Publications by authors named "Ghalia Shamlan"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Histone deacetylase 2 inhibitor valproic acid attenuates bisphenol A-induced liver pathology in male mice.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 17;12(1):10258. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11362, Saudi Arabia.

Accumulating evidence indicates the role of endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) in many pathological conditions. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has potential for the treatment of many diseases/abnormalities. Using a mouse BPA exposure model, this study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of the Food and Drug Administration-approved HDAC2 inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) against BPA-induced liver pathology. We randomly divided 30 adult male Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old; N = 6) into five groups: group 1, no treatment (sham control (SC)); group 2, only oral sterile corn oil (vehicle control (VC)); group 3, 4 mg/kg/day of oral BPA (single dose (BPA group)); group 4, 0.4% oral VPA (VPA group); and group 5, oral BPA + VPA (BPA + VPA group). At the age of 10 weeks, the mice were euthanized for biochemical and histological examinations. BPA promoted a significant decrease in the body weight (BW), an increase in the liver weight, and a significant increase in the levels of liver damage markers aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the BPA group compared to SC, as well as pathological changes in liver tissue. We also found an increase in the rate of apoptosis among hepatocytes. In addition, BPA significantly increased the levels of oxidative stress indices, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonylation but decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the BPA group compared to SC. In contrast, treatment with the HDAC2 inhibitor VPA significantly attenuated liver pathology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and also enhanced GSH levels in VPA group and BPA + VPA group. The HDAC2 inhibitor VPA protects mice against BPA-induced liver pathology, likely by inhibiting oxidative stress and enhancing the levels of antioxidant-reduced GSH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12937-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9205966PMC
June 2022

Effect of Ziziphus and Cordia Gums on Dough Properties and Baking Performance of Cookies.

Molecules 2022 May 10;27(10). Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

The influence of 2% and 5% Cordia (CG) and Ziziphus (ZG) gums on dough characteristics and cookie quality was investigated. Micro-DoughLab, a texture analyzer (TA), a rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA), and solvent retention capacity were used to examine the effect of CG and ZG gums on dough physicochemical parameters (SRC) and cookie quality. The diameter, thickness, spread, and sensory evaluation of cookies were evaluated. With the addition of CG and ZG, dough softness, mixing time, and mixing tolerance index (MTI) increased, whereas stability and water absorption decreased. TA data showed that adding gums resulted in softer and less sticky doughs than the control, whereas RVA data showed that adding CG resulted in a significant increase in peak viscosity, but no change in flour gel setback. In comparison to the control and CG samples, the ZG samples exhibited the most dough extensibility. The thickness and diameter of the cookies increased but the spread decreased, due to the added gums. The gum-containing cookies had a lower overall acceptability by panelists than the control, although only by a small margin. Gum-containing cookies, on the other hand, can deliver up to 5% soluble fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27103066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9146660PMC
May 2022

Association Between Obesity and COVID-19 Disease Severity in Saudi Population.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2022 16;15:1527-1535. Epub 2022 May 16.

Emergency Medicine Consultant, Emergency Department, Prince Mohamed Bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The persistent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has placed a significant burden on the scientific and medical professions. The study examined the association between body mass index (BMI), stratified by category, and severe form of COVID-19, and to explore the influence of demographic characteristics and other known risk factors.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis based on COVID-19 data from the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health. Data were collected for all patients admitted to three main hospitals in Riyadh region between March 1st and July 30, 2020. The effects of BMI, demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and comorbidities on infection severity were investigated.

Results: A total of 950 patients were included in the study (70% male, 85% aged younger than 60 years old). A total of 55 (5.8%) patients were underweight, 263 (27.7%) were normal weight, 351 (37%) were overweight, 161 (17%) were obese class I, 76 (8%) were obese class II, and 44 (4.6%) were obese class III. Cough, fever, and shortness of breath were the most common symptoms among overweight patients. According to the findings of a bivariate logistic regression study, class III obesity was significantly associated with a more severe form of COVID-19 (odds ratio, 2.874; 95% confidence interval, 1.344-6.149).

Conclusion: This study revealed that patients with a BMI ≥40 kg/m had a higher risk of severe COVID-19 than those with normal weight. This suggests that obesity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 and influences disease presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S365491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9121990PMC
May 2022

Nigella sativa oil alleviates mouse testis and sperm abnormalities induced by BPA: potentially through redox homeostasis?

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21577, Saudi Arabia.

Background & Aim: There is significant evidence indicating that endocrine disrupted bisphenol A (BPA) seriously endangers human health. In males, BPA affects testis architecture and sperm quality, and ultimately reduces fertility. This study explored the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa (NS) seed extract on testis and sperm abnormalities in BPA-exposed mice and characterized the underlying mechanism.

Methods: Forty male Swiss albino mice (5.5 weeks old, N = 8 per group) were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, normal control, Group II, vehicle control (sterile corn oil); Group III, NS-exposed (oral 200 mg/kg); Group IV, BPA-exposed (oral 400 μg/kg body weight); Group V, BPA + NS-exposed mice. Animals were treated for 6 weeks and sacrificed for biochemical and histological examination.

Results: The results indicated that BPA exposure results in significant testis and sperm abnormalities. Specifically, BPA promoted a marked reduction in the body and testis compared with the control group. Histopathological findings showed that BPA caused a widespread degeneration of spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous epithelium, decreased sperm counts and motility, and augmented sperm abnormalities, and whereas little alteration to sperm DNA was observed. In addition, BPA increased the levels of the lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced the levels of the antioxidant marker, reduced glutathione (GSH). Treatment with NS oil extract during BPA exposure significantly alleviated testis and sperm abnormalities, reduced MDA levels, and enhanced GSH levels.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate that NS oil protects mice against BPA-induced sperm and testis abnormalities, likely by suppressing levels of the oxidative stress marker, MDA, and enhancing the levels of the antioxidant marker, GSH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207325666220514135606DOI Listing
May 2022

Exploring the Role of Acacia () and Cactus () Gums on the Dough Performance and Quality Attributes of Breads and Cakes.

Foods 2022 Apr 21;11(9). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

Two hydrocolloids, acacia gum and cactus gum, were tested in the current study to see if they could improve the quality of the dough or have an effect on the shelf life of pan bread and sponge cake. Both gums considerably ( < 0.05) enhanced the dough development time, softness, and mixing tolerance index while decreasing the water absorption. Although the dough was more stable with the addition of acacia gum than with cactus gum, the control sample had the highest peak, final, breakdown, and setback viscosities. Acacia gum, on the other hand, resulted in a higher wheat-flour-slurry pasting temperature (84.07 °C) than cactus gum (68.53 °C). The inclusion of both gums, particularly 3%, reduces the gel's textural hardness, gumminess, chewiness, springiness, and adhesiveness. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were both increased by the addition of acacia gum to bread and cake, whereas the addition of cactus gum increased both color parameters for cakes. The use of acacia gum increased the bread and cake's volume. Cactus gum, on the other hand, caused a decrease in bread hardness after 24 h and 96 h. The cake containing acacia gum, on the other hand, was the least stiff after both storage times. Similarly, sensory attributes such as the crumb color and overall acceptability of the bread and cake were improved by 3% with acacia gum. For these and other reasons, the addition of cactus and acacia gums to bread and cake increased their organoleptic qualities, controlled staining, and made them softer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11091208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9105275PMC
April 2022

L. Methanol Extract Enhances Mitochondrial Efficiency and Decreases Adipokine Levels in Maturing Adipocytes Which Regulate Macrophage Systemic Inflammation.

Molecules 2022 Feb 18;27(4). Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Adipogenesis and Immunobiology Research Laboratory, Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Excessive storage of lipids in visceral or ectopic sites stimulates adipokine production, which attracts macrophages. This process determines the pro- and anti-inflammatory response regulation in adipose tissue during obesity-associated systemic inflammation. The present study aimed to identify the composition of L. (basil) seed extract and to determine its bio-efficacy on adipocyte thermogenesis or fatty acid oxidation and inhibition of lipid accumulation and adipokine secretion. L. seed methanol extract (BSME) was utilized to analyze the cytotoxicity vs. control; lipid accumulation assay (oil red O and Nile red staining), adipogenesis and mitochondrial-thermogenesis-related gene expression vs. vehicle control were analyzed by PCR assay. In addition, vehicle control and BSME-treated adipocytes condition media were collected and treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage to identify the macrophage polarization. The results shown that the active components present in BSME did not produce significant cytotoxicity in preadipocytes or macrophages in the MTT assay. Furthermore, oil red O and Nile red staining assay confirmed that 80 and 160 μg/dL concentrations of BSME effectively arrested lipid accumulation and inhibited adipocyte maturation, when compared with tea polyphenols. Gene expression level of adipocyte hyperplasia (, ) and lipogenesis ()-related genes have been significantly ( ≤ 0.05) downregulated, and mitochondrial-thermogenesis-associated genes (, , ) have been significantly ( ≤ 0.001) upregulated. The BSME-treated, maturing, adipocyte-secreted proteins were detected with a decreased protein level of leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and STAT-6, which are associated with insulin resistance and macrophage recruitment. The "LPS-stimulated macrophage" treated with "BSME-treated adipocytes condition media", shown with significant ( ≤ 0.001) decrease in metabolic-inflammation-related proteins-such as PGE-2, MCP-1, TNF-α and NF-κB-were majorly associated with the development of foam cell formation and progression of atherosclerotic lesion. The present findings concluded that the availability of active principles in basil seed effectively inhibit adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage polarization, and the inflammation associated with insulin resistance and thrombosis development. L. seed may be useful as a dietary supplement to enhance fatty acid oxidation, which aids in overcoming metabolic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8876186PMC
February 2022

Functionality of Cordia and Ziziphus Gums with Respect to the Dough Properties and Baking Performance of Stored Pan Bread and Sponge Cakes.

Foods 2022 Feb 3;11(3). Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

The functionality of hydrocolloids of different origins, gum Cordia (GC), and gum ziziphus (GZ) on pan bread and sponge cake quality and their potential use in retarding the staling process have been studied. The effects of the gums were determined by assessing the pasting qualities of wheat flour slurry, dough properties, and the finished product. After 24 and 96 h of storage, investigations were conducted on the finished product. Micro-doughLab was used to assess dough mixing qualities, and a texture profile analysis (TPA) test was used to assess the texture. A hedonic sensory test of texture, scent, taste, color, and general approval was also conducted. The type of gum used had a significant impact on the physical properties of the bread and cake and their evolution through time. Reduced amylose retrogradation was demonstrated by the lower peak viscosity and substantially lower setback of wheat flour gels, which corresponded to lower gel hardness. Gums were superior at increasing the bread loaf volume, especially GZ, although gums had the opposite effect on cake volume. After both storage periods, the hardness of the bread and cake was much lower than that of the control. Except when 2% GC was used, adding GC and GZ gums to bread and cake invariably increased the overall acceptability of the product. In terms of shelf-life, GZ was able to retain all texture parameters, volume, and general acceptability close to the control after storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11030460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8834351PMC
February 2022

L. (Beetroot) Methanolic Extract Prevents Hepatic Steatosis and Liver Damage in T2DM Rats by Hypoglycemic, Insulin-Sensitizing, Antioxidant Effects, and Upregulation of PPARα.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Dec 9;10(12). Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The present study examined if methanolic beetroot extract (BE) could prevent dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis and damage in a type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rat model and studied some mechanisms of action. T2DM was induced in adult male Wistar rats by a low single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg, i.p) and a high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 5 weeks. Control or T2DM rats then continued on standard or HFDs for another 12 weeks and were treated with the vehicle or BE (250 or 500 mg/kg). BE, at both doses, significantly improved liver structure and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in the livers of T2DM rats. They also reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin levels, serum and hepatic levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and serum levels of low-density lipoproteins in T2DM rats. In concomitant, they significantly reduced serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, hepatic levels of malondialdehyde, tumor-necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and mRNA of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and SREBP1/2. However, both doses of BE significantly increased hepatic levels of total glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and mRNA levels of Bcl2 and PPARα in the livers of both the control and T2DM rats. All of these effects were dose-dependent and more profound with doses of 500 mg/kg. In conclusion, chronic feeding of BE to STZ/HFD-induced T2DM in rats prevents hepatic steatosis and liver damage by its hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing effects and its ability to upregulate antioxidants and PPARα.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10121306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8698622PMC
December 2021

Evaluation of Biosafety, Antiobesity, and Endothelial Cells Proliferation Potential of Basil Seed Extract Loaded Organic Solid Lipid Nanoparticle.

Front Pharmacol 2021 4;12:722258. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The present study aimed to synthesize solid lipid nanoparticles to enhance liposome-assisted intracellular uptake of basil seed active components in adipocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells to attain increased bioavailability. To obtain solid lipid nanoparticle (SLNp), the water phase containing basil seed extract (BSE) was encapsulated with lipid matrix containing chia seed phospholipids using homogenization and cold ultra-sonication method. The physicochemical characterization of BSE loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (BSE-SLNp) has been analyzed using Zetasizer, FT-IR, and TEM. The BSE-SLNp showed an average diameter of 20-110 nm on the day of preparation and it remains the same after 60 days of storage. The cytotoxicity assay confirmed that the BSE-SLNp did not produce toxicity in hMSCs, preadipocytes, or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) until the tested higher dose up to 64 μg/ml. During effective dose determination, 4 μg/ml of BSE-SLNp confirmed non-toxic and enhanced metabolic function in hMSCs, preadipocytes, and HUVECs. Biosafety assay confirmed normal nuclear morphology in PI staining and high mitochondrial membrane potential in JC-1 assay within 48 h in hMSCs. The maturing adipocyte treated with 4 μg/ml of BSE-SLNp significantly increased the mitochondrial efficiency and fatty acid beta-oxidation (PPARγC1α, UCP-1, and PRDM-16) related gene expression levels. Oxidative stress induced HUVECs treated with 4 μg/ml of BSE-SLNp potentially enhanced antioxidant capacity, cell growth, and microtubule development within 48 h HO induced oxidative stressed HUVECs have shown 39.8% viable cells, but treatment with BSE-SLNp has shown 99% of viable cells within 48 h confirmed by Annexin-V assay. In addition, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) increased to 89.4% confirmed by JC-1 assay. The observed DNA integrity, cell viability was confirmed by increased antioxidant and tumor suppressor-related gene expression levels. VEGF expression has been significantly increased and pro-inflammation-related mRNA levels were decreased in BSE-SLNp treated cells. In conclusion, enhanced adipocyte fatty acid oxidation is directly associated with decreased adipocytokine secretion which arrests obesity-associated comorbidities. In addition, suppressing vascular cell oxidative stress and metabolic inflammation supports vascular cell proliferation and arrests ageing-related vascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.722258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8521050PMC
October 2021

rubra L. (Beetroot) Peel Methanol Extract Reduces Oxidative Stress and Stimulates Cell Proliferation via Increasing VEGF Expression in HO Induced Oxidative Stressed Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

Genes (Basel) 2021 08 31;12(9). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Haematology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Alqura University, Makkah 24237, Saudi Arabia.

The antioxidant capacity of polyphenols and flavonoids present in dietary agents aids in arresting the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protecting endothelial smooth muscle cells from oxidative stress/induced necrosis. Beetroot ( var. rubra L.; BVr) is a commonly consumed vegetable representing a rich source of antioxidants. Beetroot peel's bioactive compounds and their role in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are still under-researched. In the present study, beetroot peel methanol extract (BPME) was prepared, and its effect on the bio-efficacy, nuclear integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and vascular cell growth, and immunoregulation-related gene expression levels in HUVECs with induced oxidative stress were analysed. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) results confirmed that BPME contains 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (32.6%), methyl pyruvate (15.13%), furfural (9.98%), and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-Pyran-4-one (12.4%). BPME extract effectively enhanced cell proliferation and was confirmed by MTT assay; the nuclear integrity was confirmed by propidium iodide (PI) staining assay; the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) was confirmed by JC-1 staining assay. Annexin V assay confirmed that BPME-treated HUVECs showed 99% viable cells, but only 39.8% viability was shown in HUVECs treated with HO alone. In addition, BPME treatment of HUVECs for 48 h reduced mRNA expression of lipid peroxide (LPO) and increased NOS-3, Nrf-2, GSK-3β, GPX, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular cell growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression levels. We found that BPME treatment decreased proinflammatory (nuclear factor-κβ (F-κβ), tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), interleukin-1β (IL-1β)) and vascular inflammation (intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), EDN, IL-1β)-related mRNA expressions. In conclusion, beetroot peel treatment effectively increased vascular smooth cell growth factors and microtubule development, whereas it decreased vascular inflammatory regulators. BPME may be beneficial for vascular smooth cell regeneration, tissue repair and anti-ageing potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12091380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466581PMC
August 2021

Food packaging's materials: A food safety perspective.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Aug 24;28(8):4490-4499. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Food packaging serves purposes of food product safety and easy handling and transport by preventing chemical contamination and enhancing shelf life, which provides convenience for consumers. Various types of materials, including plastics, glass, metals, and papers and their composites, have been used for food packaging. However, owing to consumers' increased health awareness, the significance of transferring harmful materials from packaging materials into foods is of greater concern. This review highlights the interactions of food with packaging materials and elaborates the mechanism, types, and contributing factors of migration of chemical substances from the packaging to foods. Also, various types of chemical migrants from different packaging materials with their possible impacts on food safety and human health are discussed. We conclude with a future outlook based on legislative considerations and ongoing technical contributions to optimization of food-package interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.04.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325021PMC
August 2021

Clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with severe COVID-19 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A retrospective study.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Sep 28;14(9):1133-1138. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: COVID-19 is newly emerging infectious disease that spread globally at unpredictable and unique pattern to the extent that the World Health Organization announced COVID-19 as a pandemic in the first couple months of 2020. This study aims to describe clinical and demographic features of COVID-19 patients and the influence of various risk factors on the severity of disease.

Methods: This research is a retrospective study based on Saudi Arabia's ministry of health's Covid-19 data. The analysis relies on data of all COVID-19 patients recorded in Riyadh between 1st, March 2020 and 30th, July 2020. Statistical analyses were performed to investigate the effect of demographic characteristic, clinical presentation, and comorbidities on infection severity.

Results: A total number of 1026 COVID-19 patients were identified based on the demographic data as follows: 709 cases (69% of cases) were males and 559 cases (54% of cases) were Saudi. Most of patients were diagnosed with mild signs and symptoms 697 (68% of cases), while 164 patient (16% of cases) demonstrated moderate signs and symptoms, and 103 cases (10%) were severe and 62 (6%) had critical febrile illness. Fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath were the most common symptoms among patients with COVID-19. Among studied comorbidities in COVID-19 patients, diabetes mellitus and hypertension were the most prevalent. The results from the bivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, diabetes mellitus, asthma, smoking, and fever are associated with severe or critically ill cases.

Conclusion: The findings of this study show that old age, fever, and comorbidities involving diabetes mellitus, asthma, and smoking were significantly associated with infection severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.07.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317445PMC
September 2021

COVID-19 candidate genes and pathways potentially share the association with lung cancer.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.

COVID-19 is considered the most challenging in the current situation. At the same time, lung cancer is also the leading cause of death in the global population and is among the top human diseases and highly complex in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and are among the most frequent and highly complex, and heterogeneous. Based on the latest update, it is known that the patients who have lung cancer are considered to be significantly at higher risk after COVID-19 infection in terms of survival, and there are a number of pieces of evidence that support the hypothesis that these diseases may share the functions and the functional components. Multi-level unwanted alterations such as (epi-)genetic alterations, changes at the transcriptional level, and altered signaling pathways (receptor, cytoplasmic, and nuclear level) are the major source which promotes a number of complex diseases, and such heterogeneous level of complexities are considered as the major barrier in the development of therapeutic. With so many known challenges, it is critical to understand the relationships and the commonly shared aberrations between them, which is difficult to unravel and understand. A simple approach has been applied for this study where differential gene expression analysis, pathway enrichment, and network-level understanding. Since gene expression changes and genomic alterations are related to COVID-19 and lung cancer, their pattern varies significantly. Based on the recent studies, the patients who have lung cancer and if it gets infected with COVID-19, there is less survival chance. So, we have designed our goal to understand the genes commonly overexpressed and the commonly enriched pathways in the case of COVID-19 and lung cancer, for which we have presented the summarized review of the previous work where the pathogenesis of lung cancer and COVID-19 infection have been focused and further we have also presented the new finding of our analysis. So, this work shows not only the review work but also the research work. This review and research study leads to the conclusion that growth-promoting pathways (EGFR, Ras, and PI3K), growth inhibitory pathways (p53 and STK11), apoptotic pathways (Bcl-2/Bax/Fas), and DDR pathways and genes are commonly and dominantly altered in both the cases COVID-19 and lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207324666210712092649DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between periodontitis and vitamin D status: A case-control study.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jul 20;28(7):4016-4021. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Basic Medical Science, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Albaha University, 65779 Albaha, Saudi Arabia.

Vitamin D deficiency and periodontitis are commonly prevalent among Saudi adults. However, the association between periodontitis and vitamin D status has not been well documented. This study aims to examine the association between periodontitis and vitamin D status among adults in the Albaha region of Saudi Arabia. A case-control study of 123 Saudi adults was conducted; 60 had severe or moderate periodontitis, and 63 were periodontally healthy. Data was collected by an online self-reported sociodemographic questionnaire. All participants then underwent a full periodontal examination. Blood samples were also provided to assess participants' vitamin D statuses through serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). A total of 60 cases and 63 controls matched for BMI (30.2 ± 4.86 kg/m), age (40.01 ± 7.73 years), and sex (46.3% and 53.7% male and female, respectively) participated in the study. Mean levels of 25(OH)D were significantly lower in periodontitis participants than in controls (25.03 ± 8.55 ng/ml, 29.19 ± 12.82 ng/ml,  = 0.037, respectively). Lower odds of periodontitis were detected per unit of 25(OH)D level (OR 0.964, 95% CI; 0.931-0.999,  = 0.043). In conclusion, periodontitis is significantly associated with deficient and insufficient levels of vitamin D among Saudi adults in the Albaha region. Future longitudinal research with a larger sample size may be suggested to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241627PMC
July 2021

Paternal bisphenol A exposure induces testis and sperm pathologies in mice offspring: Possibly due to oxidative stress?

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 11;28(1):948-955. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Histology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli 13203, Libya.

Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine and metabolic disruptor, is widely used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Accumulating evidence suggests that paternal BPA exposure adversely affects male germlines and results in atypical reproductive phenotypes that might persist for generations to come. Our study investigated this exposure on testicular architecture and sperm quality in mouse offspring, and characterised underlying molecular mechanism(s). A total of 18 immature male Swiss albino mice (3.5 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups and treated as follows: Group I, no treatment (sham control); Group II, sterile corn oil only (vehicle control); Group III, BPA (400 μg/kg) in sterile corn oil. At 9.5 weeks old, F0 males were mated with unexposed females. F0 offspring (F1 generation) were monitored for postnatal development for 10 weeks. At 11.5 weeks old, the animals were sacrificed to examine testicular architecture, sperm parameters, including DNA integrity, and oxidative stress biomarkers. Results showed that BPA significantly induced changes in the body and testis weights of the F0 and F1 generation BPA lineages compared to F0 and F1 generation control lineages. A decrease in sperm count and motility with further, increased sperm abnormalities, no or few sperm DNA alterations and elevated levels of MDA, PC and NO were recorded. Similar effects were found in BPA exposed F0 males, but were more pronounced in the F0 offspring. In addition, BPA caused alterations in the testicular architecture. These pathological changes extended transgenerationally to F1 generation males' mice, but the pathological changes were more pronounced in the F1 generation. Our findings demonstrate that the biological and health BPA impacts do not end in paternal adults, but are passed on to offspring generations. Hence, linking observed testis and sperm abnormalities in the F1 generation to BPA exposure of their parental line was evident in this work. The findings also illustrate that oxidative stress appears to be a molecular component of the testis and sperm pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783794PMC
January 2021

Selective adenosine A receptor inhibitor SCH58261 reduces oligodendrocyte loss upon brain injury in young rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 15;28(1):310-316. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21577, Saudi Arabia.

Cellular elements of maturing brain are vulnerable to insults, which lead to neurodevelopmental defects. There are no established treatments at present. Here we examined the efficacy of selective adenosine A receptor inhibitor SCH58261 to combat brain injury, particularly oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells, in young rats. Wistar rats (n = 24, 6.5 days old) were randomly divided into equal groups of four. The sham (SHAM) group received no treatment, the vehicle (VEHICLE) group received 0.1% dimethylsufoxide, the injury (INJ) group was exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation insult, and the injury+SCH58261 (INJ+SCH58261) group was exposed to the insult and received 1 μM SCH58261. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed that there was a significant reduction in the populations of mature OL (MBP OLs) and immature OL precursors (NG2 OPCs) in the INJ group compared to SHAM group. Furthermore, there was also a significant increase in the percent of apoptotic MBP OL and NG2 OPC populations as evidenced by TUNEL assay. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the proliferation rate among NG2 OPCs, which was confirmed by BrdU immunostaining. On the other hand, treatment with SCH58261 significantly enhanced survival, evidenced by the reduction in apoptotic indices for both cell types, and it is preserved the NG2 OPC proliferation. Activation of adenosine A receptors may contribute to OL lineage cell loss in association with decreased mitotic behavior of OPCs in neonatal brains upon injury. Future investigations assessing ability of SCH58261 to regenerate myelin will provide insights into its wider clinical relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783643PMC
January 2021

Correction: Acute effects of exercise intensity on subsequent substrate utilisation, appetite, and energy balance in men and women.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2020 08 2;45(8):915. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0446DOI Listing
August 2020

Determining the Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Lipids in Cultured Caco-2 Cells Using Bioimaging Techniques.

Molecules 2020 Apr 7;25(7). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Medina 30002, Saudi Arabia.

Fish lipids are comprised of considerable quantities of polyunsaturated acids and are prone to oxidation, producing reactive oxygen species and hydroperoxides. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical and structural alterations in Caco-2 cells following exposure to 100 μg/mL methyl linoleate or fish oil, and then radiated for 24, 48 or 72 h. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy detected free radicals in the lipid membrane, Raman microscopy observed biochemical alterations and atomic force microscopy identified changes in morphology, such as the breakdown of DNA bonds. The study showed that bioimaging and biochemical techniques can be effective at detecting and diagnosing cellular injuries incurred by lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180719PMC
April 2020

Acute effects of exercise intensity on subsequent substrate utilisation, appetite, and energy balance in men and women.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 1;42(12):1247-1253. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

a Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.

Exercise is capable of influencing the regulation of energy balance by acutely modulating appetite and energy intake coupled to effects on substrate utilization. Yet, few studies have examined acute effects of exercise intensity on aspects of both energy intake and energy metabolism, independently of energy cost of exercise. Furthermore, little is known as to the gender differences of these effects. One hour after a standardised breakfast, 40 (19 female), healthy participants (BMI 23.6 ± 3.6 kg·m, V̇O 34.4 ± 6.8 mL·kg·min) undertook either high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) consisting of 8 repeated 60 s bouts of cycling at 95% V̇O or low-intensity continuous cycling (LICC), equivalent to 50% V̇O, matched for energy cost (∼950 kJ) followed by 90 mins of rest, in a randomised crossover design. Throughout each study visit, satiety was assessed subjectively using visual analogue scales alongside blood metabolites and GLP-1. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization were measured over 75 min postexercise via indirect calorimetry. Energy intake was assessed for 48 h postintervention. No differences in appetite, GLP-1, or energy intakes were observed between HIIC and LICC, with or without stratifying for gender. Significant differences in postexercise nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were observed between intensities in both genders, coupled to a significantly lower respiratory exchange ratio following HIIC (P = 0.0028), with a trend towards greater reductions in respiratory exchange ratioin males (P = 0.079). In conclusion, high-intensity exercise, if energy matched, does not lead to greater appetite or energy intake, but may exert additional beneficial metabolic effects that may be more pronounced in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2017-0280DOI Listing
December 2017
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