Publications by authors named "Gabriele Proetzel"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hematopoietic cells as site of first-pass catabolism after subcutaneous dosing and contributors to systemic clearance of a monoclonal antibody in mice.

MAbs 2018 07 9;10(5):803-813. Epub 2018 May 9.

b The Jackson Laboratory , Bar Harbor , ME USA.

The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been demonstrated to contribute to a high bioavailability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In this study, we explored the cellular sites of FcRn-mediated protection after subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) administration. SC absorption and IV disposition kinetics of a mAb were studied in hFcRn transgenic (Tg) bone marrow chimeric mice in which hFcRn was restricted to radioresistant cells or hematopoietic cells. SC bioavailabilities close to 90% were observed in hFcRn Tg mice and chimeric mice with hFcRn expression in hematopoietic cells, whereas SC bioavailabilities were markedly lower when FcRn was missing in hematopoietic cells. Our study demonstrates: 1) FcRn in radiosensitive hematopoietic cells is required for high SC bioavailability, indicating first-pass catabolism after SC administration by hematopoietic cells; 2) FcRn-mediated transcytosis or recycling by radioresistent cells is not required for high SC bioavailability; and 3) after IV administration hematopoietic and radioresistent cells contribute about equally to clearance of the mAb. A pharmacokinetic model was devised to describe a mixed elimination via radioresistent and hematopoietic cells from vascular and extravascular compartments, respectively. Overall, the study indicates a relevant role of hematopoietic cells for first-pass clearance of mAbs after SC administration and confirms their role in the overall clearance of mAbs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2018.1458808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150636PMC
July 2018

Human FcRn Transgenic Mice for Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Therapeutic Antibodies.

Methods Mol Biol 2016 ;1438:103-14

The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME, 04609, USA.

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are widely recognized to be a most promising means to treat an increasing number of human diseases, including cancers and autoimmunity. To a large extent, the efficacy of monoclonal antibody treatment is because IgG antibodies have greatly extended persistence in vivo. However, conventional rodent models do not mirror human antibody pharmacokinetics. The key molecule responsible for the extended persistence antibodies is the major histocompatibility complex class I family Fc receptor, FcRn. We describe human FcRn transgenic mouse models and how they can be exploited productively for the preclinical pharmacokinetic evaluation of therapeutic antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-3661-8_6DOI Listing
December 2017

Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs.

MAbs 2015 ;7(2):344-51

a The Jackson Laboratory ; Bar Harbor , ME USA.

Serum albumin is the major determinant of blood colloidal osmotic pressure acting as a depot and distributor of compounds including drugs. In humans, serum albumin exhibits an unusually long half-life mainly due to protection from catabolism by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling. These properties make albumin an attractive courier of therapeutically-active compounds. However, pharmaceutical research and development of albumin-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of appropriate preclinical animal models. To overcome this, we developed and describe the first mouse with a genetic deficiency in albumin and its incorporation into an existing humanized FcRn mouse model, B6.Cg-Fcgrt(tm1Dcr) Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ (Tg32). Albumin-deficient strains (Alb(-/-)) were created by TALEN-mediated disruption of the albumin (Alb) gene directly in fertilized oocytes derived from Tg32 mice and its non-transgenic background control, C57BL/6J (B6). The resulting Alb(-/-) strains are analbuminemic but healthy. Intravenous administration of human albumin to Tg32-Alb(-/-) mFcRn(-/-) hFcRn(Tg/Tg)) mice results in a remarkably extended human albumin serum half-life of ∼24 days, comparable to that found in humans, and in contrast to half-lives of 2.6-5.8 d observed in B6, B6-Alb(-/-) and Tg32 strains. This striking increase can be explained by the absence of competing endogenous mouse albumin and the presence of an active human FcRn. These novel albumin-deficient models provide unique tools for investigating the biology and pathobiology of serum albumin and are a more appropriate rodent surrogates for evaluating human serum albumin pharmacokinetics and albumin-based compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2015.1008345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623309PMC
November 2015

Genetically engineered humanized mouse models for preclinical antibody studies.

BioDrugs 2014 Apr;28(2):171-80

The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME, USA,

The use of genetic engineering has vastly improved our capabilities to create animal models relevant in preclinical research. With the recent advances in gene-editing technologies, it is now possible to very rapidly create highly tunable mouse models as needs arise. Here, we provide an overview of genetic engineering methods, as well as the development of humanized neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) models and their use for monoclonal antibody in vivo studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40259-013-0071-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4414315PMC
April 2014

Humanized FcRn mouse models for evaluating pharmacokinetics of human IgG antibodies.

Methods 2014 Jan 16;65(1):148-53. Epub 2013 Jul 16.

The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA. Electronic address:

A key element for the successful development of novel therapeutic antibodies is to fully understand their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior before performing clinical trials. While many in vitro modeling approaches exist, these simply cannot substitute for data obtained from appropriate animal models. It was established quite early that the unusual long serum half-life of immunoglobulin G's (IgGs) and Fc domains are due to their rescue and recycling by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). The diverse roles of FcRn became apparent after isolation and cloning. Interesting are the significant species differences between rodent and human FcRn reactivity, rendering wild type rodents an inadequate model for studying IgG serum half-life. With the advance of genetic engineering mouse models have been established expressing human FcRn, and lacking mouse FcRn protein. These models have become highly relevant tools for serum half-life analysis of Fc-containing compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3858440PMC
January 2014

IBC's 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society: December 3-6, 2012, San Diego, CA.

MAbs 2013 Mar-Apr;5(2):178-201

MRC Prion Unit, Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

The 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 3-6, 2012 in San Diego, CA. The meeting drew over 800 participants who attended sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to antibody research and development. As a prelude to the main events, a pre-conference workshop held on December 2, 2012 focused on intellectual property issues that impact antibody engineering. The Antibody Engineering Conference was composed of six sessions held December 3-5, 2012: (1) From Receptor Biology to Therapy; (2) Antibodies in a Complex Environment; (3) Antibody Targeted CNS Therapy: Beyond the Blood Brain Barrier; (4) Deep Sequencing in B Cell Biology and Antibody Libraries; (5) Systems Medicine in the Development of Antibody Therapies/Systematic Validation of Novel Antibody Targets; and (6) Antibody Activity and Animal Models. The Antibody Therapeutics conference comprised four sessions held December 4-5, 2012: (1) Clinical and Preclinical Updates of Antibody-Drug Conjugates; (2) Multifunctional Antibodies and Antibody Combinations: Clinical Focus; (3) Development Status of Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Antibodies; and (4) Modulating the Half-Life of Antibody Therapeutics. The Antibody Society's special session on applications for recording and sharing data based on GIATE was held on December 5, 2012, and the conferences concluded with two combined sessions on December 5-6, 2012: (1) Development Status of Early Stage Therapeutic Antibodies; and (2) Immunomodulatory Antibodies for Cancer Therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/mabs.23655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893229PMC
December 2013

Antigen presentation for the generation of binding molecules.

Methods Mol Biol 2012 ;901:1-10

NIBR Biologics Center, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

In the last few decades, several new methods have been established to isolate full antibodies and fragments thereof, some even using alternative scaffolds from in vivo and in vitro sources. These methods encompass robust techniques including immunization and hybridoma technology or phage display and also more laborious and novel approaches including ribosome display or B-cell immortalization. All methodologies are dependent upon proper antigen presentation for isolation, screening, and further characterization of the selected binding molecules. Here, antigens are classes of molecules including soluble or membrane proteins, part or domains thereof (extracellular domains of GPCRs), peptides, carbohydrates, and small-molecular-weight moieties. Presentation of the antigen in a functional state or perhaps even mimicking the intended application is crucial for successful isolation of useful binding molecules. Moreover, it is also necessary to consider the expression host and any posttranslational modifications of target proteins. The increasing demand to target more complex antigens, for instance, receptors and ion channels, is leading to the development of alternative procedures to present these proteins appropriately, for example by the use of virus-like particles and DNA immunization. This chapter describes in general approaches for the preparation of different forms of immunogens including synthetic peptides, proteins, cell-based antigens for immunization and in vitro display systems and in detail the preparation of a soluble protein as antigen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-61779-931-0_1DOI Listing
October 2012

Monoclonal antibodies directed against human FcRn and their applications.

MAbs 2012 Mar-Apr;4(2):208-16. Epub 2012 Mar 1.

The Jackson Laboratory; Bar Harbor, ME USA.

The MHC class I-like Fc receptor (FcRn) is an intracellular trafficking Fc receptor that is uniquely responsible for the extended serum half-life of antibodies of the IgG subclass and their ability to transport across cellular barriers. By performing these functions, FcRn affects numerous facets of antibody biology and pathobiology. Its critical role in controlling IgG pharmacokinetics has been leveraged for the design of therapeutic antibodies and related biologics. FcRn also traffics serum albumin and is responsible for the enhanced pharmacokinetic properties of albumin-conjugated therapeutics. The understanding of FcRn and its therapeutic applications has been limited by a paucity of reliable serological reagents against human FcRn. Here, we describe the properties of a new panel of highly specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against human FcRn with diverse epitope specificities. We show that this antibody panel can be used to study the tissue expression pattern of human FcRn, to selectively block IgG and serum albumin binding to human FcRn in vitro and to inhibit FcRn function in vivo. This mAb panel provides a powerful resource for probing the biology of human FcRn and for the evaluation of therapeutic FcRn blockade strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/mabs.4.2.19397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3361656PMC
February 2015

Clinical chemistry of human FcRn transgenic mice.

Mamm Genome 2012 Apr 23;23(3-4):259-69. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Pharma Research and Early Development, Nonnenwald 2, 82377, Penzberg, Germany.

Mice genetically engineered to express human FcRn are valuable models for the evaluation of therapeutic antibodies in the context of human FcRn in vivo. However, only limited clinical chemistry information on these mouse strains is available. Thus, we have compared 30 clinical chemical parameters of C57BL/6J wild-type mice, murine FcRn-knockout mice, and two human FcRn transgenic mouse strains expressing human FcRn in the absence of murine FcRn. Since FcRn-mediated recycling prevents albumin and IgG from intracellular degradation, significant differences for both proteins were observed in the murine FcRn-knockout mice. Mice lacking FcRn show lower IgG and albumin levels compared to wild-type mice. The most prominent differences in clinical chemical parameters can be explained by secondary effects of the altered albumin levels of murine FcRn-knockout mice on liver metabolism, as similar tendencies have been observed in analbuminemic Nagase rats and hypoalbuminemic human patients, showing an overall increased liver metabolism. Both human FcRn transgenic strains show clinical chemical parameters similar to those found for wild-type mice, with the exception of endogenous IgG levels, which are greatly reduced in these mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-011-9379-6DOI Listing
April 2012

Affilin-novel binding molecules based on human gamma-B-crystallin, an all beta-sheet protein.

J Mol Biol 2007 Sep 22;372(1):172-85. Epub 2007 Jun 22.

Scil Proteins GmbH, Heinrich Damerow Str. 1, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany.

The concept of novel binding proteins as an alternative to antibodies has undergone rapid development and is now ready for practical use in a wide range of applications. Alternative binding proteins, based on suitable scaffolds with desirable properties, are selected from combinatorial libraries in vitro. Here, we describe an approach using a beta-sheet of human gamma-B-crystallin to generate a universal binding site through randomization of eight solvent-exposed amino acid residues selected according to structural and sequence analyses. Specific variants, so-called Affilin, have been isolated from a phage display library against a variety of targets that differ considerably in size and structure. The isolated Affilin variants can be produced in Escherichia coli as soluble proteins and have a high level of thermodynamic stability. The crystal structures of the human wild-type gamma-B-crystallin and a selected Affilin variant have been determined to 1.7 A and 2.0 A resolution, respectively. Comparison of the two molecules indicates that the human gamma-B-crystallin tolerates amino acid exchanges with no major structural change. We conclude that the intrinsically stable and easily expressed gamma-B-crystallin provides a suitable framework for the generation of novel binding molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2007.06.045DOI Listing
September 2007

In situ gene expression analysis during BMP2-induced ectopic bone formation in mice shows simultaneous endochondral and intramembranous ossification.

Growth Factors 2002 Dec;20(4):197-210

GSF Research Center Institute of Mammalian Genetics, Ingolstädter Landrtr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

We examined the molecular progression of ectopic bone development upon application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP2), using a commercial collagen type I carrier, in the hind quarter muscles of mice. We performed a gene expression study using mRNA in situ hybridisation to compare embryonic cartilage and bone formation with BMP2-induced ectopic bone formation. As bone growth can be induced postnatally or in adult animals, we examined the expression of molecules regulating embryonic bone development. We found that the mRNAs of the same molecules, such as Indian hedgehog (IHH), parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor (PPR) and BMPs, that regulate embryonic cartilage and bone development, are expressed during BMP-induced ectopic bone formation, suggesting parallels in the mechanisms controlling these processes. Our studies support by molecular means the previous findings in rats that BMP2-induced ectopic bone formation in mice undergoes bone development involving both modes, endochondral and intramembranous ossification, simultaneously at different sites of the implant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0897719021000069579DOI Listing
December 2002