Publications by authors named "Geoffrey P Aaron"

6 Publications

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Preliminary study on the effects of treatment for breast cancer: immunological markers as they relate to quality of life and neuropsychological performance.

BMC Womens Health 2020 05 20;20(1):109. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Background: Immunological biomarkers were related to quality of life and neuropsychological performance in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer through the first six months of treatment. A comparison group of breast cancer survivors in remission were also evaluated.

Method: Twenty women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and 26 breast cancer survivors at least a year after treatment were evaluated four times over a course of six to 8 months. The assessments included quality-of-life, emotional and spiritual well-being, sleep quality, computerized neuropsychological performance, and cytokine immunology biomarkers using flow cytometry. The principal immunological markers examined were the CD4+, CD8+, and CD16+ counts.

Results: Although equivalent at enrollment, active treatment women reported higher anxiety, depression, poorer quality-of-life, and poorer processing speed and accuracy on memory, logical processes, and coding neuropsychological tasks. They also had significantly higher CD8+ and CD16+ cell count levels during treatment over the next six to eight months than comparison group women in remission. Women undergoing chemotherapy as well during treatment phase also had a significant decline in CD4+ counts. Higher percent CD8+ levels during treatment was associated with poorer quality of life and more depression, while higher CD4+ and CD8+ were associated with poorer neuropsychological memory and processing speed performance.

Conclusion: Significant increases in CD8+ is a sensitive biomarker of a broad range of poorer quality-of-life and neurocognitive functioning outcomes during breast cancer treatment, especially in women undergoing chemotherapy. Quality of life should be monitored in breast cancer patients and psychosocial support made available as a standard of care.
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May 2020

Enlargement of Meckel's cave in patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2017 04 5;7(4):421-424. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks have imaging findings consistent with chronically elevated intracranial pressure, such as empty sella. Meckel's cave is a CSF-filled space that houses the trigeminal ganglion at the cranial base. Our objective in this study was to evaluate "dilated" Meckel's cave as a radiologic sign in patients with elevated intracranial pressure spontaneous CSF leaks and compare the dimensions with those from a control cohort.

Methods: Meckel's cave dimensions were measured in patients with spontaneous CSF leaks and documented elevated intracranial pressure. A control group of subjects who underwent magnetic resonance imagine (MRI) scans for unrelated diagnoses were also evaluated. Subjects were included only if suitable MRIs with T2-weighted sequences in the axial plane were available.

Results: Sixty-three patients with spontaneous CSF leaks and 91 normal control patients were included in the study. There was significant (p < 0.05) enlargement in all measured dimensions (length and width) for the spontaneous CSF leak group. When evaluating area, spontaneous CSF leak subjects again showed significant enlargement compared with controls (0.81 ± 0.35 cm vs 0.52 ± 0.15 cm ; p < 0.0001). Average intracranial pressure measurements were 25.9 ± 9.0 cmH O.

Conclusion: Patients with spontaneous CSF leaks have evidence of enlarged Meckel's caves. Evaluation of Meckel's cave dimensions should be included in preoperative imaging assessment as an additional indicator of chronically elevated intracranial pressure.
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April 2017

Spontaneous Retropharyngeal and Mediastinal Emphysema.

Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Jun 19;9(2):178-81. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA.

A 14-year-old girl with no significant medical history presented at Emergency Department with sore throat and odynophagia after one episode of nonviolent coughing. She denied any respiratory distress, voice change, foreign body ingestion, retching, substance abuse, dental procedures, or trauma. She was afebrile with normal oxygen saturation and physical examination including the head and neck was unremarkable with the exception of bilateral neck crepitus without tenderness on palpation. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed a patent laryngeal airway with normal vocal fold movement. Lateral neck X-ray demonstrated a linear air-column in the retropharyngeal space and computed tomography confirmed emphysema involving the retropharyngeal space and mediastinum with no evidence of fluid collection or abscess formation. Spontaneous retropharyngeal and mediastinal emphysema are clinical entities where free air is present within the confines of retropharyngeal space and mediastinum without obvious cause. It is benign and self-limited in nature and allows for conservative management. This case is presented with a review of literature.
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June 2016

Letter to the Editor: In Response to "Minimally Invasive Technique for Repairing CSF Leaks Due to Defects of Posterior Table of Frontal Sinus".

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2015 Sep 13;76(5):409. Epub 2015 May 13.

Division of Otolaryngology, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States.

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September 2015

A rapid, novel model of culturing cranial nerve X-derived motoneurons for screening trophic factor outgrowth response.

Neurol Res 2012 Jul 30;34(6):564-75. Epub 2012 May 30.

Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Objectives: After cranial nerve X (CN X) injury, vocal fold paralysis treatments currently face a myriad of obstacles in achieving non-synkinetic, functional reinnervation. Of particular therapeutic interest is the targeted administration of locally expressed biological neurotrophic factors (NFs). To date, a method to culture mature CN X motoneurons for NF responsiveness screening has not been described.

Methods: We herein present a novel method for establishing mature murine CN X motoneuron cultures, and use the model to test CN X motoneuron outgrowth response to individual and paired ascending concentrations of selected neurotrophic factors [glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)].

Results: Findings demonstrated low concentration (5 ng/ml) CNTF to have the greatest positive effect on motoneuron outgrowth, beyond that of both indivual NF and paired NF combinations, based on total neurite outgrowth [mean total neurite outgrowth = 445.7±84.45 μm in the (5 ng/ml) CNTF group versus 179.7±13.63 μm in saline controls (P<0.01)]. Paired treatments with CNTF/GDNF, and CNTF/BDNF promoted motoneuron branching at a variety of concentrations beyond saline controls, and paired GDNF/BDNF had inhibitory effects on motoneuron branching.

Discussion: Our described in vitro model of establishing mature CN X cultures allowed rapid screening for responsiveness to therapeutic NFs at a variety of concentrations and combinations. While the model ultimately may be used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of CN X motoneuron regeneration, the current study identified CNTF as a promising therapeutic candidate for the promotion of CN X outgrowth.
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July 2012

Lexical neighborhood density effects on spoken word recognition and production in healthy aging.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2010 Sep 11;65(5):551-60. Epub 2010 Jun 11.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA.

We examined the effects of lexical competition and word frequency on spoken word recognition and production in healthy aging. Older (n = 16) and younger adults (n = 21) heard and repeated meaningful English sentences presented in the presence of multitalker babble at two signal-to-noise ratios, +10 and -3 dB. Each sentence contained three keywords of high or low word frequency and phonological neighborhood density (ND). Both participant groups responded less accurately to high- than low-ND stimuli; response latencies (from stimulus offset to response onset) were longer for high- than low-ND sentences, whereas response durations-time from response onset to response offset-were longer for low- than high-ND stimuli. ND effects were strongest for older adults in the most difficult conditions, and ND effects in accuracy were related to inhibitory function. The results suggest that the sentence repetition task described here taps the effects of lexical competition in both perception and production and that these effects are similar across the life span, but that accuracy in the lexical discrimination process is affected by declining inhibitory function in older adults.
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September 2010