Publications by authors named "Hans Zweers"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of the amount of organic trigger compounds, nitrogen and soil microbial biomass on the magnitude of priming of soil organic matter.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(5):e0216730. Epub 2019 May 16.

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Priming effects (PEs) are defined as short-term changes in the turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by the addition of easily degradable organic compounds to the soil. PEs are ubiquitous but the direction (acceleration or retardation of SOM decomposition) and magnitude are not easy to predict. It has been suggested that the ratio between the amount of added PE-triggering substrate to the size of initial soil microbial biomass is an important factor influencing PEs. However, this is mainly based on comparison of different studies and not on direct experimentation. The aim of the current study is to examine the impact of glucose-to-microbial biomass ratios on PEs for three different ecosystems. We did this by adding three different amounts of 13C-glucose with or without addition of mineral N (NH4NO3) to soils collected from arable lands, grasslands and forests. The addition of 13C-glucose was equivalent to 15%, 50% and 200% of microbial biomass C. After one month of incubation, glucose had induced positive PEs for almost all the treatments, with differences in magnitude related to the soil origin and the amount of glucose added. For arable and forest soils, the primed C increased with increasing amount of glucose added, whereas for grassland soils this relationship was negative. We found positive correlations between glucose-derived C and primed C and the strength of these correlations was different among the three ecosystems considered. Generally, additions of mineral N next to glucose (C:N = 15:1) had little effect on the flux of substrate-derived C and primed C. Overall, our study does not support the hypothesis that the trigger-substrate to microbial biomass ratio can be an important predictor of PEs. Rather our results indicate that the amount of energy obtained from decomposing trigger substrates is an important factor for the magnitude of PEs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216730PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522013PMC
January 2020

Exploring bacterial interspecific interactions for discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds.

Microb Biotechnol 2017 07 29;10(4):910-925. Epub 2017 May 29.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), PO BOX 50, 6700 AB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Recent studies indicated that the production of secondary metabolites by soil bacteria can be triggered by interspecific interactions. However, little is known to date about interspecific interactions between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we aimed to understand how the interspecific interaction between the Gram-positive Paenibacillus sp. AD87 and the Gram-negative Burkholderia sp. AD24 affects the fitness, gene expression and the production of soluble and volatile secondary metabolites of both bacteria. To obtain better insight into this interaction, transcriptome and metabolome analyses were performed. Our results revealed that the interaction between the two bacteria affected their fitness, gene expression and the production of secondary metabolites. During interaction, the growth of Paenibacillus was not affected, whereas the growth of Burkholderia was inhibited at 48 and 72 h. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the interaction between Burkholderia and Paenibacillus caused significant transcriptional changes in both bacteria as compared to the monocultures. The metabolomic analysis revealed that the interaction increased the production of specific volatile and soluble antimicrobial compounds such as 2,5-bis(1-methylethyl)-pyrazine and an unknown Pederin-like compound. The pyrazine volatile compound produced by Paenibacillus was subjected to bioassays and showed strong inhibitory activity against Burkholderia and a range of plant and human pathogens. Moreover, strong additive antimicrobial effects were observed when soluble extracts from the interacting bacteria were combined with the pure 2,5-bis(1-methylethyl)-pyrazine. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance to explore bacterial interspecific interactions to discover novel secondary metabolites and to perform simultaneously metabolomics of both, soluble and volatile compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.12735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5481530PMC
July 2017

Soil networks become more connected and take up more carbon as nature restoration progresses.

Nat Commun 2017 02 8;8:14349. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

NIOO-KNAW, Microbial Ecology, Droevendaalsesteeg 10, Wageningen 6708 PB, The Netherlands.

Soil organisms have an important role in aboveground community dynamics and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems. However, most studies have considered soil biota as a black box or focussed on specific groups, whereas little is known about entire soil networks. Here we show that during the course of nature restoration on abandoned arable land a compositional shift in soil biota, preceded by tightening of the belowground networks, corresponds with enhanced efficiency of carbon uptake. In mid- and long-term abandoned field soil, carbon uptake by fungi increases without an increase in fungal biomass or shift in bacterial-to-fungal ratio. The implication of our findings is that during nature restoration the efficiency of nutrient cycling and carbon uptake can increase by a shift in fungal composition and/or fungal activity. Therefore, we propose that relationships between soil food web structure and carbon cycling in soils need to be reconsidered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5309817PMC
February 2017

Microbial Small Talk: Volatiles in Fungal-Bacterial Interactions.

Front Microbiol 2015 5;6:1495. Epub 2016 Jan 5.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology Wageningen, Netherlands.

There is increasing evidence that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in the interactions between fungi and bacteria, two major groups of soil inhabiting microorganisms. Yet, most of the research has been focused on effects of bacterial volatiles on suppression of plant pathogenic fungi whereas little is known about the responses of bacteria to fungal volatiles. In the current study we performed a metabolomics analysis of volatiles emitted by several fungal and oomycetal soil strains under different nutrient conditions and growth stages. The metabolomics analysis of the tested fungal and oomycetal strains revealed different volatile profiles dependent on the age of the strains and nutrient conditions. Furthermore, we screened the phenotypic responses of soil bacterial strains to volatiles emitted by fungi. Two bacteria, Collimonas pratensis Ter291 and Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C, showed significant changes in their motility, in particular to volatiles emitted by Fusarium culmorum. This fungus produced a unique volatile blend, including several terpenes. Four of these terpenes were selected for further tests to investigate if they influence bacterial motility. Indeed, these terpenes induced or reduced swimming and swarming motility of S. plymuthica PRI-2C and swarming motility of C. pratensis Ter291, partly in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall the results of this work revealed that bacteria are able to sense and respond to fungal volatiles giving further evidence to the suggested importance of volatiles as signaling molecules in fungal-bacterial interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700264PMC
January 2016

Volatiles in Inter-Specific Bacterial Interactions.

Front Microbiol 2015 18;6:1412. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology Wageningen, Netherlands.

The importance of volatile organic compounds for functioning of microbes is receiving increased research attention. However, to date very little is known on how inter-specific bacterial interactions effect volatiles production as most studies have been focused on volatiles produced by monocultures of well-described bacterial genera. In this study we aimed to understand how inter-specific bacterial interactions affect the composition, production and activity of volatiles. Four phylogenetically different bacterial species namely: Chryseobacterium, Dyella, Janthinobacterium, and Tsukamurella were selected. Earlier results had shown that pairwise combinations of these bacteria induced antimicrobial activity in agar media whereas this was not the case for monocultures. In the current study, we examined if these observations were also reflected by the production of antimicrobial volatiles. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by the bacteria were determined in monoculture as well in pairwise combinations. Antimicrobial activity of the volatiles was assessed against fungal, oomycetal, and bacterial model organisms. Our results revealed that inter-specific bacterial interactions affected volatiles blend composition. Fungi and oomycetes showed high sensitivity to bacterial volatiles whereas the effect of volatiles on bacteria varied between no effects, growth inhibition to growth promotion depending on the volatile blend composition. In total 35 volatile compounds were detected most of which were sulfur-containing compounds. Two commonly produced sulfur-containing volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide) were tested for their effect on three target bacteria. Here, we display the importance of inter-specific interactions on bacterial volatiles production and their antimicrobial activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4683202PMC
January 2016

A fragrant neighborhood: volatile mediated bacterial interactions in soil.

Front Microbiol 2015 3;6:1212. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) Wageningen, Netherlands.

There is increasing evidence that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play essential roles in communication and competition between soil microorganisms. Here we assessed volatile-mediated interactions of a synthetic microbial community in a model system that mimics the natural conditions in the heterogeneous soil environment along the rhizosphere. Phylogenetic different soil bacterial isolates (Burkholderia sp., Dyella sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Paenibacillus sp.) were inoculated as mixtures or monoculture in organic-poor, sandy soil containing artificial root exudates (ARE) and the volatile profile and growth were analyzed. Additionally, a two-compartment system was used to test if volatiles produced by inter-specific interactions in the rhizosphere can stimulate the activity of starving bacteria in the surrounding, nutrient-depleted soil. The obtained results revealed that both microbial interactions and shifts in microbial community composition had a strong effect on the volatile emission. Interestingly, the presence of a slow-growing, low abundant Paenibacillus strain significantly affected the volatile production by the other abundant members of the bacterial community as well as the growth of the interacting strains. Furthermore, volatiles released by mixtures of root-exudates consuming bacteria stimulated the activity and growth of starved bacteria. Besides growth stimulation, also an inhibition in growth was observed for starving bacteria exposed to microbial volatiles. The current work suggests that volatiles produced during microbial interactions in the rhizosphere have a significant long distance effect on microorganisms in the surrounding, nutrient-depleted soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631045PMC
November 2015

The neonicotinoid imidacloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2013 Apr 3;32(5):1096-100. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of all seven arthropod species tested (28-d EC10 values of approximately 0.03 µg/L). The results indicated a high aquatic risk of chronic exposure of imidacloprid to mayflies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.2201DOI Listing
April 2013

Determination of the neurotoxins BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) and DAB (alpha-,gamma-diaminobutyric acid) by LC-MSMS in Dutch urban waters with cyanobacterial blooms.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler 2009 ;10 Suppl 2:79-84

Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

We aimed to determine concentrations of the neurotoxic amino acids beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and alpha-,gamma-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) in mixed species scum material from Dutch urban waters that suffer from cyanobacterial blooms. BMAA and DAB were analysed in scum material without derivatization by LC-MSMS (liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry) using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). Our method showed high selectivity, good recovery of added compounds after sample extraction (86% for BMAA and 85% for DAB), acceptable recovery after sample hydrolysation (70% for BMAA and 56% for DAB) and acceptable precision. BMAA and DAB could be detected at an injected amount of 0.34 pmol. Free BMAA was detected in nine of the 21 sampled locations with a maximum concentration of 42 microg/g DW. Free DAB was detected in two locations with a maximum concentration of 4 microg/g DW. No protein-associated forms were detected. This study is the first to detect underivatized BMAA in cyanobacterial scum material using LC-MSMS. Ubiquity of BMAA in cyanobacteria scums of Dutch urban waters could not be confirmed, where BMAA and DAB concentrations were relatively low; however, co-occurrence with other cyanobacterial neurotoxins might pose a serious health risk including chronic effects from low-level doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17482960903272967DOI Listing
March 2010