Publications by authors named "Hee-Eun Kim"

61 Publications

Relationship between Vitamin D Deficiency and Periodontitis in Korean Adults Aged ≥60 Years: Analysis of Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013-2014).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 15;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Gachon University, Incheon 21936, Korea.

There have been contradictory reports on the effects of vitamin D in the prevention of periodontitis. We analyzed the association between vitamin D status (levels of plasma 25(OH)D) and periodontitis using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2013-2014 database. Among the participants in the KNHANES (2013-2014), only those aged ≥60 years who completed a health interview survey, periodontal examination, and blood test were included in the study. Thus, data from 701 participants were used in the final analysis. Periodontal status was evaluated using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and periodontitis was defined as having a CPI score of 3 or 4. Plasma 25(OH)D levels were classified according to two criteria: 20 ng/mL and quartile value. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the prevalence of periodontitis according to plasma 25(OH)D levels. Univariate analyses showed that periodontitis was not significantly associated with plasma 25(OH)D levels. In the multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, the difference in the prevalence of periodontitis between those with a normal range of 25(OH)D and those with low plasma of 25(OH)D levels was not statistically significant. Vitamin D intake has been reported to have benefits in maintaining periodontal health; however, total plasma 25(OH)D levels showed no significant association with periodontitis based on CPI scores in this study. Additionally, these findings reaffirmed the importance of toothbrushing and smoking cessation to prevent periodontitis in people aged ≥60 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071325PMC
April 2021

Influential Factors of Masticatory Performance in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Authors:
Hee-Eun Kim

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 18;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Dental Hygiene, Gachon University College of Health Science, Incheon 21936, Korea.

While appropriate nutrient intake is important for older adults, various oral problems cause decreased masticatory function. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors associated with decreased masticatory performance in older adults. Oral examinations were performed on 80 participants (mean age: 75.10 ± 5.64 years) to determine the number of functional tooth units (FTUs). Symptoms of periodontal and temporomandibular diseases were evaluated via a questionnaire. The tone, elasticity, and dynamic stiffness of the masseter muscle were measured using the Myoton PRO device. The mixing ability test was used to assess the masticatory performance, and the mixing ability index (MAI) was calculated. The analysis of covariance test was performed to adjust for confounding factors, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors affecting MAI. A lower MAI was significantly associated with higher tone ( = 0.006) and lower elasticity ( = 0.013). The number of FTUs (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.724, = 0.029), tone (adjusted OR = 1.215, = 0.016), and elasticity (adjusted OR = 4.789, = 0.038) were independently associated with the MAI. Muscle function training and prosthetic treatments may help increase masticatory performance in older adults, which would improve overall health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072885PMC
April 2021

Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of cinnamon essential oil nanoemulsion against multi-species oral biofilms.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 15;11(1):5911. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Gachon University, 191 Hambakmoero Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, 21936, Republic of Korea.

Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has antibacterial properties, but its ability to suppress the formation of multi-species oral biofilms has not been fully elucidated. This study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of cinnamon essential oil nanoemulsion (CEON) against oral biofilms formed using a microcosm biofilm model. The biofilms were formed on bovine enamel specimens over a 7-day period, during which all specimens were treated with one of three solutions: 5% CEON (n = 35), 0.5% cocamidopropyl betaine (n = 35), or 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX; n = 35). Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities were determined by the red/green ratios (R/G values) of 7-day-old mature biofilms photographed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital, the number of aciduric bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs) within each biofilm, and the absorbance of bacterial suspensions. One-way and repeated-measures analysis of variance were performed to compare differences among the three solutions. R/G values were lowest in the 0.12% CHX group, but not significantly differ from the 5% CEON group. The number of CFUs and absorbance were lowest in the 5% CEON group. This study showed that nanoemulsified CEO inhibited the maturation of multi-species oral biofilms and the growth of oral microorganisms in biofilms, including aciduric bacteria that cause dental caries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85375-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971021PMC
March 2021

Red fluorescence threshold for assessing the lesion activity of early caries.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Dec 1;32:102040. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Health Science, Gachon University Graduate School, Incheon, Republic of Korea; Department of Dental Hygiene, Gachon University College of Health Science, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine a red fluorescence threshold for differentiating active from inactive non-cavitated carious lesions.

Methods: Using the Nyvad criteria, 30 human teeth with non-cavitated carious lesions were divided into active lesions (15 teeth) and inactive lesions (15 teeth). Using the blue light of a quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital camera, the red fluorescence of the lesions was measured as the ΔR value. By live/dead bacterial staining, bacterial viability was calculated as the Ratio. The ΔR and Ratio of active and inactive lesions were compared. The relationship between ΔR and Ratio was also analyzed. The ΔR threshold was determined for the classification of lesion activity, and its validity was tested.

Results: The mean ΔR of active lesions was 1.85 fold higher than that of inactive lesions (p < 0.001), and the Ratio of active lesions was 1.97 fold higher than that of inactive lesions (p < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the ΔR and the Ratio in non-cavitated carious lesions (p < 0.05). The ΔR threshold for the differentiating non-cavitated carious lesions by activity status was 37.55, and the sensitivity and specificity were both 83.33 %.

Conclusions: A red fluorescence threshold for categorizing non-cavitated carious lesion activity based on microbial metabolic activity was determined. Accurate evaluation of the activity status of non-cavitated carious lesions will assist in diagnosis and treatment planning for patients with dental caries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102040DOI Listing
December 2020

Influence of a novel pH-cycling model using dental microcosm biofilm on the remineralizing efficacy of fluoride in early carious lesions.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Jan 22;25(1):337-344. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Health Science, Graduate School of Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To evaluate the remineralizing efficacy of fluoride in early carious lesions using a novel microbial pH-cycling model that combines the chemical pH-cycling model with dental microcosm biofilms.

Materials And Methods: Artificial carious lesions were formed in 48 bovine incisors. The chemical and microbial pH-cycling models were applied to 24 specimens, respectively; the latter was applied after formation of dental microcosm biofilms for 6 days, based on the human saliva inoculation. The pH-cycling schedule was repeated for 12 days. All specimens were evaluated for fluorescence loss (ΔF) using quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital before and after the pH-cycling. Specimen biofilms were further analyzed for red/green values (R/G ratios) and colony-forming units (CFUs). One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis were used to analyze change in fluorescence loss (ΔΔF) according to the pH-cycling model and treatment.

Results: When the chemical pH-cycling and microbial pH-cycling models were used, ΔΔF was 1.36 (p = 0.008) and 1.17 (p > 0.05) times higher, respectively, in the fluoride-treated group than that in the distilled water-treated group. In the microbial pH-cycling model, R/G ratios and CFU counts of biofilms were not significantly different between treatments (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: No significant difference was observed in the remineralizing efficacy of fluoride according to the presence of dental biofilms covering early carious lesions.

Clinical Relevance: The remineralizing efficacy of fluoride could be overestimated in the absence of dental biofilms. Therefore, for accurate evaluation of the clinical value of remineralizing agents, dental biofilms should be included in in vitro tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03463-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation Treated with Double Simultaneous Defibrillation: Pilot Study.

Emerg Med Int 2020 27;2020:5470912. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13620, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Refractory shockable rhythm has a high mortality rate and poor neurological outcome. Treatments for refractory shockable rhythm presenting after defibrillation and medical treatment are not definite. We conducted research on the application of double simultaneous defibrillation (DSiD) for refractory shockable rhythms.

Methods: This is a retrospective pilot study performed using medical records from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2017. The prephase was from January to December 2016. The post-phase was from January to December 2017. During the prephase, we conducted conventional defibrillation with one defibrillator, and during the post-phase, we conducted DSiD using two defibrillators. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included survival to hospital admission and good neurological outcome at 12 months. Statistical analysis was conducted using Fisher's exact test. Data were regarded statistically significant when < 0.05.

Result: A total of 38 patients were included. Twenty-one patients underwent conventional defibrillation, and 17 underwent DSiD. The DSiD group had a higher survival to admission rate (14/17 (82.4%) vs. 6/21 (28.6%), =0.001) and showed a trend for higher survival to discharge (7/17 (41.2%) vs. 3/21 (14.3%), =0.078). Good neurological outcome at 12 months of the DSiD group was higher than that of the conventional defibrillation group, but the difference was not statistically significant (5/17 (29.4%) vs 2/21 (9.5%), =0.207).

Conclusion: In patients with refractory shockable rhythms, DSiD has increased survival to hospital admission and a trend of increased survival to hospital discharge. However, DSiD did not improve neurological outcome at 12 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5470912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273448PMC
May 2020

Investigation of the Support Effect in Atomically Dispersed Pt on WO for Utilization of Pt in the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 Nov 26;58(45):16038-16042. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 34141, Korea.

Single-atom catalysts (SACs) have attracted growing attention because they maximize the number of active sites, with unpredictable catalytic activity. Despite numerous studies on SACs, there is little research on the support, which is essential to understanding SAC. Herein, we systematically investigated the influence of the support on the performance of the SAC by comparing with single-atom Pt supported on carbon (Pt SA/C) and Pt nanoparticles supported on WO (Pt NP/WO ). The results revealed that the support effect was maximized for atomically dispersed Pt supported on WO (Pt SA/WO ). The Pt SA/WO exhibited a higher degree of hydrogen spillover from Pt atoms to WO at the interface, compared with Pt NP/WO , which drastically enhanced Pt mass activity for hydrogen evolution (up to 10 times). This strategy provides a new framework for enhancing catalytic activity for HER, by reducing noble metal usage in the field of SACs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201908122DOI Listing
November 2019

Changes in the oxidation state of Pt single-atom catalysts upon removal of chloride ligands and their effect for electrochemical reactions.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 May;55(45):6389-6392

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, South Korea.

Single atomic Pt supported on TiC was prepared from chloride Pt precursors, then the chloride ligands were intentionally removed by increasing the reduction temperature. The 0.2 wt% Pt/TiC catalyst reduced at 300 °C had more reduced Pt single-atoms with fewer chloride ligands and exhibited the highest currents for H2O2 formation in the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction. Controlling the oxidation state of the single-atoms is very important to maximize the activity of the single-atom catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc01593kDOI Listing
May 2019

miR-106b-5p and miR-17-5p could predict recurrence and progression in breast ductal carcinoma in situ based on the transforming growth factor-beta pathway.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2019 Jul 15;176(1):119-130. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Hospital Pathology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Korea.

Purpose: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is well-known precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Parts of patients show recurrence as DCIS or IDC after local treatment, but there are no established markers predicting relapse. We analyzed changes in miRNA and oncogene expression during DCIS progression/evolution to identify potential markers predicting recurrence.

Methods: Forty archival tissues diagnosed as primary or recurrent DCIS and DCIS adjacent to IDC were analyzed. MiRNA hierarchical clustering showed up-regulation of miR-17-5p and miR-106b-5p in recurrent DCIS and DCIS adjacent to IDC. Target genes were predicted based on pre-formed miRNA databases and PanCancer Pathway panel. MiRNAs were transfected into MCF-10A and MCF-7 cells; western blot analysis was performed with MCF-7 cell line to evaluate the effects on TGF-β downstream pathway.

Results: miRNA hierarchical clustering showed 17 dysregulated miRNAs, including miR-17-5p and miR-106b-5p. Based on miRNA database and nCounter Pancancer pathway analysis, TGFβRII was selected as target of miR-106b-5p and miR-17-5p. MiR-106b-5p- and miR-17-5p-transfected MCF-7 cells showed decreased expression of TGFβRII, especially in cells transfected with both miRNAs.

Conclusion: miR-106b-5p and miR-17-5p might have a role in breast cancer recurrence and progression by suppressing TGF-β activity, leading to early breast cancer carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-019-05192-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548759PMC
July 2019

Simplified Prediction Model for Accurate Assessment of Dental Caries Risk among Participants Aged 10-18 Years.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2018 10;246(2):81-86

Gachon University Graduate School of Public Health.

Dental caries assessment needs to be targeted at specific age groups, as many risk factors are related to patient age. Pre-teen and teenage patients, who are still at risk of occurrence of new carious lesions, need more individualized caries management strategies. Therefore, this study aimed to identify caries-related risk factors and develop a simplified risk prediction model for dental caries. Risk factors for caries were assessed in 171 participants aged 10-18 years, based on a questionnaire survey, previous history of caries, oral hygiene, microorganism colonization, saliva secretion, saliva buffer capacity examinations, and the acidogenicity of dental biofilms. These risk factors were entered into a computer-based risk assessment program (the Cariogram), and correlations between these factors and Cariogram scores were investigated. Significant risk predictors were used to develop a simplified risk prediction model. The performance of this model in predicting dental caries incidence was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis, to determine its applicability to the management of caries. Our simplified prediction model included three predictors that were significantly associated with caries incidence: use of fluoride-containing toothpaste, the acidogenicity of dental biofilms, and saliva secretion (p < 0.001). The resulting model had a sensitivity and specificity of 60.5 and 85.0%, respectively, with a cut-off value of 69.41 as the threshold. The area under the curve of this model was 0.782 (95% confidence interval = 0.681-0.884, p < 0.001). Our new caries risk prediction model is expected to allow clinicians to accurately and easily predict patients' risk of occurrence of new caries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.246.81DOI Listing
October 2018

Unilateral Chewing as a Risk Factor for Hearing Loss: Association between Chewing Habits and Hearing Acuity.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2018 09;246(1):45-50

Department of Health Science, Gachon University Graduate School.

Hearing loss is a common disease in older adults. In order to lower the prevalence of hearing loss, it is important to identify its risk factors. Although some studies have found a relationship between dental status and hearing acuity, few studies have investigated the relationship between unilateral chewing and hearing acuity. This study aimed to assess the effects of unilateral chewing on hearing acuity, with a focus on the risk of hearing loss. Eighty-one participants (aged 51-87 years) were included in the present study. Their chewing habits were determined by visual inspection. The participants were divided into two groups: the Unilateral Chewing Group (UCG; n = 43) and the Bilateral Chewing Group (BCG; n = 38). The preferred chewing side was identified for the UCG. Hearing acuity was determined using pure tone audiometry in a noise-free chamber, conducted at frequencies of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz. Hearing loss was defined as a lower hearing threshold greater than 50 dB in either ear at any frequency. Mean hearing thresholds at frequencies of 2,000 and 4,000 Hz were significantly higher, by 5.12 and 15.75 dB, respectively, for the UCG compared to the BCG (P < 0.05). The UCG had a 3.78-fold higher likelihood of suffering from hearing loss (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.81-7.88). The results suggest that bilateral chewing could be beneficial for preventing hearing loss. This study may provide evidence to support clinical interventions aimed at reducing the risk of hearing loss in patients with unilateral chewing habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.246.45DOI Listing
September 2018

Cutoff fluorescence loss for the recovery of incipient carious lesions after fluoride application in primary teeth: A clinical study.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018 Sep 11;23:367-372. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

Department of Preventive Dentistry and Public Oral Health, Oral Science Research Center, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Early detection and diagnosis of incipient caries are the keys to achieving a favorable prognosis. Monitoring of pathological changes based on clinical evidence leads to an accurate prognosis. Therefore, this clinical study investigated changes in minerals of incipient carious lesions using quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) after applying professional fluoride treatment to children, with improvement of the lesion severity assessed based on the fluorescence loss (ΔF) value obtained using QLF-D.

Methods: This study examined 90 incipient enamel lesions on the primary teeth of 27 children aged between 4 and 10 years. QLF-D images were obtained before and after the application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel for 1 min, and the ΔF values at 0 and 4 weeks (ΔF and ΔF, respectively) and the recovery rates (R) of the lesions were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to calculate the cutoff ΔF value at which recovery of the lesion with fluoride treatment remained feasible.

Results And Conclusion: The recovery patterns of ΔF 4 weeks after fluoride application differed depending on the ΔF values. The incipient lesions with ΔF values of less than -13.00 recovered 4 weeks after fluoride application (P <  0.001) and had an average R value of 19.27%. The results indicate that a ΔF cutoff value can be determined for predicting the effects of remineralization after fluoride application and quantitative prognostic data can be provided to patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.08.007DOI Listing
September 2018

Early caries detection methods according to the depth of the lesion: An in vitro comparison.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018 Sep 18;23:176-180. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Preventive Dentistry & Public Oral Health, BK21 PLUS Project, Oral Science Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aims of this study were to estimate the histological and optical changes of early carious lesions according to the duration of demineralization and to compare the efficacy to detect early carious lesions of a quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) system with a spectrophotometer according to the lesion depth.

Methods: Eighty-four bovine enamel specimens were immersed in demineralizing gel for six distinct days. The severities of lesions were evaluated by lesion depths (Ld) by polarized light microscopy, fluorescence loss (ΔF) using QLF, and brightness (ΔL) by spectrophotometry. The relationships between Ld, ΔF, and ΔLwere analyzed.

Results And Conclusion: Ld tended to be significantly deeper according to the demineralizing period (p < 0.05). The ΔF significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and the ΔL significantly increased with increasing the demineralizing period (p < 0.05). More shallow lesions (Ld≤200 μm) showed a strong relationship between ΔF and Ld (r = -0.898, p < 0.001), while there was a strong relationship between ΔL and Ld in deeper lesions (Ld>200 μm) (r = 0.858, p < 0.001). Our findings show that QLF system is a more efficient device for shallow early caries detection and that the spectrophotometer is a more stable device for the detection of deeper lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.06.014DOI Listing
September 2018

Masticatory efficiency contributing to the improved dynamic postural balance: A cross-sectional study.

Gerodontology 2018 May 28. Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Health Science, Graduate School of Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To evaluate whether masticatory efficiency is associated with dynamic postural balance.

Background: Masticatory dysfunction can cause deterioration of general health due to nutritional imbalances, thereby negatively affecting postural balance. However, few studies have investigated the association between masticatory efficiency and postural balance.

Materials And Methods: The masticatory efficiency of 74 participants was evaluated by calculating mixing ability index (MAI) using a wax cube. The timed up and go test (TUGT) was used to measure dynamic balance. Participants with an MAI above or below the median value of 1.05 were defined as having high or low masticatory efficiency, respectively. An independent samples t-test was used to identify significant differences in TUGT, according to masticatory efficiency. Analysis of covariance was performed to adjust for confounding factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between masticatory efficiency and postural balance.

Results: The high masticatory efficiency group could complete the TUGT exercise approximately 1.67 seconds faster while maintaining the postural balance, compared to the low masticatory efficiency group (P = .005). Furthermore, the postural imbalance odds of the group with high mastication efficiency decreased by 0.14-fold, relative to the group with low mastication efficiency (95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.46).

Conclusion: With some reservations about statistical power, the association found between masticatory efficiency and postural balance justifies further investigations to confirm the strength of the associations, and possibly to identify causal relationships between mastication and posture in old age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ger.12349DOI Listing
May 2018

A Generalizable Top-Down Nanostructuring Method of Bulk Oxides: Sequential Oxygen-Nitrogen Exchange Reaction.

Small 2018 Jun 27;14(25):e1801124. Epub 2018 May 27.

Department of Bionano Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do, 15588, Republic of Korea.

A thermal reaction route that induces grain fracture instead of grain growth is devised and developed as a top-down approach to prepare nanostructured oxides from bulk solids. This novel synthesis approach, referred to as the sequential oxygen-nitrogen exchange (SONE) reaction, exploits the reversible anion exchange between oxygen and nitrogen in oxides that is driven by a simple two-step thermal treatment in ammonia and air. Internal stress developed by significant structural rearrangement via the formation of (oxy)nitride and the creation of oxygen vacancies and their subsequent combination into nanopores transforms bulk solid oxides into nanostructured oxides. The SONE reaction can be applicable to most transition metal oxides, and when utilized in a lithium-ion battery, the produced nanostructured materials are superior to their bulk counterparts and even comparable to those produced by conventional bottom-up approaches. Given its simplicity and scalability, this synthesis method could open a new avenue to the development of high-performance nanostructured electrode materials that can meet the industrial demand of cost-effectiveness for mass production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201801124DOI Listing
June 2018

The overview of channels, transporters, and calcium signaling molecules during amelogenesis.

Arch Oral Biol 2018 09 20;93:47-55. Epub 2018 May 20.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, GAIHST, Gachon University, Incheon, 21999, South Korea. Electronic address:

Enamel is a highly calcified tissue. Its formation requires a progressive and dynamic system for the regulation of electrolyte concentration by enamel epithelia. A critical function of enamel epithelial cells, ameloblasts, is the secretion and movement of electrolytes via various channels and transporters to develop the enamel tissue. Enamel formation generates protons, which need to be neutralised. Thus, ameloblasts possess a buffering system to sustain mineral accretion. Normal tooth formation involves stage-dependent net fluctuations in pH during amelogenesis. To date, all of our information about ion transporters in dental enamel tissue is based solely on immunostaining-expression techniques. This review critically evaluates the current understanding and recent discoveries and physiological role of ion channels and transporters, Mg transporters, and Ca regulatory proteins during amelogenesis in enamel formation. The ways in which ameloblasts modulate ions are discussed in the context of current research for developing a novel morphologic-functional model of enamel maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.05.014DOI Listing
September 2018

Prediction of early caries prognosis after fluoride application based on the severity of lesions: An in situ study.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018 Sep 12;23:45-49. Epub 2018 May 12.

Department of Preventive Dentistry & Public Oral Health, BK21 PLUS Project, Oral Science Research Center, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of this in situ study was to measure baseline fluorescence loss values (ΔF) using the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology to screen enamel lesions for effective remineralization following fluoride application.

Methods: In this single-blinded in situ study, 20 adult volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing 4 specimens of human enamel. The surfaces of the specimens were divided into 3 regions: sound, demineralized, and treated regions. After generating 80 artificial enamel lesions with varying ΔF values, all specimens were covered with 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel for 1 min. Three repeated QLF-digital measures of ΔF values were then obtained for the lesions, immediately after demineralization and at 1 and 4 weeks after fluoride application.

Results And Conclusion: Fluoride application was found to increase the ΔF values of lesions significantly over time (p < 0.001). The groups with lower ΔF values showed significantly larger changes in ΔF values over time (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that baseline lesion values of ΔF = -17.50 and -25.50 would allow for lesion ΔF to recover to -10 at 1 and 4 weeks after fluoride application, respectively (p < 0.001). The findings of this study indicate that clinicians can establish prognostic criteria for early carious lesions using the QLF technology, and hence predict the efficacy of fluoride treatment and devise effective lesion-specific treatment plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.05.008DOI Listing
September 2018

The New Marginal Plaque Index May Allow a More Valid Assessment of Gingival Plaque Level Than the Turesky Modification of the Quigley and Hein Index.

J Evid Based Dent Pract 2017 12 18;17(4):416-419. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Article Title And Bibliographic Information: Establishment of a new marginal plaque index with high sensitivity for changes in oral hygiene. Deinzer R, Jahns S, Harnacke D. J Periodontol 2014; 85(12):1730-8.

Source Of Funding: The study was supported by a sponsorship from GABA International, Therwil, Switzerland.

Type Of Study/design: Observational case-control study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebdp.2017.10.008DOI Listing
December 2017

Relationship between salivary haemoglobin and number of remaining teeth in older Koreans.

Gerodontology 2018 Mar 27;35(1):25-32. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Objective: We investigated the relationship between saliva and dental biofilm characteristics, oral hygiene behaviours and the number of remaining teeth in a sample of older Koreans.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study included 133 participants, aged 65 years and older, recruited from senior welfare facilities in Incheon, South Korea. The outcome variable was the number of remaining teeth, and its associations with the independent variables of participants' general characteristics, salivary haemoglobin level, dental biofilm acidogenicity, salivary flow rate and oral hygiene behaviours were assessed. For statistical analyses, chi-squared test and step-wise multiple linear regression were used.

Results: The multiple linear regression model, which included all related factors identified in the bivariate analyses, showed that older adults who had high salivary haemoglobin levels (P < .05), brushed their teeth using the horizontal scrub method (P< .001), and did not use an interproximal cleaning device (P < .01) were more likely to have fewer remaining teeth. However, dental biofilm acidogenicity was not associated with the number of remaining teeth.

Conclusion: The number of remaining teeth was associated with salivary haemoglobin level, appropriate toothbrushing technique and interdental cleaning. These findings suggest that the monitoring of salivary haemoglobin may contribute to the prevention of tooth loss caused by periodontal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ger.12312DOI Listing
March 2018

Single-Atom Catalysts of Precious Metals for Electrochemical Reactions.

ChemSusChem 2018 01 10;11(1):104-113. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34141, South Korea.

Single-atom catalysts (SACs), in which metal atoms are dispersed on the support without forming nanoparticles, have been used for various heterogeneous reactions and most recently for electrochemical reactions. In this Minireview, recent examples of single-atom electrocatalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR), and methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) are introduced. Many density functional theory (DFT) simulations have predicted that SACs may be effective for CO reduction to methane or methanol production while suppressing H evolution, and those cases are introduced here as well. Single atoms, mainly Pt single atoms, have been deposited on TiN or TiC nanoparticles, defective graphene nanosheets, N-doped covalent triazine frameworks, graphitic carbon nitride, S-doped zeolite-templated carbon, and Sb-doped SnO surfaces. Scanning transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurement, and in situ infrared spectroscopy have been used to detect the single-atom structure and confirm the absence of nanoparticles. SACs have shown high mass activity, minimizing the use of precious metal, and unique selectivity distinct from nanoparticle catalysts owing to the absence of ensemble sites. Additional features that SACs should possess for effective electrochemical applications were also suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201701306DOI Listing
January 2018

Measures of Dynamic Chewing Function, Rather than the Number of Teeth, are a Better Predictors of the Elderly's Ability to Intake Food and Nutrients.

J Evid Based Dent Pract 2017 09 30;17(3):274-277. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Article Title And Bibliographic Information: Dietary intake is associated with occlusal force rather than number of teeth in 80-y-old Japanese. Inomata C, Ikebe K, Okubo H et al. J Dent Res 2016;2(2):187-97.

Source Of Funding: The study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 23390440 and 25293394) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebdp.2017.06.009DOI Listing
September 2017

Photodiagnosis of White Spot Lesions after Orthodontic Treatment with a Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence-Digital System: A Pilot Study.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2017;15(5):483-488

Purpose: To confirm that the quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) system is an adequate tool for monitoring changes in the mineral contents of white spot lesions.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-three anterior teeth from five orthodontic patients were selected for the samples. Initial fluorescent images were taken with the QLF-D system immediately after removing the fixed orthodontic appliances, and the white spot lesions were visualised in the fluorescent images that were selected. Subsequently, a fluoride varnish containing 0.1% fluoride was applied to all white spot lesions, and the final QLF-D images were taken two weeks after fluoride treatment. Finally, the following four parameters were compared between the images taken at baseline and two weeks after the treatment with paired t-tests: the mean fluorescence loss (∆F), maximum fluorescence loss (∆Fmax), lesion area (area), and lesion volume (∆Q).

Results: All the parameters obtained by QLF-D after two weeks had improved significantly when compared with baseline (p < 0.01). The recovery rates of the ∆F, ∆Fmax, area, and ∆Q were 11.4%, 17.1%, -37.5%, and 42.1%, respectively. Shallow lesions (∆Fi ≥ -15%) were better remineralized than deep lesions (∆Fi < -15%). The ratios of the ∆F, ∆Fmax, area, and ∆Q parameters between the shallow and deep lesions were 2.86, 3.30, 2.20, and 1.88, respectively.

Conclusion: The QLF-D system is a sensitive tool for the assessment of small levels of mineral changes in carious lesions after the removal of orthodontic appliances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.ohpd.a38774DOI Listing
January 2018

Analysis of Orange/Red Fluorescence for Bacterial Activity in Initial Carious Lesions May Provide Accurate Lesion Activity Assessment for Caries Progression.

J Evid Based Dent Pract 2017 06 29;17(2):125-128. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Article Title And Bibliographic Information: Orange/Red Fluorescence of Active Caries by Retrospective Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence Image Analysis. Gomez GF, Eckert GJ, Zandoná AF.Caries Res 2016; 50(3):295-302.

Source Of Funding: The study was partially supported by a grant from NIH/NIDCR (R01DE017890) TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Retrospective case-control design using the data collected in a longitudinal study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebdp.2017.03.010DOI Listing
June 2017

Clinical usefulness of the free web-based image analysis application ImmunoRatio for assessment of Ki-67 labelling index in breast cancer.

J Clin Pathol 2017 Aug 15;70(8):715-719. Epub 2017 Mar 15.

Department of Hospital Pathology, The Catholic university of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Aims: Ki-67 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer; however, the use of the Ki-67 labelling index (LI) in clinical practice requires a consistent and easily accessible scoring method. The present study evaluated the use of the free internet-based image analysis program ImmunoRatio to score Ki-67 LI in breast cancer in comparison with manual counting.

Methods: Ki-67 immunohistochemical detection was performed in 577 breast cancer cases, and the Ki-67 LI was determined by ImmunoRatio and manual counting.

Results: The Ki-67 LI determined by ImmunoRatio correlated well with that obtained by manual counting. The concordance rate between ImmunoRatio and manual counting was excellent (κ coefficient of 0.881) at a Ki-67 LI cut-off value of 20%. Cases with high Ki-67 LI by ImmunoRatio were associated with poor overall survival, in particular in the hormone receptor positive group.

Conclusions: The web-based automated image analysis program ImmunoRatio is an attractive alternative to manual counting to determine the Ki-67 LI in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2016-204162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5537563PMC
August 2017

Base-pair opening dynamics of the microRNA precursor pri-miR156a affect temperature-responsive flowering in Arabidopsis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 03 2;484(4):839-844. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Creative Research Initiatives, Department of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea. Electronic address:

Internal and environmental cues, including ambient temperature changes, regulate the timing of flowering in plants. Arabidopsis miR156 represses flowering and plays an important role in the regulation of temperature-responsive flowering. However, the molecular basis of miR156 processing at lower temperatures remains largely unknown. Here, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance studies to investigate the base-pair opening dynamics of model RNAs at 16 °C and investigated the in vivo effects of the mutant RNAs on temperature-responsive flowering. The A9C and A10CG mutations in the B5 bulge of the lower stem of pri-miR156a stabilized the C15∙G98 and U16∙A97 base-pairs at the cleavage site of pri-miR156a at 16 °C. Consistent with this, production of mature miR156 was severely affected in plants overexpressing the A9C and A10CG constructs and these plants exhibited almost no delay in flowering at 16 °C. The A10G and A9AC mutations did not strongly affect C15∙G98 and U16∙A97 base-pairs at 16 °C, and plants overexpressing A10G and A9AC mutants of miR156 produced more mature miR156 than plants overexpressing the A9C and A10CG mutants and showed a strong delay in flowering at 16 °C. Interestingly, the A9AC mutation had distinct effects on the opening dynamics of the C15∙G98 and U16∙A97 base-pairs between 16 °C and 23 °C, and plants expressing the A9AC mutant miR156 showed only a moderate delay in flowering at 16 °C. Based on these results, we propose that fine-tuning of the base-pair stability at the cleavage site is essential for efficient processing of pri-miR156a at a low temperature and for reduced flowering sensitivity to ambient temperature changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.01.185DOI Listing
March 2017

Does ozone clinically enhance the remineralizing potential of nano-hydroxyapatite on initial enamel lesions?

Authors:
Hee-Eun Kim

Clin Oral Investig 2017 01 24;21(1):1-3. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Gachon University, 191 Hambangmoe-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, 406-799, South Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-016-2008-8DOI Listing
January 2017

Effect of Coronary Artery Calcification Score by Lifestyle and Correlation With Coronary Artery Stenosis by Multidetector Computed Tomography.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2017 Mar/Apr;41(2):236-241

From the *Korea Association of Health Promotion Medicheck, Incheon; †Department of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan; and Departments of ‡Dental Hygiene and §Radiological Science, Gachon University Medical Campus, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objective: This study examined the effect of coronary artery calcification score by lifestyle and correlation with coronary artery stenosis in persons who underwent coronary artery computed tomography (CT) angiography among health examinees for heart diseases in Korea.

Methods And Materials: The study included 506 subjects (256 men and 250 women) who underwent coronary artery CT angiography among health examines for heart diseases at the Incheon Branch of the Korea Association of Health Promotion between January 2, 2014, and December 31, 2014. The demographical variables of the subjects were determined by frequency analysis, and the difference by sex was compared and analyzed using χ independence test. Independent 2-sample t test was performed to determine any difference in main factors by coronary artery calcification.

Results: According to the results, 175 (34.6%) had calcification, men showed statistically higher scores than women, and calcification seemed higher in those who were older, taller, heavier, and thicker in waist. Regarding blood pressure, calcification was shown if contraction phase and relaxation blood pressure was higher, blood sugar before meal was higher, and neutral fat was higher. By lifestyle, calcification seemed to be higher in those with more alcohol drinking per week, long past smoking years, and higher smoking amount per day in the past and present. In addition, coronary artery stenosis rate showed statistical correlation with calcification from the left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, left circumflex artery, and left main coronary artery in sequence.

Conclusions: In conclusion, coronary artery calcification score CT is deemed to be a suitable method for the estimation of coronary artery stenosis with short examination time, low radiation exposure, and noninvasive method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0000000000000497DOI Listing
April 2017

Base-pair opening dynamics of primary miR156a using NMR elucidates structural determinants important for its processing level and leaf number phenotype in Arabidopsis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2017 01 29;45(2):875-885. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Department of Chemistry and RINS, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828, Republic of Korea

MicroRNAs originate from primary transcripts containing hairpin structures. The levels of mature miR156 influence the leaf number prior to flowering in the life cycle of plants. To understand the molecular mechanism of biogenesis of primary miR156a (pri-miR156a) to mature miR156, a base-pair opening dynamics study was performed using model RNAs mimicking the cleavage site of wild type and B5 bulge-stabilizing mutant pri-miR156a constructs. We also determined the mature miR156 levels and measured leaf numbers at flowering of plants overexpressing the wild type and mutant constructs. Our results suggest that the stabilities and/or opening dynamics of the C15·G98 and U16·A97 base-pairs at the cleavage site are essential for formation of the active conformation and for efficient processing of pri-miR156a, and that mutations of the B5 bulge can modulate mature miR156 levels as well as miR156-driven leaf number phenotypes via changes in the base-pair stability of the cleavage site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5314782PMC
January 2017

Structural determinants of miR156a precursor processing in temperature-responsive flowering in Arabidopsis.

J Exp Bot 2016 08 21;67(15):4659-70. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Creative Research Initiatives, Department of Life Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea

MicroRNAs originate from primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) containing hairpin structures. Plant pri-miRNAs have highly variable structures and little is known about the information encoded in their secondary structures. Arabidopsis miR156 is an ambient temperature-responsive miRNA and plays an important role in regulating flowering time. To identify the structural determinants for miR156 processing, we analyzed the effects of mutations introduced in the upper stem of pri-miR156a on its temperature-dependent processing and flowering time. The levels of pri-miR156a and mature miR156 were opposite at different temperatures. Mutations in the upper stem, especially the region closer to the miR156a/miR156a* duplex, reduced miR156 processing at 23 °C and 16 °C and caused a less severe phenotype compared with the un-mutated construct. Mutation in the second stem near the first cleavage site of pri-miR156a affected miR156 processing at 23 °C, but not at 16 °C. This was also seen in pri-miR172a, another ambient temperature-responsive miRNA. Replacement of the upper stem of pri-miR156a with that of pri-miR172a severely affected miR156 processing and flowering time. These results suggested that the upper stem of pri-miR156a is important for miR156 processing at different temperatures. In particular, the second stem adjacent to the first cleavage site plays a role in the regulation of ambient temperature-responsive flowering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4973740PMC
August 2016

Structural features of influenza A virus panhandle RNA enabling the activation of RIG-I independently of 5'-triphosphate.

Nucleic Acids Res 2016 09 10;44(17):8407-16. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, KAIST, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) recognizes specific molecular patterns of viral RNAs for inducing type I interferon. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RIG-I binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) with the 5'-triphosphate (5'-PPP), which induces a conformational change in RIG-I to an active form. It has been suggested that RIG-I detects infection of influenza A virus by recognizing the 5'-triphosphorylated panhandle structure of the viral RNA genome. Influenza panhandle RNA has a unique structure with a sharp helical bending. In spite of extensive studies of how viral RNAs activate RIG-I, whether the structural elements of the influenza panhandle RNA confer the ability to activate RIG-I signaling has been poorly explored. Here, we investigated the dynamics of the influenza panhandle RNA in complex with RIG-I CTD using NMR spectroscopy and showed that the bending structure of the panhandle RNA negates the requirement of a 5'-PPP moiety for RIG-I activation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5041458PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw525DOI Listing
September 2016