Publications by authors named "Fernando Monteiro Aarestrup"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Satisfaction of allergic patients treated with house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Dec;35:20587384211015528

Chairman Laboratory of Immunopathology and Experimental Pathology (CBR), Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Chief Allergy and immunology, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas e da Saúde-SUPREMA e Hospital Maternidade Therezinha de Jesus, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been used for more than three decades as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of allergic diseases. Studies have demonstrated its efficacy and safety, and numerous clinical trials have evaluated these parameters. In the present study, through patient perception, we investigated the patient satisfaction with the use of house dust mite SLIT treatment. "Satisfaction Scale for Patients Receiving Allergen Immunotherapy" (ESPIA) questionnaire, a standardized and validated instrument for clinical studies evaluating allergen immunotherapy, was applied to allergic patients ( = 136). Children and adults of both sexes who received SLIT for and/or , according to the results of an immediate reading puncture test, were included. Data analysis showed that the perception of treatment effectiveness was 92%, performance improvement in the daily activities was 91%, a satisfactory cost-benefit balance was 84%, and the perception of general satisfaction was 97%. The results showed a high perception of satisfaction in allergic patients undergoing house dust mite SLIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20587384211015528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127737PMC
November 2021

Induced oral mucositis in Wistar rats treated with different drugs: Preventive potential in cytokine production.

Mol Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 27;14(6):127. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Immunopathology and Experimental Pathology, Reproductive Biology Center, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330, Brazil.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive potential of pentoxifylline, atorvastatin and trans-caryophyllene in oral mucositis through histopathological analysis of wounds in the oral mucosa of Wistar rats treated with 5-FU, and to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these drugs on serum nitrite production, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β, and TNF-α in tissues. A total of 32 male Wistar rats with an average age of 9 weeks and an average body weight of 250 g were divided into four treatment groups: Saline, trans-caryophyllene, pentoxifylline and atorvastatin. Oral mucositis was then induced. On days 3 and 4, the mucosa of the mouth of eight pre-treated animals in each group was bilaterally scarified twice with the tip of a sterile needle, with an anesthetic solution. Mucosal samples from animals treated with trans-caryophyllene preserved a thin epithelial lining associated with focal perivascular inflammatory infiltrates. Pentoxifylline-treated animals exhibited total epithelial loss in oral wounds with severe inflammatory infiltrates and mild re-epithelialization associated with mild and diffuse inflammatory infiltrates. Samples from atorvastatin-treated animals exhibited no epithelial dissolution, with preserved thin lining and mild diffuse inflammatory infiltrates. The analysis of TNF-α expression revealed improved results in trans-caryophyllene animals. The analysis of TGF-β expression revealed positive mononuclear cells. Preventive treatment with atorvastatin was demonstrated to modulate the serum expression levels of TNF-α during all stages of the experiment. Treatment with trans-caryophyllene modulated serum IFN-γ levels negatively, whereas treatment with atorvastatin and trans-caryophyllene maintained lower levels of IFN-γ compared with the control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108041PMC
June 2021

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS AND THE HISTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF ANTRAL GASTRITES.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):212-215

Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde, MG, Brasil.

Background: Gastritis is a very common disorder that is widely distributed worldwide, representing one of the most prevalent pathological entities in Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy.

Objective: This study aims to analyze the correlation between the endoscopic findings and the histological diagnosis of antral gastritis.

Methods: In this study, 92 reports of upper digestive endoscopy were performed between November 2014 and January 2015, including biopsy of the antral gastric mucosa, comparing the endoscopic and histological findings, which were classified according to the Sidney System. The 92 exams included 35 men and 57 women, ranging in age from 15 to 84 years. The most frequent indication was epigastric pain.

Results: Of the 92 examinations analyzed, the histological diagnosis of antral gastritis appeared in 75 exams, 59 endoscopic reports contained the diagnosis of antral gastritis, and 33 endoscopic findings were normal. The kappa coefficient was 0.212 (P<0.05), indicating that there was no significant agreement between the endoscopic findings and the histological diagnosis of antral gastritis.

Conclusion: We conclude that histology represents the gold standard method for the diagnosis of antral gastritis and that in daily clinical practice, biopsies should always be performed, regardless of the endoscopic findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-2803.201800000-56DOI Listing
January 2019

Brazilian experience with atopy patch tests for , and .

World Allergy Organ J 2018 24;11(1):27. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

1Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the positivity rates of atopy patch tests for , and in patients with respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis with or without atopic dermatitis.

Methods: The patients' clinical histories were collected, and the patients were subjected to skin prick and patch tests with the three different house dust mites on the same day. The patch tests were examined 48 hours later, and then patients were divided into two groups: I- patients with respiratory diseases, such as asthma and/or rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis and II-patients with only respiratory diseases. A total of 74 patients ranging in age from 2 to 60 years were included in this study; 16 patients were included in group I and 58 were included in group II. This study was approved by the human ethics committee of the Faculty of Medical Science and Health SUPREMA (number 2.007.135), and written informed consent was collected from each patient or their parents prior to enrollment.

Results: In the skin prick tests, the most prevalent mite that evoked a reaction was , followed by and . Regarding the atopy patch tests, the mite that most frequently induced a positive reaction was (78.4%), followed by (77%) and (52.7%). A comparison of the skin prick and atopy patch tests revealed that 53 patients (71.6%) were positive on both tests, and 30 (56.6%) patients were positivite for the same mite. We found six patients (8%) who had a positive clinical history of allergy and only exhibited positivity on the atopy patch test.

Discussion: Most studies have been performed with atopic dermatitis patients, but in this study, most of the patients had respiratory conditions. is a mite that is prevalent in tropical areas, such as Brazil, and only two publications include these three mites, wich are present in Brazil. The APT may produce positive results in concordance with the SPT resuts, but may also be the only positive test ( 8%) as we observed in our study. These results suggest that the mite atopy patch test is relevant and should be considered as an additional test for patients with clinical histories of allergic respiratory disease who have negative prick test results.

Conclusion: The APT should be considered as an additional test when the SPT and specific serum IgE tests are negative in patients with clinical histories of allergies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40413-018-0206-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6199810PMC
October 2018

Pemphigus Vulgaris in the Mouth and Esophageal Mucosa.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2018 May-Aug;12(2):260-265. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Stricto Sensu Postgraduate in Health, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil.

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease. In most cases, the initial manifestation occurs in the mouth as multiple ulcerations preceded by blisters that rupture and later spread to other mucous membranes and the skin. Esophageal impairment is rare. We report a case of PV with esophageal involvement in a 53-year-old woman who sought medical care, complaining of diffuse painful lesions in the oral cavity for approximately 1 month, with no improvement with nystatin. Upper digestive endoscopy (UDE) was performed with findings of vesiculobullous lesions in the proximal and middle esophagus, which were biopsied and for which histopathology confirmed PV in the esophageal mucosa. We draw attention to UDE as important for the diagnosis, and it should be indicated in patients with vesiculobullous lesions of the mouth, especially if there are esophageal complaints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000489299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047540PMC
June 2018

Does Knowing Someone with Breast Cancer Influence the Prevalence of Adherence to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening?

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2018 Apr 2;40(4):203-208. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

Objective:  To evaluate the prevalence of adherence to screening methods for breast and cervical cancer in patients attended at a university hospital and to investigate whether knowing someone with breast cancer, moreover belonging to the patient's family, affects the adherence to the screening recommendations.

Methods:  This was a cross-sectional and quantitative study. A structured interview was applied to a sample of 820 women, between 20 and 69 years old, who attended a university hospital in the city of Juiz de for a, MG, Brazil. For the analysis, the chi-square test was used to assess possible associations between the variables, and the significance level was set at -value ≤ 0.05 for a confidence interval (CI) of 95%.

Results:  More than 95.0% of the sample performed mammography and cervical cytology exam; 62.9% reported knowing someone who has or had breast cancer, and this group was more likely to perform breast self-examination (64.9%; odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% CI 1.12-2.00), clinical breast examination (91.5%; OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.37-3.36), breast ultrasound (32.9%; OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.51), and to have had an appointment with a breast specialist (28.5%; OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.38-2.82). Women with family history of breast cancer showed higher propensity to perform breast self-examination (71.0%; OR 1.53 95% CI 1.04-2.26).

Conclusion:  There was high adherence to the recommended screening practices; knowing someone with breast cancer might make women more sensitive to this issue as they were more likely to undergo methods which are not recommended for the screening of the general population, such as breast ultrasound and specialist consultation; family history is possibly an additional cause of concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1623512DOI Listing
April 2018

Perioperative Anaphylaxis to Chlorhexidine during Surgery and Septoplasty.

Case Rep Otolaryngol 2017 19;2017:9605804. Epub 2017 Mar 19.

Serviço de Alergia e Imunologia Clínica Hospital Maternidade Therezinha de Jesus e Faculdade de Ciências Médicas e da Saúde de Juiz de Fora (SUPREMA), Alameda Salvaterra, 200 Salvaterra, 36033-003 Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant used in surgical and clinical practice since 1954 and is available in aqueous or alcoholic solutions 0.5%-4.0% and has a broad-spectrum activity. Despite their widespread use, allergic reactions with chlorhexidine are rarely reported. We describe a case of anaphylaxis with chlorhexidine during a septoplasty, turbinectomy, and maxillary sinusectomy. The patient presented with periorbital edema, hives, hypotension, and wheezing. Immediately after the diagnosis of anaphylaxis promethazine, hydrocortisone, and epinephrine were administered with immediate clinical improvement. This case highlights the importance of assessing whether there is a previous clinical history of hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine in patients who will undergo surgical procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/9605804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5376445PMC
March 2017

Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in the diagnoses of asthma in elderly patients.

Clin Interv Aging 2016 12;11:623-9. Epub 2016 May 12.

School of Medical and Health Sciences - SUPREMA, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Institute of Biological Sciences, Juiz de Fora, Brazil; Maternity Hospital Terezinha de Jesus, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Institute of Biological Sciences, Juiz de Fora, Brazil; Laboratory of Immunopathology and Experimental Pathology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Reproductive Biology Center (CBR), Juiz de Fora, Brazil.

Objective: To assess the value of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements in the diagnosis of asthma in elderly patients.

Methods: The clinical symptoms of 202 elderly patients were assessed with the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood test, which had been modified for the elderly patients, and the diagnostic routine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which was based on the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Of the 202 patients assessed, 43 were subjected to pulmonary function evaluations (spirometry) and FeNO measurements.

Results: Of the 202 elderly patients, 34 had asthma (23 definite and eleven probable), 20 met COPD criteria, 13 presented with an overlap of asthma and COPD, and 135 did not fit the criteria for obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the 43 elderly patients who were subjected to FeNO measurements, ten showed altered results (23.2%) and 33 had normal results (76.7%). The average value of FeNO in patients with definite and probable asthma undergoing this procedure was 29.2 parts per billion whereas that in nonasthmatic patients was 17.5 parts per billion (P=0.0002).

Conclusion: We show a clear relationship between FeNO levels and asthma symptoms and previous asthma diagnoses in elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S94741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869629PMC
February 2017

Atorvastatin and trans-caryophyllene for the prevention of leukopenia in an experimental chemotherapy model in Wistar rats.

Mol Clin Oncol 2015 Jul 9;3(4):825-828. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Immunopathology and Clinical Immunology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil ; Department of Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

Malignant neoplasia represents the second cause of disease-related mortality and, among all patients diagnosed with cancer, 70% will receive chemotherapy during the course of treatment. As a consequence, an increasing number of researchers have focused their attention on the search for more specific anticancer therapies associated with fewer side effects. Leukopenia is an important adverse effect associated with chemotherapy. Secondary infection is very common among leukopenic patients, directly affecting the continuity of the chemotherapeutic treatment and leading to possible complications in tumor immune defense. Atorvastatin, a type of statin, is a known agent used to control hypercholesterolemia. Trans-caryophyllene, isolated from a resinous oil extracted from the copaiba tree, possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The AIM of the present study was to evaluate, through a complete leukocyte count, the systemic immunomodulation potential of pentoxifylline (PTX), atorvastatin and trans-caryophyllene, as well as the possible prophylactic role of these drugs against secondary leukopenia, in an experimental chemotherapy model induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in wistar rats. A total of 32 male wistar rats were used, 24 of which were submitted to treatment with atorvastatin, PTX and trans-caryophyllene prior to the administration of chemotherapy. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to verify normality and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for negative data in the normality test. Among the drugs selected, atorvastatin exhibited the best preventive potential in regards to leukopenia secondary to experimental chemotherapy induced by 5-FU, in comparison to the group receiving saline solution, while PTX amplified such alterations in the leukograms of the animals in this trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2015.544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4487044PMC
July 2015

Oral mucositis in cancer treatment: Natural history, prevention and treatment.

Mol Clin Oncol 2014 May 7;2(3):337-340. Epub 2014 Feb 7.

Department of Morphology (Histology and Embryology), Institute of Biological Sciences Research, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Oral mucositis is a condition that is characterized by ulcerative lesions in the mucosa of patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Oral mucositis is currently considered to be the most severe complication of anticancer therapy, affecting 40-80% of patients undergoing chemotherapy and almost all those undergoing radiotherapy of the head and neck. Although they do not prevent lesions from appearing, drugs for the treatment of oral mucositis are required to minimize its clinical aggressiveness and improve the nutritional status, hydration and quality of life of the affected patients. Furthermore, the prevention and control of oral ulcers is crucial for cancer prognosis, since the establishment of severe lesions may lead to temporary or permanent treatment discontinuation and compromise cancer control. The objective of this study was to present a review on this condition, its causes and its treatment to professional clinical dentists, in order to help minimize patient suffering. A search was conducted through PubMed, Lilacs and MedLine, to retrieve related articles published between 1994 and 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2014.253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3999143PMC
May 2014

Evaluation of platelet aggregation in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies: anti-β2GP1 and anticardiolipin.

Rev Bras Reumatol 2013 Sep-Oct;53(5):400-4

Introduction: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis, besides obstetric complications. The pathogenesis is associated with the presence of antiphospholipid and/or anti-b2-glicoprotein I (anti-b2GPI) antibodies that appear to change the anticoagulant activity of b2GPI. Antibody-induced dimerization of b2GPI seems to be related to the induction of platelet aggregation, contributing to the development of thrombosis in APS.

Objectives: The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the influence of antiphospholipid antibodies in platelet aggregation tests with different agonists (ADP, collagen, and adrenaline).

Methods: We analyzed platelet aggregation tests with different agonists (ADP, collagen, adrenalin) when normal platelets were exposed to serum with different concentrations of antiphospholipid antibodies.

Results: Results demonstrated a significant inhibition in adrenalin- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation curves (P < 0.05) in all antibody concentrations tested when compared to the control. The paradox between the prothrombotic state and the presence of autoantibodies that show anticoagulant activity in vitro was demonstrated in the literature, making it difficult to understand the pathophysiologic mechanism of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

Conclusion: Results showed that anticardiolipin and anti-b2GPI antibodies-rich serum, both of which belonging to the IgG class, can interfere with platelet aggregation curves.
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April 2015

Body weight gain and serum leptin levels of non-overweight and overweight/obese pregnant women.

Med Sci Monit 2013 Nov 22;19:1043-9. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

Background: Our objective was to evaluate changes in serum leptin levels during pregnancy in overweight/obese and non-obese women and to assess total and percent weight gain during pregnancy as possible factors that influence leptin levels.

Material And Methods: In a prospective study of 42 low-risk pregnant women receiving prenatal care, we assessed serum leptin levels at gestational weeks 9-12, 25-28, and 34-37. Based on their pre-pregnancy body mass indices (BMIs), the cohort was divided into: non-overweight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) subjects.

Results: We found a progressive increase in maternal weight gain during pregnancy in both groups. There was also a progressive increase in leptin levels in the 2 strata; however, the increase was significantly higher in the non-overweight patient group. We found that non-overweight pregnant women had a noticeably larger total weight gain. When analyzing the percent weight gain during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy weight, the non-overweight group had a significantly greater percent weight gain than the overweight/obese group.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the greater increase in leptin levels in non-overweight pregnant women can be explained by the higher percent weight gain in this group compared to overweight/obese women. These findings suggest that controlling the percent weight gain may be an important preventive measure when controlling leptin levels during pregnancy and subsequent medical complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.884027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3853999PMC
November 2013

Oral lichen planus treated with tacrolimus 0.1%.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2013 25;6(10):917-21. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Master in Dental Science Program, Universidade Federal de Juis de Fora Brazil.

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is considered a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease and its presence may be related to increased emotional stress. The clinical relevance of OLP is the possibility of developing a squamous cell carcinoma, the etiology of which is still unknown. The aim of this study is to treat OLP lesions resistant to conventional treatment with corticosteroids, using topical tacrolimus 0.1% (Protopic(®)) twice a day for a period of eight weeks. Fifteen patients were selected who had filled out a history form and a visual analog scale for pain before and after treatment. All patients underwent an initial biopsy to diagnose the disease and another at the end of the treatment period to evaluate the effect of the medication on the infiltrate. A weekly check was carried out, observing the clinical appearance, pain symptoms and occurrence of side effects which, where present, were mild and transient. The results showed twelve patients (80%) with total or nearly total remission of pain symptoms and lesions, two patients (13.33%) showed clearer lesions and only one patient (6.67%) had no change in clinical symptoms or pain. Histopathological analysis showed OLP had a moderate or strong regression in twelve patients (80%) and an absent or mild regression in three patients (20%). Based on these results, it was concluded that tacrolimus 0.1% (Protopic(®)) is a safe and effective medication that improves the clinical appearance of the lesion, reduces pain as well as the histopathological features of OLP.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3832328PMC
November 2013

Nutritional status and systemic inflammatory activity of colorectal patients on symbiotic supplementation.

Arq Bras Cir Dig 2012 Jul-Sep;25(3):147-53

Center for Reproductive Biology, Laboratory of Imunology and Imunopathology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora and Outpatient Hospital Jose Maria Baeta Reis of Women's Association of Cancer Prevention of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

Background: Nutritional depletion in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, even with adequate weight, may be associated with co-morbidity factors such as: reduction of immunity, increased rate of infections, impaired cicatrization and muscle weakness. Immunomodulating diets have recently been used as a nutritional approach to cancer patients. Prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics (a mixture of the first two) have been studied.

Aim: To assess the Nutritional Status and Systemic Inflammatory Activity of colorectal patients on symbiotic supplementation. It was a progressive longitudinal study in colorectal cancer patients.

Methods: All patients underwent assessment of nutritional status and subsequent serological analysis, daily use of the symbiotic supplement, anthropometric and biochemical assessment every three months Besides anthropometric data, the following blood components were measured: C-reactive protein (CRP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and albumin.

Results: The mean CRP level at baseline, before symbiotic administration, was 11 mg/dL, with a reduction to below 6 mg/dL at the end of the study.

Conclusion: There was a beneficial effect of symbiotic supplementation, because although albumin and CEA levels were stable during the study, there was a CRP reduction in meantime.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-67202012000300003DOI Listing
August 2013

Clinical protocol for punctuated 88% phenol peels in the treatment of photoaging: a histopathological study of three cases.

Dermatol Surg 2012 Dec 28;38(12):2011-5. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

Laboratory of Immunopathology and Experimental Pathology/CBR, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2012.02543.xDOI Listing
December 2012

[Waist circumference measured before the 12th week of pregnancy: correlation with serum leptin levels].

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2012 Jun;34(6):268-73

Disciplina de Obstetrícia do Curso de Medicina da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas e da Saúde de Juiz de Fora - Suprema - Juiz de Fora (MG), Brasil.

Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between maternal waist circumference measured before the 12th week of gestation and serum leptin levels during pregnancy, as well as to compare the leptin levels of women with and without abdominal obesity diagnosed in early pregnancy.

Methods: Prospective study including 40 pregnant women receiving low-risk prenatal care, older than 20 years, nonsmokers, with singleton pregnancies and without chronic disease. Waist circumference was measured before the 12th week and serum leptin levels were measured between the 9th and 12th, 25th and 28th and 34th and 37th weeks of gestation. According to waist circumference measurement, the cohort was divided into two groups: with and without abdominal obesity. The Mann-Whitney and χ(2) tests were used to assess the differences between groups. The Pearson correlation coeffient was used to assess the association between waist circumference and serum leptin levels during pregnancy. The level of significance was set at p<0.05.

Results: The mean weight and body mass index of patients with abdominal obesity (74.4±11.0 kg/28.9±4.1) was higher than that of patients without abdominal obesity (55.6±5.9 kg/21.1±2.4) (p=0.001). The mean leptin levels in pregnant patients with abdominal obesity (41.9±3.5 ng/mL) was higher than in patients without abdominal obesity (23.6±2.7 ng/mL) (p<0.0002). A positive correlation was obtained between the waist circumference measured during the same period and the mean serum leptin levels (r=0.7; p<0.0001).

Conclusions: Waist circumference measured before the 12th week of pregnancy is a valid and simple method to predict the serum leptin levels throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with abdominal obesity diagnosed before 12th week have higher mean serum leptin levels during pregnancy than those without abdominal obesity.
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June 2012

Low-level laser therapy reduces delayed hypersensitivity reaction to ovalbumin in Balb/C mice.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Dec 22;28(6):773-7. Epub 2010 Oct 22.

Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, SUPREMA, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in an experimental model of delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DTH). LLLT has been used clinically to treat numerous diseases and has been tested in different experimental models, but some of its effects have yet to be explained. We assessed the effects of LLLT on DTH to ovalbumin (OVA), a protein that has commonly been used as an antigen to sensitize laboratory animals. This experimental model is broadly used to assess the effects of substances that can potentially modulate the immune system and inflammatory reactions. Balb/C mice were randomly divided into four groups: (I) immunized, untreated, and challenged (n = 6); (II) not immunized, untreated, and challenged (n = 6); (III) immunized, treated with azathioprine (AZA), and challenged (n = 6); and (IV) immunized, treated with LLLT, and challenged (n = 6). Forty-eight hours after the challenge, the animals were submitted to a paw edema test and euthanized for histopathology analysis of their plantar pads. The results obtained in DTH units were as follows: Group I, 19.6 ± 8.9; Group II, 5.8 ± 2.6; Group III, 5.6 ± 2.5; and Group IV, 5.2 ± 2.6. DTH was less intense for the groups treated with AZA and laser compared with Group I (p < 0.05). We observed no statistical difference between the AZA- and LLLT-treated groups. The slides obtained from the footpad specimens showed that AZA and laser acted similarly on the normal pattern of DTH triggering. Our results suggest that treatment with LLLT has an immunomodulatory effect on DTH to OVA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pho.2009.2684DOI Listing
December 2010

Effect of thalidomide and pentoxifylline on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

Exp Neurol 2010 Nov 18;226(1):15-23. Epub 2010 Apr 18.

Fluminense Federal University, FCB, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats is a classical experimental model of demyelinating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. EAE is widely accepted for study of immune-inflammatory mechanisms in the CNS related to multiple sclerosis (MS) due to similar clinical evolution.

Objectives: In the present study we investigated the effects of Thalidomide and pentoxifylline during EAE development in Lewis rats.

Methods: EAE was induced in Lewis rats and treatment with Thalidomide or pentoxifylline was performed. Clinical evaluation was carried out daily. Histopathological analysis of the brain tissue and spinal cord was performed. Griess method was used for determination of NO serum levels. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma serum levels were investigated using ELISA method.

Results: Thalidomide and pentoxifylline treatment is associated with significant reduction of neuroinflammation in CNS. Serum levels of NO, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha showed a marked reduction. Such findings were correlated with improvement of clinical symptoms, particularly in thalidomide treated rats.

Conclusions: Taken together the data suggested that thalidomide and pentoxifylline may be therapeutic options for the treatment of MS, however further experiments must be performed to investigate this hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2010.04.007DOI Listing
November 2010

Down-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-2 expression is associated with the reduction of cyclosporin induced gingival overgrowth in rats treated with roxithromycin: an experimental study.

BMC Oral Health 2009 Dec 8;9:33. Epub 2009 Dec 8.

Department of Clinical Dental, Federal University of Juiz de Fora/UFJF - Juiz de Fora/Brazil, Dom André Arcoverde Foundation, Valença, Brazil.

Background: Gingival overgrowth (GO) is a common side effect of the chronic use of cyclosporine (CsA), an immunosuppressant widely used to prevent rejection in transplant patients. Recent studies have reported elevated levels of specific cytokines in gingival overgrowth tissue, particularly TGF-beta, suggesting that this growth factor plays a role in the accumulation of extracellular matrix materials. The effectiveness of azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, in the regression of this undesirable side effect has also been demonstrated.

Methods: In this study, we created an experimental model for assessing the therapeutic effect of roxithromycin in GO and the expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta2) through immunohistochemistry. We used four groups of rats totaling 32 individuals. GO was induced during five weeks and drug treatment was given on the 6th week as follows: group 1 received saline; group 2 received CsA and was treated with saline on the 6th week; group 3 received CsA and, on the 6th week, ampicilin; and group 4 received CsA during 5 weeks and, on the 6th week, was treated with roxithromycin.

Results: The results demonstrated that roxithromycin treatment was effective in reducing cyclosporine-induced GO in rats. Both epithelial and connective tissue showed a decrease in thickness and a significant reduction in TGF-beta2 expression, with a lower number of fibroblasts, reduction in fibrotic areas and decrease in inflammatory infiltrate.

Conclusion: The present data suggest that the down-regulation of TGF-beta2 expression may be an important mechanism of action by which roxithromycin inhibits GO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-9-33DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802586PMC
December 2009

Low-level laser therapy increases transforming growth factor-beta2 expression and induces apoptosis of epithelial cells during the tissue repair process.

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Apr;27(2):303-7

Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora-MG, Laboratory of Immunopathology and Experimental Pathology, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background Data: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to modulate the healing of wounds by inducing an increase in mitotic activity, fibroblast number, synthesis of collagen, and neovascularization.

Objective: In the present study we evaluated the effect of LLLT on expression of TGF-beta(2), an immunosuppressive cytokine, at the site of tissue repair, using an experimental rat model to study cutaneous wound healing. In addition, we also investigated the presence of apoptotic cells in epithelial and connective tissue.

Materials And Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: group 1, which was subjected to surgical skin wounds only (n = 15), and group 2, which was subjected to surgical skin wounds followed by LLLT (n = 15). In group 2, the LLLT was given with these parameters: 15 mW of power, a dose of 3.8 J/cm(2), for 15 sec for three applications. At 10 d post-surgery and laser application the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of anesthetic and tissue samples from the wounds were submitted to immunohistochemistry and in-situ detection of apoptosis.

Results: Most of the inflammatory cells and fibroblasts were TGF-beta(2)-positive, and many apoptotic epithelial cells and fibroblasts were seen in the tissue samples from the LLLT-treated animals. However, a few apoptotic epithelial cells and fibroblasts were also seen in the samples obtained from control animals.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that LLLT may be an important inducer of apoptosis during the process of tissue repair. In addition, we demonstrated that LLTT has an immunomodulatory effect on TGF-beta(2) expression at sites of wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pho.2008.2277DOI Listing
April 2009

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression and detection of apoptosis at the site of chronic periodontitis in AIDS patients.

J Periodontal Res 2003 Dec;38(6):606-10

Laboratory of Immunopathogy and Experimental Pathology, Reproduction Biology Center, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is associated with the regulation of the life cell cycle of leukocytes in healthy and diseased states.

Objectives: In the present study, we investigated the presence of apoptosis of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the periodontal lesion from adult periodontitis in healthy control patients and AIDS patients.

Materials And Methods: Tissue samples adjacent to a 5-6 mm gingival sulcus, measured with a periodontal probe, were obtained during routine periodontal surgical procedures. The direct immuno-peroxidase of digoxigenin-labeled genomic DNA method was used for in situ detection of apoptosis in gingival tissues.

Results: Many tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-positive cells, detected by immunohistochemistry method, were observed in gingival samples of both groups of patients. In addition, a significant lower number ( p < 0.05) of mononuclear apoptotic cells were observed in AIDS patients when compared with healthy control patients.

Conclusion: These data suggested an important role of the apoptosis of mononuclear cells in the pathogenesis of chronic adult periodontitis in AIDS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0765.2003.00701.xDOI Listing
December 2003
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