Publications by authors named "Gul H Dadlani"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

MRI detection of occult venous anomalies in a patient with Williams syndrome: a case report.

Cardiol Young 2020 Apr 27;30(4):568-570. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Nemours Cardiac Center, Nemours Children's Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

Williams syndrome is a multisystem, congenital disorder which is commonly associated with arterial stenoses: supravalvar aortic stenosis and peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. Venous abnormalities have not been previously reported in children with Williams syndrome. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl with Williams syndrome and diffuse venous ectasia as detected by MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S104795112000030XDOI Listing
April 2020

Pediatric Electrocardiograms for the General Practitioner: The Importance of the T-Wave.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Mar;47(3):e106-e111

Electrocardiograms may be used to screen for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children. Many forms of CVD that predispose to sudden cardiac death are associated with T-wave abnormalities in childhood. The T-wave is generated during ventricular repolarization. T-waves on an electrocardiogram typically undergo maturational changes throughout childhood and adolescence. A pediatric practitioner's ability to understand these changes is required to understand abnormal T-waves and recognize potentially life-threatening types of CVD. This review article uses a series of illustrative cases to highlight CVD associated with T-wave abnormalities in childhood. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(3):e106-e111.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20180219-01DOI Listing
March 2018

Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Pulmonary Hypertension.

PLoS One 2016 7;11(10):e0163904. Epub 2016 Oct 7.

Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant cause of morbidity in preterm infants, but no screening guidelines exist. We sought to identify risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with PH in preterm infants to develop a PH risk score.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of two separate populations of preterm infants (NICU cohort n = 230; Clinic registry n = 580).

Results: 8.3% of the NICU cohort had PH after 4 weeks of age, while 14.8% of the clinic registry had PH after 2 months of age. Lower birth weights and longer initial hospitalizations were associated with PH in both populations (p<0.001 for all tests). Using adjusted logistic regression, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring ligation was associated with PH in both the NICU cohort (OR: 3.19; p = 0.024) and the clinic registry (OR: 2.67; p<0.001). Risk factors (birth weight ≤780 grams, home supplemental oxygen use, and PDA ligation) identified in the clinic registry (training dataset) were validated in the NICU cohort with 0-1 factors present were associated with ≤1.5% probability of having PH, any 2 factors with a 25% probability, and all 3 factors with a 40% probability.

Conclusions: Lower birth weight, PDA ligation, and respiratory support were associated with PH in both populations. A PH risk score based on clinical indicators from the training dataset predicted PH in the validation set. This risk score could help focus resources to preterm infants at higher risk for PH. Further work is needed to determine whether earlier or more aggressive management of ductal lesions could alter PH outcomes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0163904PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5055317PMC
June 2017

Pediatric pulmonary hypertension: diagnosis and management.

Curr Opin Cardiol 2016 Jan;31(1):78-87

aJohns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute, St Petersburg, Florida bDepartment of Pediatrics, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The article is intended to provide an overview of the most current modalities for the diagnosis and management of pulmonary hypertension in the pediatric population.

Recent Findings: The WHO has recently updated the classification for pulmonary hypertension to include an expanded range of pediatric disease cohorts. We continue to gain knowledge of traditional pulmonary hypertension therapies (phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin-receptor antagonists, and prostanoids) and remain optimistic that new therapeutic modalities [cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) stimulators, oral prostacyclins, and gene therapy] will lead to improved outcomes in pediatric patients.

Summary: Pediatric pulmonary hypertension is a heterogeneous disorder that has the potential to improve in some cases as children grow throughout childhood. Utilization of dedicated multidisciplinary teams of medical providers is necessary to deliver the highest level of medical care to this complex patient population. Ongoing development of enhanced screening protocols, novel disease-specific therapeutic targets, and comprehensive registries will hopefully lead to improved morbidity and mortality in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCO.0000000000000243DOI Listing
January 2016

Oxygen requirement as a screening tool for the detection of late pulmonary hypertension in extremely low birth weight infants.

Cardiol Young 2016 Mar 29;26(3):521-7. Epub 2015 Jun 29.

1Department of Pediatrics,University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine,Tampa,Florida,United States of America.

Background: Many extremely low birth weight infants develop pulmonary hypertension late in their clinical course, and over 60% go undetected by early screening echocardiography. At present, no standardised screening protocol exists for detecting late pulmonary hypertension in extremely low birth weight infants. We assessed the utility of oxygen supplementation as a predictor of late pulmonary hypertension.

Methods: A retrospective single-centre review of extremely low birth weight infants with no evidence of CHD and those surviving for >30 days was performed. The association between oxygen ⩾30% at day of life 30 and diagnosis of late pulmonary hypertension was estimated with an odds ratio and 95% confidence interval using logistic regression. Doppler echocardiography was used to diagnose pulmonary hypertension in the infants.

Results: A total of 230 infants met the study criteria. The incidence of late pulmonary hypertension was 8.3% (19/230). Infants with late pulmonary hypertension were more likely to have a lower mean birth weight (667.1±144 versus 799.3±140 g, p=0.001) and more likely to be small for gestational age (47.4 versus 14.2%, p=0.004). Oxygen requirement ⩾30% at day of life 30 was associated with increased risk of late pulmonary hypertension (odds ratio=3.77, 95% confidence interval=1.42-10.00, p=0.008) in univariate analysis and after adjusting for birth weight (odds ratio=2.47, 95% confidence interval=0.89-6.84, p=0.08).

Conclusions: The need of oxygen supplementation ⩾30% at day of life 30 may be a good screening tool for detecting late pulmonary hypertension in extremely low birth weight infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951115000608DOI Listing
March 2016

Characterization of the pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome phenotype.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2015 Feb 14;25(1):14-25. Epub 2014 Oct 14.

1 Department of Pediatrics, Rothman Center for Pediatric Neuropsychiatry, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine , Tampa, Florida.

Objective: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) marked by an abrupt onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. We aim to characterize the phenotypic presentation of youth with PANS.

Methods: Forty-three youth (ages 4-14 years) meeting criteria for PANS were assessed using self-report and clinician-administered measures, medical record reviews, comprehensive clinical evaluation, and laboratory measures.

Results: Youth with PANS presented with an early age of OCD onset (mean=7.84 years) and exhibited moderate to severe obsessive compulsive symptoms upon evaluation. All had comorbid anxiety and emotional lability, and scored well below normative means on all quality of life subscales. Youth with elevated streptococcal antibody titers trended toward having higher OCD severity, and presented more frequently with dilated pupils relative to youth without elevated titers. A cluster analysis of core PANS symptoms revealed three distinct symptom clusters that included core characteristic PANS symptoms, streptococcal-related symptoms, and cytokine-driven/physiological symptoms. Youth with PANS who had comorbid tics were more likely to exhibit a decline in school performance, visuomotor impairment, food restriction symptoms, and handwriting deterioration, and they reported lower quality of life relative to youth without tics.

Conclusions: The sudden, acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms, high frequency of comorbidities (i.e., anxiety, behavioral regression, depression, and suicidality), and poor quality of life capture the PANS subgroup as suddenly and severely impaired youth. Identifying clinical characteristics of youth with PANS will allow clinicians to diagnose and treat this subtype of OCD with a more strategized and effective approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2014.0062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340632PMC
February 2015

A high school-based voluntary cardiovascular risk screening program: issues of feasibility and correlates of electrocardiographic outcomes.

Pediatr Cardiol 2013 Oct 17;34(7):1612-9. Epub 2013 Mar 17.

All Children's Hospital Heart Institute, St. Petersburg, FL, USA.

Risk factors for adult cardiovascular events can be identified from the prenatal period through childhood. We performed a cardiovascular risk-screening program in students from grades 9-12 in 7 high schools in Hillsborough County, FL. We obtained blood pressure (BP) measurements and calculated body mass index (BMI) as risk factors for future cardiovascular events as well as obtained an electrocardiogram (ECG) for the purposes of detecting possible life-threatening arrhythmias. Of ~14,000 students contacted, 600 (4 %) participated in the screening. Of these, 517 (86 %) were diagnosed with normal, 71 (12 %) with borderline, and 12 (1 %) with abnormal ECGs. Although no participant had any cardiac history, two of the abnormal ECGs indicated a cardiac diagnosis associated with the potential for sudden cardiac death. Both systolic and diastolic BP increased as the ECG diagnosis moved from normal (115.6/73.8) through borderline (121.0/75.9) to an abnormal (125.0/80.7) diagnosis (all P ≤ .0016). An increase in BMI was only observed when an ECG diagnosis was abnormal (P = .0180). Boys had a greater prevalence (18.97 %) of borderline or abnormal ECGs compared with girls (6.75 %), whereas no discernible differences were seen in ECG diagnosis between white and nonwhite individuals (15.09 and 12.26 %, respectively). Although participation rates were low, a high school-based cardiovascular risk-screening program including ECG is feasible. Although ECG diagnosis tended to be related to other known cardiovascular risk factors (BP, BMI), the utility of an abnormal ECG in adolescence as a predictor of future cardiovascular risk will require further evaluation in more controlled settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-013-0682-8DOI Listing
October 2013

Long-term management of adults with conotruncal lesions: the diagnostic approach at All Children's Hospital.

Cardiol Young 2012 Dec;22(6):768-79

All Children's Hospital Heart Institute, Saint Petersburg 33701, USA.

Improved survival in children with complex congenital cardiac disease, such as conotruncal abnormalities, has created a sub-population of children and young adults who need comprehensive multi-disciplinary long-term follow-up. Routine surveillance with comprehensive screening for structural heart disease, functional heart disease, thromboembolic disease, arrhythmias, and associated end-organ dysfunction is important. Future research will better define the care plans for routine surveillance in patients with conotruncal abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S104795111200203XDOI Listing
December 2012

Unrepaired tetralogy of fallot with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries in an adult patient.

Congenit Heart Dis 2013 Jan-Feb;8(1):E24-30. Epub 2011 Dec 18.

Department of Cardiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33606, USA.

Tetralogy of Fallot is characterized by a ventricular septal defect, a large, overriding aorta, subpulmonic stenosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy. These lesions can be associated with abnormal development of the pulmonary vasculature. This can include peripheral pulmonic stenosis, discontinuous pulmonary arteries, anomalous pulmonary venous return, and the development of aortopulmonary collateral vessels. Aortopulmonary collateral vessels develop to supply underperfused areas of the pulmonary bed and pose a unique and challenging problem at the time of surgical repair, which involves closure of the ventricular septal defect, relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, maintenance of pulmonary valve competency when possible, and establishment of laminar pulmonary blood flow to all segments of the pulmonary bed. We describe a 36-year-old man with unrepaired tetralogy of Fallot with distinctive aortopulmonary collaterals, who underwent complete surgical repair with good outcome. Two-dimensional echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiac catheterization each provided vital details allowing a stepwise approach to defining his unique anatomy for surgical correction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0803.2011.00598.xDOI Listing
August 2013

Long-term management of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome: the diagnostic approach at All Children's Hospital.

Cardiol Young 2011 Dec;21 Suppl 2:80-7

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, All Children's Hospital Heart Institute, 601 5th Street South, Saint Petersburg, FL 33701, USA.

Improved survival in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome has created a sub-population of children and young adults who are living with functionally univentricular physiology. Routine surveillance with comprehensive screening for structural cardiac disease, functional cardiac disease, arrhythmias, thromboembolic disease, and associated dysfunction of end organs is important. Future directives will better define the plans of care for routine surveillance in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951111001648DOI Listing
December 2011

Blalock-taussig shunt thrombosis prophylaxis in a patient with jacobsen syndrome and thrombocytopenia.

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2011 Oct;2(4):641-3

Department of Pediatrics, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, FL, USA.

Jacobsen syndrome (JS) is a rare chromosomal anomaly caused by deletions in the distal long arm of chromosome 11. Features of the syndrome include growth and developmental delays, a distinctive facial appearance, and a variety of physical problems including heart defects and bleeding disorders. Congenital heart defects occur in approximately 50% of children with JS. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) has been occasionally reported in association with JS. In such cases, the hematological abnormalities may influence the outcome from single-ventricle palliation through staged surgical reconstruction. Thrombotic obstruction or occlusion of the modified Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt is a well-documented cause of interstage mortality following the Norwood operation. Although there is no consensus regarding the therapeutic value of antiplatelet therapy during the interstage period following the first stage of palliation, maintenance of shunt patency is critically important. For patients with JS undergoing single-ventricle palliation, decisions regarding antiplatelet therapy during the interstage period may be further complicated by the presence of thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction related to JS. We report the case of a patient with HLHS, JS, and thrombocytopenia who underwent the Norwood procedure, and we describe our strategy for prophylaxis against thrombosis of the BT shunt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2150135111412796DOI Listing
October 2011

Lessons learned from 119 consecutive cardiac transplants for pediatric and congenital heart disease.

Ann Thorac Surg 2011 Apr;91(4):1248-54; discussion 1254-5

The Congenital Heart Institute of Florida, All Children's Hospital, Saint Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Background: This manuscript reviews all patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantations (OHT) at our program (116 patients underwent 119 OHT) to describe their diagnostic characteristics and to assess risk factors for mortality.

Methods: Median age at OHT was 179 days (mean, 1,446.6 ± 188.9 days [4.0 ± 0.5 years]; range, 5 days to 7,125 days [19.5 years]; 15 neonates, 68 infants). Median weight at OHT was 5.5 kg (mean, 17.2 ± 2.1 kg; range, 2.2 to 113 kg). Diagnoses were cardiomyopathy (n = 37), primary transplantation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or HLHS-related malformation (n = 29), transplantation after prior cardiac surgery for HLHS or HLHS-related malformation (n = 9), non-HLHS congenital heart disease (n = 39), and retransplant (n = 5).

Results: Overall Kaplan-Meier 5-year survival was 72.7%. Operative mortality was 12.6% (15 patients). Late mortality was 13.4% (16 patients). Eighty-five patients survived, with a mean follow-up of 5.76 ± 0.48 years (median, 5.1 years; range, 0.12 to 14.0 years). Total follow-up was 507.0 years. No survival difference was seen among the five diagnostic subgroups (p = 0.20). Univariate association between risk factors and survival was assessed for the following variables: age (p = 0.91), weight (p = 0.86), sex (p = 0.47), race (p = 0.40), insurance classification (p = 0.42), high PRA (p = 0.20), pretransplant mechanical circulatory support (p < 0.001), posttransplant mechanical circulatory support (p < 0.001), redo sternotomy (p = 0.07), heterotaxy (p = 0.02), cardiopulmonary bypass time (p = 0.01), and donor heart cross-clamp time (p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Excellent results are expected for children undergoing OHT regardless of diagnostic classification. Pretransplant mechanical circulatory support, posttransplant mechanical circulatory support, cardiopulmonary bypass time, donor heart cross-clamp time, and heterotaxy are risk factors for decreased survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.10.083DOI Listing
April 2011

Mesalamine-induced myocarditis and coronary vasculitis in a pediatric ulcerative colitis patient: a case report.

Case Rep Pediatr 2011 21;2011:524364. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida, 2 Tampa General Circle, Tampa, FL 33606, USA.

Mesalamine-containing products are often a first-line treatment for ulcerative colitis. Severe adverse reactions to these products, including cardiovascular toxicity, are rarely seen in pediatric patients. We present a case of a 16-year-old boy with ulcerative colitis treated with Asacol, a mesalamine-containing product, who developed sudden onset chest pain after four weeks on therapy. Serial electrocardiograms showed nonspecific ST segment changes, an echocardiogram showed mildly decreased left ventricular systolic function with mild to moderate left ventricular dilation and coronary ectasia, and his troponins were elevated. Following Asacol discontinuation, his chest pain resolved, troponins were trending towards normal, left ventricular systolic function normalized, and coronary ectasia improved within 24 hours suggesting an Asacol-associated severe drug reaction. Mesalamine-induced cardiovascular toxicity, although rare, may represent a life-threatening disorder. Therefore, every patient presenting with acute chest pain should receive a workup to rule out this rare drug-induced disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/524364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3350175PMC
August 2012

Magnetic resonance angiography detection of vascular aneurysms in patients with kawasaki disease and coronary artery aneurysms.

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2010 Oct;1(3):393-6

Department of Pediatrics, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, Florida.

Kawasaki disease is a systemic panvasculitis that causes coronary artery aneurysms in approximately 15% to 25% of untreated patients. Systemic vascular aneurysms may also occur in medium-sized arteries throughout the body and may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with Kawasaki disease. We report a case of diffuse systemic aneurysm formation in a 2-year-old patient with Kawasaki disease with coronary artery aneurysms. Full-body magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) imaging was utilized both in the acute phase and again prior to cardiac catheterization performed at 6 months from the acute illness. The initial MRA detected aneurysmal dilatation of the common and internal iliac arteries bilaterally in the acute phase. Subsequent MRA performed prior to cardiac catheterization 6 months later demonstrated resolution of the iliac artery lesions. Full-body MRA may be useful in screening for associated systemic vascular aneurysms in patients with Kawasaki disease and associated coronary artery aneurysms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2150135110381389DOI Listing
October 2010

Echocardiography in tetralogy of Fallot.

Cardiol Young 2008 Dec;18 Suppl 3:22-8

All Children's Hospital, University of South Florida, Saint Petersburg, Florida, United States of America.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951108003260DOI Listing
December 2008

Coronary artery calcifications in the long-term follow-up of Kawasaki disease.

Am Heart J 2005 Nov;150(5):1016

Congenital Heart Institute of Florida, All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Background: To determine if detection of coronary artery calcifications in patients with Kawasaki disease may serve as a noninvasive predictor of future coronary artery events.

Methods: A prospective, cohort pilot study that included 18 patients with Kawasaki disease > 1 year from the acute disease was performed including 9 patients with coronary abnormalities during the acute illness (Group 1) and 9 without coronary abnormalities (Group 2). Patients were classified by echocardiography as having none, resolved, or residual coronary artery abnormalities. Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans were completed using the Agatson coronary calcium scoring system. Intermediate follow-up was performed 2.5 years after EBCT to determine if clinically significant coronary artery events (myocardial infarction or sudden death) had occurred.

Results: Late echocardiographic abnormalities corresponded with the early echocardiographic abnormalities in 5 of 9 patients (P = .029) in Group 1. The late echocardiographic abnormalities significantly correlated with detection of calcifications by EBCT in 4 of 5 patients (95% CI 28%-99%). One patient with residual coronary abnormalities and coronary artery calcifications with the highest calcium score subsequently had a sudden death. Detection of coronary artery calcifications may be predictive of sudden death (P = .056). No residual echocardiographic abnormalities, coronary artery calcifications, or coronary artery events occurred in Group 2 patients.

Conclusions: Patients with Kawasaki disease with residual coronary abnormalities show EBCT evidence of coronary artery calcifications. Detection of coronary artery calcifications may be useful for risk stratification in the long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2005.07.025DOI Listing
November 2005

Cardiotoxicity of cancer chemotherapy: implications for children.

Paediatr Drugs 2005 ;7(3):187-202

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Rochester Medical Center and Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong, Rochester, New York, USA.

Many children and adolescents with cancer receive chemotherapeutic agents that are cardiotoxic. Thus, while survival rates in this population have improved for some cancers, many survivors may experience acute or chronic cardiovascular complications that can impair their quality of life years after treatment. In addition, cardiac complications of treatment lead to reductions in dose and duration of chemotherapy regimens, potentially compromising clinical efficacy. Anthracyclines are well known for their cardiotoxicity, and alkylating agents, such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, cisplatin, busulfan, and mitomycin, have also been associated with cardiotoxicity. Other agents with cardiac effects include vinca alkaloids, fluorouracil, cytarabine, amsacrine, and asparaginase and the newer agents, paclitaxel, trastuzumab, etoposide, and teniposide. The heart is relatively vulnerable to oxidative injuries from oxygen radicals generated by chemotherapy. The cardiac effects of these drugs include asymptomatic electrocardiographic abnormalities, blood pressure changes, arrhythmias, myocarditis, pericarditis, cardiac tamponade, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, shock, and long-term cardiomyopathy. These effects may occur during or immediately after treatment or may not be apparent until months or years after treatment. Mild myocardiocyte injury from chemotherapy may be of more concern in children than in adults because of the need for subsequent cardiac growth to match somatic growth and because survival is longer in children. Primary prevention is therefore important. Patients should be educated about the cardiotoxic risks of treatment and the need for long-term cardiac monitoring before chemotherapy is begun. Cardiotoxicity may be prevented by screening for risk factors, monitoring for signs and symptoms during chemotherapy, and continuing follow-up that may include electrocardiographic and echocardiographic studies, angiography, and measurements of biochemical markers of myocardial injury. Secondary prevention should aim to minimize progression of left ventricular dysfunction to overt heart failure. Approaches include altering the dose, schedule, or approach to drug delivery; using analogs or new formulations with fewer or milder cardiotoxic effects; using cardioprotectants and agents that reduce oxidative stress during chemotherapy; correcting for metabolic derangements caused by chemotherapy that can potentiate the cardiotoxic effects of the drug; and cardiac monitoring during and after cancer therapy. Avoiding additional cardiotoxic regimens is also important in managing these patients. Treating the adverse cardiac effects of chemotherapy will usually be dependent on symptoms or will depend on the anticipated cardiovascular effects of each regimen. Treatments include diuresis, afterload reduction, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, and improving myocardial contractility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00148581-200507030-00005DOI Listing
October 2005

Cardiomyocyte injury to transplant: pediatric management.

Curr Opin Cardiol 2003 Mar;18(2):91-7

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York 14642, USA.

Cardiomyocyte injury in pediatric patients has a vast number of causes, which are often distinct from the causes of adult heart failure. However, the management of pediatric heart failure and heart transplantation has generally been inferred from adult studies. New therapies show great promise for the neurohormonal regulation of heart failure and the ability to control immunosuppression after heart transplantation. Large, randomized, multicenter, controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of these therapies in this population. This article reviews the current recommendations and evidence-based medicine, where available, for the medical management of myopathic dysfunction and transplantation in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001573-200303000-00003DOI Listing
March 2003

Myocardial and Pericardial Disease in HIV.

Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2002 Dec;4(6):497-509

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 631, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Cardiovascular complications are frequently encountered in the HIV-infected population. Cardiac care providers should implement appropriate preventive, screening, and therapeutic strategies to maximize survival and quality of life in this increasingly treatable, chronic disease. All HIV-infected individuals should undergo periodic cardiac evaluation, including echocardiography, in order to identify subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can result from, or be exacerbated by, a variety of treatable infectious, endocrine, nutritional, and immunologic disorders. Aggressive diagnosis and treatment of these conditions may lead to improvement or even normalization of myocardial function. Endomyocardial biopsy should be considered to direct etiology-specific therapy. Standard measures for the prevention and treatment of congestive heart failure are recommended for HIV-infected patients. Afterload reduction with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may be indicated for patients with elevated afterload and preclinical LV dysfunction diagnosed by echocardiogram. However, judicious drug selection and titration are necessary in this cohort of patients with frequent autonomic dysfunction, at risk for a number of potentially lethal drug interactions. Carnitine, selenium, and multivitamin supplementation should be considered, especially in those with wasting or diarrhea syndromes. Monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions have been demonstrated to preserve LV parameters in HIV-infected children; ventricular recovery has been documented in some children with recalcitrant HIV-related cardiomyopathy following IVIG infusion. We support the use of immunomodulatory therapy in the pediatric population, and look forward to further study into the efficacy and broader application of this approach. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be associated with dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome. This should be treated with dietary and possibly with pharmacologic interventions. Drug interactions need to be considered when instituting pharmacologic therapies. Pericardial effusions are often seen in patients with advanced HIV infection. Asymptomatic effusions are most often nonspecific in nature, related to the proinflammatory milieu found in advanced AIDS. Nonspecific effusions are a marker of advanced disease and do not require exhaustive etiologic evaluation. In contrast, large or symptomatic effusions are often associated with infection or malignancy, and warrant thorough investigation and etiology-specific treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11936-002-0043-zDOI Listing
December 2002