Publications by authors named "Franziska Koch"

34 Publications

A high-protein diet containing inulin/oligofructose supports body weight gain associated with lower energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation, and alters faecal microbiota in C57BL/6 mice.

J Nutr Sci 2021 13;10:e50. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

Prebiotic supplements and high-protein (HP) diets reduce body weight and modulate intestinal microbiota. Our aim was to elucidate the combined effect of an inulin/oligofructose (FOS) and HP diet on body weight gain, energy metabolism and faecal microbiota. Forty male C57BL/6NCrl mice were fed a control (C) diet for 2 weeks and allocated to a C or HP (40 % protein) diet including no or 10 % inulin/FOS (C + I and HP + I) for 4 weeks. Inulin/FOS was added in place of starch and cellulose. Body weight, food intake, faecal energy and nitrogen were determined. Indirect calorimetry and faecal microbiota analysis were performed after 3 weeks on diets. Body weight gain of HP-fed mice was 36 % lower than HP + I- and C-fed mice ( < 0⋅05). Diet digestibility and food conversion efficiency were higher in HP + I- than HP-fed mice ( < 0⋅01), while food intake was comparable between groups. Total energy expenditure (heat production) was 25 % lower in HP + I- than in C-, HP- and C + I-fed mice ( < 0⋅001). Carbohydrate oxidation tended to be 24 % higher in HP- than in HP + I-fed mice ( < 0⋅05). Faecal nitrogen excretion was 31-45 % lower in C-, C + I- and HP + I- than in HP-fed mice ( < 0⋅05). Faecal DNA was 2⋅3-fold higher in C + I- and HP + I- relative to C-fed mice ( < 0⋅05), but DNA abundances was 79 % lower in HP + I- than in HP-fed mice ( < 0⋅05). We suggest that the higher conversion efficiency of dietary energy of HP + I but not C + I-fed mice is caused by higher digestibility and lower heat production, resulting in increased body mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2021.42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278163PMC
July 2021

[Perioperative Management - Tasks and Significance of Specially Trained Nursing Staff].

Zentralbl Chir 2021 Jun 21;146(3):260-268. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Klinik für Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie, HELIOS Kliniken Schwerin, Deutschland.

Modern concepts of perioperative treatment place great value on the active role of the patient. In order to make this possible, intensive patient support is necessary. The position of the ERAS nurse has developed from this necessity. She is the primary contact for the patient before, during and after the operation. The conceptual creation and continuous further development of an ERAS concept may primarily be a medical activity, but the day-to-day work on the patient and filling the concept with life is mainly done by an ERAS nurse. Her main tasks are preoperative patient education, daily patient visits during the inpatient stay, filling in the documentation, ongoing communication with nursing staff and monitoring compliance with the ERAS requirements of all team members involved. It is accordingly important to create the position of an ERAS nurse and to integrate her as a valuable member of the team. In the following article, which is based on our experience as a certified ERAS centre, the job description in detail is presented, including tasks, importance and suggested solutions for common problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1393-6892DOI Listing
June 2021

Jejunal mucosa proteomics unravel metabolic adaptive processes to mild chronic heat stress in dairy cows.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12484. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196, Dummerstorf, Germany.

Climate change affects the duration and intensity of heat waves during summer months and jeopardizes animal health and welfare. High ambient temperatures cause heat stress in dairy cows resulting in a reduction of milk yield, feed intake, and alterations in gut barrier function. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mucosal amino acid, glucose and lactate metabolism, as well as the proteomic response of the small intestine in heat stressed (HS) Holstein dairy cows. Cows of the HS group (n = 5) were exposed for 4 days to 28 °C (THI = 76) in a climate chamber. Percentage decrease in daily ad libitum intake of HS cows was calculated to provide isocaloric energy intake to pair-fed control cows kept at 15 °C (THI = 60) for 4 days. The metabolite, mRNA and proteomic analyses revealed that HS induced incorrect protein folding, cellular destabilization, increased proteolytic degradation and protein kinase inhibitor activity, reduced glycolysis, and activation of NF-κB signaling, uronate cycling, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid and amino acid catabolism, mitochondrial respiration, ATPase activity and the antioxidative defence system. Our results highlight adaptive metabolic and immune mechanisms attempting to maintain the biological function in the small intestine of heat-stressed dairy cows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92053-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203643PMC
June 2021

Types of Nutrition Knowledge, Their Socio-Demographic Determinants and Their Association With Food Consumption: Results of the NEMONIT Study.

Front Nutr 2021 12;8:630014. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute for Nutritional Behaviour, Max Rubner Institute, Karlsruhe, Germany.

To investigate nutrition knowledge in the German population, its determinants and its association with food consumption. Data were obtained from the NEMONIT study (2014/15, = 1,505, participants' age: 22-80 years). Nutrition knowledge was measured using the consumer nutrition knowledge scale (CoNKS) in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Two 24-h recalls were conducted to assess food consumption, which was evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-NVS II. Areas for knowledge enhancement were the understanding of health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, the concept of a balanced diet and saturated fatty acids. Nutrition knowledge was higher among females, younger and high socio-economic status participants. Correlations between nutrition knowledge and a favorable diet were significant but low. Analyses of types of nutrition knowledge yielded similar results for procedural knowledge and knowledge on nutrients but not for knowledge on calories. Areas for knowledge enhancement were identified, but an increase in nutrition knowledge alone seems unlikely to result in large improvements of dietary behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.630014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907003PMC
February 2021

[Esophageal cancer leading to a cerebral infarction].

Chirurg 2021 Mar;92(3):264-268

Helios Kliniken Schwerin, Wismarsche Str. 393-397, 19055, Schwerin, Deutschland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00104-020-01260-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Development and application of a 3D periodontal in vitro model for the evaluation of fibrillar biomaterials.

BMC Oral Health 2020 05 19;20(1):148. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tissue Engineering, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, 8820, Wädenswil, Switzerland.

Background: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation of the tooth supporting structures that finally can lead to tooth loss. As chronic periodontitis is associated with systemic diseases multiple approaches have been followed to support regeneration of the destructed tissue. But very few materials are actually used in the clinic. A new and promising group of biomaterials with advantageous biomechanical properties that have the ability to support periodontal regeneration are self-assembling peptides (SAP). However, there is still a lack of 3D periodontal models that can evaluate the migration potential of such novel materials.

Methods: All experiments were performed with primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF). Migration capacity was assessed in a three-dimensional model of the human periodontal ligament by measuring the migration distance of viable cells on coated (Enamel Matrix Protein (EMP), P11-4, collagen I) or uncoated human dentin. Cellular metabolic activity on P11-4 hydrogels was assessed by a metabolic activity assay. Deposition of ECM molecules in a P11-4 hydrogel was visualized by immunostaining of collagen I and III and fibrillin I.

Results: The 3D periodontal model was feasible to show the positive effect of EMP for periodontal regeneration. Subsequently, self-assembling peptide P11-4 was used to evaluate its capacity to support regenerative processes in the 3D periodontal model. HPLF coverage of the dentin surface coated with P11-4 increased significantly over time, even though delayed compared to EMP. Cell viability increased and inclusion of ECM proteins into the biomaterial was shown.

Conclusion: The presented results indicate that the 3D periodontal model is feasible to assess periodontal defect coverage and that P11-4 serves as an efficient supporter of regenerative processes in the periodontal ligament.

Clinical Relevance: The establishment of building-block synthetic polymers offers new opportunities for clinical application in dentistry. Self-assembling peptides represent a new generation of biomaterials as they are able to respond dynamically to the changing environment of the biological surrounding. Especially in the context of peri-implant disease prevention and treatment they enable the implementation of new concepts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-01124-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238548PMC
May 2020

Natriuretic Peptides Attenuate Retinal Pathological Neovascularization Via Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling in Pericytes and Astrocytes.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 01 17;40(1):159-174. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

From the Institute of Physiology, University of Würzburg (K.Š.S, S.H., F.W., F.K., K.V., L.K., M.K.).

Objective: In proliferative retinopathies, complications derived from neovascularization cause blindness. During early disease, pericyte's apoptosis contributes to endothelial dysfunction and leakage. Hypoxia then drives VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) secretion and pathological neoangiogenesis. Cardiac ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) contributes to systemic microcirculatory homeostasis. ANP is also formed in the retina, with unclear functions. Here, we characterized whether endogenously formed ANP regulates retinal (neo)angiogenesis. Approach and Results: Retinal vascular development and ischemia-driven neovascularization were studied in mice with global deletion of GC-A (guanylyl cyclase-A), the cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate)-forming ANP receptor. Mice with a floxed GC-A gene were interbred with lines to dissect the endothelial, astrocyte versus pericyte-mediated actions of ANP in vivo. In neonates with global GC-A deletion (KO), vascular development was mildly delayed. Moreover, such KO mice showed augmented vascular regression and exacerbated ischemia-driven neovascularization in the model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Notably, absence of GC-A in endothelial cells did not impact retinal vascular development or pathological neovascularization. In vitro ANP/GC-A/cGMP signaling, via activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I, inhibited hypoxia-driven astrocyte's VEGF secretion and TGF-β (transforming growth factor beta)-induced pericyte apoptosis. In neonates lacking ANP/GC-A signaling in astrocytes, vascular development and hyperoxia-driven vascular regression were unaltered; ischemia-induced neovascularization was modestly increased. Remarkably, inactivation of GC-A in pericytes retarded physiological retinal vascularization and markedly enhanced cell apoptosis, vascular regression, and subsequent neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy.

Conclusions: Protective pericyte effects of the ANP/GC-A/cGMP pathway counterregulate the initiation and progression of experimental proliferative retinopathy. Our observations indicate augmentation of endogenous pericyte ANP signaling as target for treatment of retinopathies associated with neovascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.313400DOI Listing
January 2020

Materials Science at Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences.

Chimia (Aarau) 2019 Aug;73(7):645-655

FHNW Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, Hochschule für Life Sciences, Institut für Chemie und Bioanalytik, Hofackerstrasse 30, CH-4132 Muttenz.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2533/chimia.2019.645DOI Listing
August 2019

Meat consumers and non-meat consumers in Germany: a characterisation based on results of the German National Nutrition Survey II.

J Nutr Sci 2019 7;8:e21. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Nutritional Behaviour, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Karlsruhe, Haid-und-Neu-Strasse 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.

Meat consumption in high-income countries is increasingly discussed due to its impact on environment and health as well as ethical considerations. The present paper aims to provide information on meat consumption behaviour, sociodemographic factors related to meat consumption and its associations with health and nutritional behaviour, based on the German National Nutrition Survey II. For 12 915 participants aged 18-80 years, food consumption was assessed by two 24-h recalls and further data by interviews. Participants were distinguished in non-meat consumers and meat consumers; meat consumers were further differentiated as low and high meat consumers (<86 g/d and ≥86 g/d). Group differences were analysed using binary logistic and linear regression models. More non-meat consumers were found among women, young and more educated persons. They showed equal or more preferable health characteristics, had a similar energy intake but ate more plant-based foods compared with meat consumers. More high meat consumers were found among men, young and middle-aged and lower-educated persons. Compared with low meat consumers, they showed equal or less preferable health characteristics, had a higher energy intake and ate more potatoes and sauces/spices and less of most other food groups in relation to their energy intake. To conclude, sociodemographic groups differ in their meat consumption and differences in meat consumption go together with differences in health behaviour and other food consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2019.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558667PMC
January 2020

Heat stress directly impairs gut integrity and recruits distinct immune cell populations into the bovine intestine.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 05 7;116(21):10333-10338. Epub 2019 May 7.

Institute of Genome Biology, FBN, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

High ambient temperature has multiple potential effects on the organism such as hyperthermia, endotoxemia, and/or systemic inflammation. However, it is often difficult to discriminate between cause and consequence of phenotypic effects, such as the indirect influence of heat stress via reduced food intake. Lactating dairy cows are a particularly sensitive model to examine the effects of heat stress due to their intensive metabolic heat production and small surface:volume ratio. Results from this model show heat stress directly induced a so-far unknown infiltration of yet uncategorized cells into the mucosa and submucosa of the jejunum. Due to a pair-feeding design, we can exclude this effect being a consequence of the concurrent heat-induced reduction in feed intake. Isolation and characterization of the infiltrating cells using laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing indicated a myeloic origin and macrophage-like phenotype. Furthermore, targeted transcriptome analyses provided evidence of activated immune- and phagocytosis-related pathways with LPS and cytokines as upstream regulators directly associated with heat stress. Finally, we obtained indication that heat stress may directly alter jejunal tight junction proteins suggesting an impaired intestinal barrier. The penetration of toxic and bacterial compounds during heat stress may have triggered a modulated immune repertoire and induced an antioxidative defense mechanism to maintain homeostasis between commensal bacteria and the jejunal immune system. Our bovine model indicates direct effects of heat stress on the jejunum of mammals already at moderately elevated ambient temperature. These results need to be considered when developing concepts to combat the negative consequences of heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1820130116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6535017PMC
May 2019

A Versatile Biocompatible Antibiotic Delivery System Based on Self-Assembling Peptides with Antimicrobial and Regenerative Potential.

Adv Healthc Mater 2019 07 15;8(13):e1900167. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock, 18057, Rostock, Germany.

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory and tissue-destructive disease. Since the polymicrobiome in the oral cavity makes it difficult to treat, novel therapeutic strategies are required. Hydrogels based on self-assembling peptides (SAP) can be suitable candidates for periodontal therapy due to their injectability, biocompatibility, cargo-loading capacity, and tunable physicochemical and mechanical properties. In this study, two SAP hydrogels (P11-4 and P11-28/29) are examined for their intrinsic antimicrobial activity, regenerative potential, and antibiotic delivery capacity. A significant antibacterial effect of P11-28/29 hydrogels on the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and a less pronounced effect for P11-4 hydrogels is demonstrated. The metabolic activity rates of human dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), which reflect cell viability and may thus indicate the regenerative capacity, are similar on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and on P11-4 hydrogels after 14 days of culture. Noticeably, both SAP hydrogels strengthen the osteogenic differentiation of DFSCs compared with TCPS. The incorporation of tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline does not affect fibril formation of either SAP hydrogel and results in favorable release kinetics up to 120 h. In summary, this study reveals that P11-SAP hydrogels combine many favorable properties required to make them applicable as prospective novel treatment strategy for periodontal therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201900167DOI Listing
July 2019

Pulsed light treatment for the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica on pork skin and pork loin.

Int J Food Microbiol 2019 Mar 17;292:64-71. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 1, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

The aim of the presented study was to investigate the impact of pulsed light on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica on pork skin and loin. Fluences of 0.52 to 19.11 J/cm were applied to the pathogen-inoculated products to perform microbiological studies, as well as analyses of color, temperature, lipid peroxidation and odor. Reductions on pork skin ranged from 1.73 to 3.16 log for Salmonella and from 1.48 to 4.37 log for Yersinia. Microbial reduction was significantly lower on pork loin, varying between a minimum of 0.4 and a maximum of 1.7 log for both pathogens. Treatments ≥7.36 J/cm modified the color parameters of pork skin and fluences ≥9.66 J/cm rendered pork loin samples less red. All studies with pulsed light resulted in odor changes, except for the experiment on pork skin at 0.52 J/cm. Despite significant microbiological reduction on pork skin, further studies should be carried out to optimize this promising technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.11.014DOI Listing
March 2019

Amino acid composition of nanofibrillar self-assembling peptide hydrogels affects responses of periodontal tissue cells in vitro.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 23;13:6717-6733. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Rostock, Germany,

Background: The regeneration of tissue defects at the interface between soft and hard tissue, eg, in the periodontium, poses a challenge due to the divergent tissue requirements. A class of biomaterials that may support the regeneration at the soft-to-hard tissue interface are self-assembling peptides (SAPs), as their physicochemical and mechanical properties can be rationally designed to meet tissue requirements.

Materials And Methods: In this work, we investigated the effect of two single-component and two complementary β-sheet forming SAP systems on their hydrogel properties such as nanofibrillar architecture, surface charge, and protein adsorption as well as their influence on cell adhesion, morphology, growth, and differentiation.

Results: We showed that these four 11-amino acid SAP (P11-SAP) hydrogels possessed physico-chemical characteristics dependent on their amino acid composition that allowed variabilities in nanofibrillar network architecture, surface charge, and protein adsorption (eg, the single-component systems demonstrated an ~30% higher porosity and an almost 2-fold higher protein adsorption compared with the complementary systems). Cytocompatibility studies revealed similar results for cells cultured on the four P11-SAP hydrogels compared with cells on standard cell culture surfaces. The single-component P11-SAP systems showed a 1.7-fold increase in cell adhesion and cellular growth compared with the complementary P11-SAP systems. Moreover, significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of human calvarial osteoblasts was detected for the single-component P11-SAP system hydrogels compared with standard cell cultures.

Conclusion: Thus, single-component system P11-SAP hydrogels can be assessed as suitable scaffolds for periodontal regeneration therapy, as they provide adjustable, extracellular matrix-mimetic nanofibrillar architecture and favorable cellular interaction with periodontal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S173702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6204879PMC
December 2018

Mechanical characteristics of beta sheet-forming peptide hydrogels are dependent on peptide sequence, concentration and buffer composition.

R Soc Open Sci 2018 Mar 14;5(3):171562. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

School of Life Sciences, Institute for Chemistry and Bioanalytics, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Muttenz, Switzerland.

Self-assembling peptide hydrogels can be modified regarding their biodegradability, their chemical and mechanical properties and their nanofibrillar structure. Thus, self-assembling peptide hydrogels might be suitable scaffolds for regenerative therapies and tissue engineering. Owing to the use of various peptide concentrations and buffer compositions, the self-assembling peptide hydrogels might be influenced regarding their mechanical characteristics. Therefore, the mechanical properties and stability of a set of self-assembling peptide hydrogels, consisting of 11 amino acids, made from four beta sheet self-assembling peptides in various peptide concentrations and buffer compositions were studied. The formed self-assembling peptide hydrogels exhibited stiffnesses ranging from 0.6 to 205 kPa. The hydrogel stiffness was mostly affected by peptide sequence followed by peptide concentration and buffer composition. All self-assembling peptide hydrogels examined provided a nanofibrillar network formation. A maximum self-assembling peptide hydrogel dissolution of 20% was observed for different buffer solutions after 7 days. The stability regarding enzymatic and bacterial digestion showed less degradation in comparison to the self-assembling peptide hydrogel dissolution rate in buffer. The tested set of self-assembling peptide hydrogels were able to form stable scaffolds and provided a broad spectrum of tissue-specific stiffnesses that are suitable for a regenerative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.171562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5882690PMC
March 2018

Endothelial C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Acts on Pericytes to Regulate Microcirculatory Flow and Blood Pressure.

Circulation 2018 07;138(5):494-508

Institute of Physiology, University of Würzburg and Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University Hospital Würzburg, Germany (K. Špiranec, W.C., S.C., F.W., T.N., F.K., P.E.-N., K. Schuh, M.K.).

Background: Peripheral vascular resistance has a major impact on arterial blood pressure levels. Endothelial C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) participates in the local regulation of vascular tone, but the target cells remain controversial. The cGMP-producing guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B) receptor for CNP is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, whereas endothelial cell-specific CNP knockout mice are hypertensive, mice with deletion of GC-B in vascular SMCs have unaltered blood pressure.

Methods: We analyzed whether the vasodilating response to CNP changes along the vascular tree, ie, whether the GC-B receptor is expressed in microvascular types of cells. Mice with a floxed GC-B ( Npr2) gene were interbred with Tie2-Cre or PDGF-Rβ-Cre lines to develop mice lacking GC-B in endothelial cells or in precapillary arteriolar SMCs and capillary pericytes. Intravital microscopy, invasive and noninvasive hemodynamics, fluorescence energy transfer studies of pericyte cAMP levels in situ, and renal physiology were combined to dissect whether and how CNP/GC-B/cGMP signaling modulates microcirculatory tone and blood pressure.

Results: Intravital microscopy studies revealed that the vasodilatatory effect of CNP increases toward small-diameter arterioles and capillaries. CNP consistently did not prevent endothelin-1-induced acute constrictions of proximal arterioles, but fully reversed endothelin effects in precapillary arterioles and capillaries. Here, the GC-B receptor is expressed both in endothelial and mural cells, ie, in pericytes. It is notable that the vasodilatatory effects of CNP were preserved in mice with endothelial GC-B deletion, but abolished in mice lacking GC-B in microcirculatory SMCs and pericytes. CNP, via GC-B/cGMP signaling, modulates 2 signaling cascades in pericytes: it activates cGMP-dependent protein kinase I to phosphorylate downstream targets such as the cytoskeleton-associated vasodilator-activated phosphoprotein, and it inhibits phosphodiesterase 3A, thereby enhancing pericyte cAMP levels. These pathways ultimately prevent endothelin-induced increases of pericyte calcium levels and pericyte contraction. Mice with deletion of GC-B in microcirculatory SMCs and pericytes have elevated peripheral resistance and chronic arterial hypertension without a change in renal function.

Conclusions: Our studies indicate that endothelial CNP regulates distal arteriolar and capillary blood flow. CNP-induced GC-B/cGMP signaling in microvascular SMCs and pericytes is essential for the maintenance of normal microvascular resistance and blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.033383DOI Listing
July 2018

Hepatic thyroid signaling of heat-stressed late pregnant and early lactating cows.

J Endocrinol 2017 Aug 12;234(2):129-141. Epub 2017 May 12.

Institute of Nutritional Physiology 'Oskar Kellner'Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany

During the transition between late gestation and early lactation, dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress that occurs with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metabolism and welfare. The thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of body temperature, energy intake and metabolic adaptation to heat. To distinguish between energy intake and heat stress-related effects, Holstein cows were first kept at thermoneutrality at 15°C followed by exposure to heat stress (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days, in late pregnancy and again in early lactation. Herein, we focused on hepatic metabolic changes associated with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in HS and PF animals. T and T levels dropped with HS or PF; however, in HS animals, this decline was more pronounced. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels remain unaffected, while plasma cholesterol concentrations were lower in HS than PF animals. Hepatic marker genes for TH action (, and ) decreased after HS and were lower compared to PF cows but only post-partum. Proteomics data revealed reduced hepatic amino acid catabolism ante-partum and a shift toward activated beta-oxidation and gluconeogenesis but declined oxidative stress defense post-partum. Thus, liver metabolism of HS and PF cows adapts differently to diminished energy intake both ante-partum and post-partum, and a different TH sensitivity is involved in the regulation of catabolic processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-17-0066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5516449PMC
August 2017

An mtDNA mutation accelerates liver aging by interfering with the ROS response and mitochondrial life cycle.

Free Radic Biol Med 2017 01 25;102:174-187. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial dysfunction affects liver metabolism, but it remains unclear whether this interferes with normal liver aging. We investigated several mitochondrial pathways in hepatocytes and liver tissue from a conplastic mouse strain compared with the control C57BL/6NTac strain over 18 months of life. The C57BL/6NTac-mtNODLtJ mice differed from C57BL/6NTac mice by a point mutation in mitochondrial-encoded subunit 3 of cytochrome c oxidase. Young C57BL/6NTac-mtNODLtJ mice showed reduced mitochondrial metabolism but similar reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to C57BL/6NTac mice. Whereas ROS increased almost equally up to 9 months in both strains, different mitochondrial adaptation strategies resulted in decreasing ROS in advanced age in C57BL/6NTac mice, but persistent ROS production in C57BL/6NTac-mtNODLtJ mice. Only the conplastic strain developed elongated mitochondrial networks with artificial loop structures, depressed autophagy, high mitochondrial respiration and up-regulated antioxidative response. Our results indicate that mtDNA mutations accelerate liver ballooning degeneration and carry a serious risk of premature organ aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.11.035DOI Listing
January 2017

Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

PLoS One 2016 11;11(8):e0160912. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Leibnitz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.

Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production simultaneously reducing endogenous heat production.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160912PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981427PMC
August 2017

Dissecting Long-Term Glucose Metabolism Identifies New Susceptibility Period for Metabolic Dysfunction in Aged Mice.

PLoS One 2015 5;10(11):e0140858. Epub 2015 Nov 5.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Metabolic disorders, like diabetes and obesity, are pathogenic outcomes of imbalance in glucose metabolism. Nutrient excess and mitochondrial imbalance are implicated in dysfunctional glucose metabolism with age. We used conplastic mouse strains with defined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations on a common nuclear genomic background, and administered a high-fat diet up to 18 months of age. The conplastic mouse strain B6-mtFVB, with a mutation in the mt-Atp8 gene, conferred β-cell dysfunction and impaired glucose tolerance after high-fat diet. To our surprise, despite of this functional deficit, blood glucose levels adapted to perturbations with age. Blood glucose levels were particularly sensitive to perturbations at the early age of 3 to 6 months. Overall the dynamics consisted of a peak between 3-6 months followed by adaptation by 12 months of age. With the help of mathematical modeling we delineate how body weight, insulin and leptin regulate this non-linear blood glucose dynamics. The model predicted a second rise in glucose between 15 and 21 months, which could be experimentally confirmed as a secondary peak. We therefore hypothesize that these two peaks correspond to two sensitive periods of life, where perturbations to the basal metabolism can mark the system for vulnerability to pathologies at later age. Further mathematical modeling may perspectively allow the design of targeted periods for therapeutic interventions and could predict effects on weight loss and insulin levels under conditions of pre-diabetic obesity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0140858PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4634931PMC
June 2016

Measuring snow liquid water content with low-cost GPS receivers.

Sensors (Basel) 2014 Nov 6;14(11):20975-99. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Department of Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Luisenstr. 37, Munich 80333, Germany.

The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC) in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s141120975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4279521PMC
November 2014

Traumatic injuries in professional dance-past and present: ballet injuries in Berlin, 1994/95 and 2011/12.

Med Probl Perform Art 2014 09;29(3):168-73

Department of Dance Medicine, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Charité Medical University Berlin, Thielallee 69, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Tel +49 030 450 529 565, fax +49 030 450 529 952.

Objective: The physical requirement profile for professional dancers has changed significantly during the past decades. The aim of this first comparative study is to present a differentiated analysis of work-related traumatic injuries sustained by professional ballet dancers at the end of the 20th century (1994/95) and now (2011/12).

Methods: The data for evaluation were obtained from work accident reports (n=241; 1994/95, n=155; 2011/12, n=86) from three Berlin theatres.

Results: An increase in incidence of injuries could be observed only in male dancers (0.3 injuries/yr in 1994/95 vs 0.4/yr in 2011/12). Numerous significant differences were found between injuries in the earlier time span and in the present. Movement contents resulting in traumatic injuries have changed. Furthermore, differences as to injury types, injured body region, nature of causes, dance activities prior to injury, and attitude after sustaining an occupational accident were observed. The lower extremity remained the most common injury site (66.7% in 1994/95 vs 57.0% in 2011/12, p=0.697. (The frequency rate of traumatic injuries to the spine has increased significantly (13.5% in 1994/95 vs 24.1% in 2011/12, p=0.026, (with injuries to the lumbar spine region more than tripled (5.8% vs 20.3% respectively). Few deviations were observed as to injury locations and organizational and time aspects (e.g., time of year of injury).

Conclusion: Dance is progressing as evidenced by the numerous aspects resulting in traumatic injuries. It is not organizational or time changes but rather work- and content-related factors that result in significant differences between past and present injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21091/mppa.2014.3034DOI Listing
September 2014

An in vitro toxicity evaluation of gold-, PLLA- and PCL-coated silica nanoparticles in neuronal cells for nanoparticle-assisted laser-tissue soldering.

Toxicol In Vitro 2014 Aug 21;28(5):990-8. Epub 2014 Apr 21.

Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty University Bern, Länggassstrasse 124, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The uptake of silica (Si) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) engineered for laser-tissue soldering in the brain was investigated using microglial cells and undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. It is not known what effects NPs elicit once entering the brain. Cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and the potential induction of oxidative stress by means of depletion of glutathione levels were determined after NP exposure at concentrations of 10(3) and 10(9)NPs/ml. Au-, silica poly (ε-caprolactone) (Si-PCL-) and silica poly-L-lactide (Si-PLLA)-NPs were taken up by all cells investigated. Aggregates and single NPs were found in membrane-surrounded vacuoles and the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus. Both NP concentrations investigated did not result in cytotoxicity or apoptosis, but reduced glutathione (GSH) levels predominantly at 6 and 24h, but not after 12 h of NP exposure in the microglial cells. NP exposure-induced GSH depletion was concentration-dependent in both cell lines. Si-PCL-NPs induced the strongest effect of GSH depletion followed by Si-PLLA-NPs and Au-NPs. NP size seems to be an important characteristic for this effect. Overall, Au-NPs are most promising for laser-assisted vascular soldering in the brain. Further studies are necessary to further evaluate possible effects of these NPs in neuronal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2014.04.010DOI Listing
August 2014

The theatrical stage as accident site in professional dance.

Med Probl Perform Art 2014 03;29(1):32-6

Department of Dance Medicine, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Charité Medical University Berlin, Thielallee 69, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Tel +49 030 450 529 552, fax +49 030 450 529 952.

Objective: Reducing work-related health hazards at the different theatre workplaces is one aspect of preventive options in professional dance. This also applies to hazards on the highly variable theatrical stage areas. However, detailed information on these stages and their risks is not available. The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate work-related traumatic injuries in the stage area.

Methods: The basis for the evaluation was accident reports, from the German National Statutory Insurance, of work-related traumatic injuries occurring on stage in professional dancers (n=790: 407 males, 383 females) over a 17-year period (1995-2011).

Results: Most (79.4%) of the accidents on stage occurred during an ongoing performance (frequency: 10.1/100 performances), with only 19.7% occurring during rehearsals on stage (p<0.001). Due to the sustained injury, 30.2% of the dancers sustained a time-loss injury. Most (57.7%) of the injured dancers were older than 25 years. Of the accidents, 59.3% were initiated by a definably extrinsic cause, with 40.7% caused by intrinsic factors (p<0.001). Injuries were most commonly caused by the "partner" (21.7%) or "floor" (21.0%). The lower extremity was the most commonly affected body region (63.6%) (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Stage performances seem to carry an increased injury risk compared to rehearsals. The "risk" of on-stage work is spread across various factors that seem to be stage-specific. There is a need for further qualitative and quantitative research to be able to classify the stage as workplace more precisely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21091/mppa.2014.1008DOI Listing
March 2014

Traumatic injuries in revue dancers.

J Dance Med Sci 2014 Mar;18(1):22-8

Dance Medicine Department, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Revue productions are a combination of dancing and singing, musical and spoken sequences, and acrobatics, performed with or without a story line, and characterized by a versatility of dance styles and a high number of performances (over 250 in a 10-month season). The aim of this quantitative single cohort study is to evaluate work-related traumatic injuries in this dance genre. Data were obtained from work accident reports of the German Social Accident Insurance Institution for the public sector in Berlin (UKB) involving 440 revue dancers (183 males and 257 females). Analysis was conducted with Excel 2007 and PASW Statistics 18. One out of three female dancers and one out of two male dancers sustained an acute injury in the course of a theatrical season (0.22 injuries per 1,000 hours). The incidence rate was 0.44 for males and 0.31 for females, with the lower extremity as the most commonly injured body region, followed by the spine. Of all occupational accidents, 75.1% happened on stage, with 69% during performances. The dance partner and dance floor were the most common exogenous factors resulting in a traumatic injury. Of all traumatic injuries, 81.7% occurred in the first 3 hours after starting work. Gender specific differences could be observed. Due to the limited availability of comparable studies of other forms of professional dance, in this study revue dance is largely considered as an independent genre.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12678/1089-313X.18.1.22DOI Listing
March 2014

Dance partner or dance floor?: exogenous factors resulting in accidents in professional dancers.

Med Probl Perform Art 2013 Sep;28(3):131-6

Department of Dance Medicine, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Charité Medical University Berlin, Thielallee 69, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Tel +49 030 450 529 552, fax +49 030 450 529 952.

Objective: Injury prevention in professional dancers is very important due to the high risk for acute injuries posing a threat to dancers' careers. Causative factors of acute injuries in professional dance can be divided into exogenous and endogenous factors. Although both are known in professional dance, there is still a lack of data to have a differentiated view. The aim of this study is to analyze exogenous factors resulting in work accidents of professional dancers.

Methods: The data for the evaluation were obtained from work accident reports (n = 1,438, female 722, male 716) from six Berlin Theatres. Evaluation and descriptive statistics were conducted by SPSS 18 and Excel 2007.

Results: About half (48.5%, n = 698) of all work accidents are caused by exogenous factors. The "dance partner" is the most common exogenous factor (39.9%), followed by the dance floor (28.24%) and props (13.6%). The lower extremity is the most frequent structure injured in either sex (male 47.3%, female 61.3%), followed by the upper extremity in females (14.6%) and spine in male dancers (19.8%). The stage is the most common injury location in both genders (males 63.9%, females 56.8%). Acute injuries caused by exogenous factors were particularly sustained during performances (males 58.8%, females 50.5%) and during rehearsals (males 33%, females 39.9%).

Conclusion: This study shows the key significance of exogenous factors in acute injuries in professional dance. Preserving the dancers' health and preventing injuries takes top priority, and therefore, interventions in the artistic work cannot be ruled out when preventive measures are implemented.
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September 2013

Occupational accidents in professional dancers with regard to different professional dance styles.

Work 2014 ;49(4):597-606

Dance Medicine Department, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: The term "professional dance" comprises various dance styles. There are no studies which investigated work related traumatic injuries with regard to five different dance styles.

Objective: To define dance-style related differences of traumatic injuries.

Methods: The basis for the evaluation were the occupational injuries of professional dancers of six theaters (n=1339; f: n=658, m: n=681) and one State Ballet School (n=612; f:n=421, m: n=191).

Results: Independent of the dance style, the lower extremity (leg and hip) is the most frequently injured anatomical region (p< 0.001). The more dancers move away from the classical dance technique, the more traumatic head/neck injuries increase (p<0.001). Injury patterns and injured structures also show differences subject to dance styles (p< 0.001). In classical dance the most commonly sustained injuries are due to intrinsic factors with the significance of extrinsic factors increasing the more dancers diverge from defined classical dance techniques.

Conclusion: The results shown in the study clarify the enormous dance-style related differences in traumatic injuries sustained by dancers. These differences support the development of dance-style related injury prevention measures and suggest further investigations with the focus being placed on the influence of organizational structures (e.g. number of performances) as well as on the working environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-131736DOI Listing
November 2016

Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge among musical theatre students.

Med Probl Perform Art 2013 Mar;28(1):19-23

Institut fur Arbeitsmedizin, Charite Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Eating is a central part in human (social) life. Athletic performance and physical attractiveness are linked to appropriate nutritional behavior, especially for performing artists. Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge have not been examined in musical theatre students so far, which this study aims to analyze. We administered a cross-sectional questionnaire study to 37 musical theatre students. Results for the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) showed non-pathological values for 92% of all participants, but 81% of participants answered correctly on only 30-59% of questions on the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ). Our study results reveal the need for specific nutritional knowledge transfer programs for this target group.
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March 2013

Smoking behaviour and attitudes among German nursing students.

Nurse Educ Pract 2013 Sep 12;13(5):407-12. Epub 2013 Jan 12.

Institute of Occupational Medicine, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Free University & Humboldt-University Berlin, Thielallee 69-73, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

Tobacco consumption is a major public health threat. Healthcare workers can contribute to the reduction of tobacco use. The principles of intervention need to be provided already during vocational school. This research examines the smoking habits, the personal attitudes towards smoking and the professional beliefs of healthcare trainees. The aim of this study is to ascertain the necessity and the general conditions for multilevel interventions of prevention and health promotion. In 2010, a questionnaire survey was conducted in a Berlin vocational school for healthcare workers. Of 148 students (RR = 49.3%) 41.9% of the students are daily or occasional smokers. The nicotine dependency and the number of cigarettes per day are comparatively low. The majority of smoking students is willing to quit and has already undertaken several attempts. Non-smoking protection is evaluated to be very important and intervention rates in patient care range between 49% and 72%. In both questions, non-smokers and smokers differ significantly. The self-reported smoking prevalence in our population is considerably lower than in previous studies. However, the smoking rate among healthcare trainees is still higher than in the general population. The students' own smoking behaviours and its influences on the treatment of patients should be reflected during school. It is necessary to develop adequate recruitment strategies and attractive interventions for this target group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2012.12.002DOI Listing
September 2013

Survey of health problems in musical theater students: a pilot study.

Med Probl Perform Art 2012 Dec;27(4):205-11

Department of Dance Medicine, Charité University, Berlin, Germany.

Unlabelled: Musical theater performers are the "triathletes" in the performing arts. The field requires versatility in a combination of skills including dancing, singing, and drama in a high frequency of performances. The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the health situation of musical theater students using a complete musical educational institute as an example (n = 37).

Methods: The basis for the evaluation was a questionnaire survey (standardized F 1000). All students of the school participated (20 males, 17 females).

Results: Of the students, 62% have a part-time job for financial reasons, and 67.7% state only a "partial satisfaction" with their body. Regarding injury, 45.9% claim to sustain an orthopaedic injury up to twice a year, and 29.7% up to three or four times. A total of 49 acute injuries (1.3/student) and 42 chronic complaints (1.1/student) were stated. The lower extremity was the most common acutely injured region (65.3%), followed by the spine (16.3%) and upper extremity (14.3%). Of chronic complaints, the lumbar spine was the most commonly affected area, followed by the hip joint and pelvic area. Thirty-three and 24% of acute injuries occurred during "spins" and/or "stretching," respectively. There were various causes for physical and mental problems.

Discussion: The results show both parallels and differences to the relevant literature. It is shown that health hazards already arise in the education of musical performers. This provides particulars for the implementation of injury prevention measures during the theoretical and practical education of musical students.
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December 2012

Acute injuries in student circus artists with regard to gender specific differences.

Asian J Sports Med 2012 Sep;3(3):153-60

Dance Medicine Department, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Berlin, Germany ; Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University, Germany.

Purpose: Student circus artists train as both artists and athletes with their bodies holding the key to professional success. The daily training load of student circus artists is often associated with maximum physical and psychological stress with injuries posing a threat to a potential professional career. The purpose of this study is the differentiated analysis and evaluation of work accidents in order to initiate the development of injury preventive programs.

Methods: The 17 years of data were obtained from standardized anonymous work accident records of the Berlin State Accident Insurance (UKB) as well as a State Artist Educational School (n = 169, Male: 70; Female: 99) from student artists. Evaluation and descriptive statistics were conducted with Excel 2007 and PASW Statistics 18.

Results: The injury risk seems to be relatively low (0.3 injuries/1000h). There are gender specific differences as to the location of injuries. Only 7% of the accidents demand a break of more than 3 days. Injury patterns vary depending on the activity and the employment of props/equipment. 75.2% of work accidents have multifactorial and 24.8% exogenous causes.

Conclusions: Because physical fitness is all important in the circus arts there are numerous options for injury prevention programs that should be realized subject to gender-specific differences. Follow-ups on chronic complaints and a more individual approach are indispensable due to the very specific activities in the circus arts.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3445642PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.34606DOI Listing
September 2012
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