of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-018-2440-4DOI Listing
July 2018

Human AK2 links intracellular bioenergetic redistribution to the fate of hematopoietic progenitors.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 03 17;497(2):719-725. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Department of Clinical Application, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto, 6068507, Japan. Electronic address:

AK2 is an adenylate phosphotransferase that localizes at the intermembrane spaces of the mitochondria, and its mutations cause a severe combined immunodeficiency with neutrophil maturation arrest named reticular dysgenesis (RD). Although the dysfunction of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been implicated, earlier developmental events that affect the fate of HSCs and/or hematopoietic progenitors have not been reported. Here, we used RD-patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a model of AK2-deficient human cells. Hematopoietic differentiation from RD-iPSCs was profoundly impaired. RD-iPSC-derived hemoangiogenic progenitor cells (HAPCs) showed decreased ATP distribution in the nucleus and altered global transcriptional profiles. Thus, AK2 has a stage-specific role in maintaining the ATP supply to the nucleus during hematopoietic differentiation, which affects the transcriptional profiles necessary for controlling the fate of multipotential HAPCs. Our data suggest that maintaining the appropriate energy level of each organelle by the intracellular redistribution of ATP is important for controlling the fate of progenitor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.02.139DOI Listing
March 2018