Publications by authors named "Feng Xiao"

783 Publications

Genomic insights into molecular adaptation to intertidal environments in the mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Lab of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.

Mangroves have colonized extreme intertidal environments characterized by high salinity, hypoxia, and other abiotic stresses. Aegiceras corniculatum, a pioneer mangrove species that evolved two specialized adaptive traits (salt secretion and crypto-vivipary), is an attractive ecological model to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to intertidal environments. We de novo assembled a high-quality reference genome of A. corniculatum and performed comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to intertidal environments. We provide evidence that A. corniculatum experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event around 35 million years ago. We inferred that maintenance of cellular environmental homeostasis is an important adaptive process in A. corniculatum. The 14-3-3 and H -ATPase protein-coding genes, essential for the salt homeostasis, were preferentially retained after the recent WGD event. Using comparative transcriptomics, we showed that genes up-regulated under high-salt conditions were involved in salt transport and ROS scavenging. We also found that all homologs of DELAY OF GERMINATION1 (DOG1) lost their heme-binding ability in A. corniculatum, which may contribute to crypto-vivipary. Our study provides insights into the genomic correlates of phenotypic adaptation to intertidal environments. It could contribute not only within the genomics community, but also to the field of plant evolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17551DOI Listing
June 2021

Characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of Baill.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 May 27;6(6):1770-1771. Epub 2021 May 27.

Guizhou Academy of Forestry, Guiyang, Guizhou, China.

Baill (Fam.: Leguminosae; Trib.: Caesalpinieae) are widely distributed in China. In this study, we assembled the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of . The total cp genome size was 165,315 bp in length, containing a large single-copy region of 92,356 bp, a small single-copy region of 20,449bp, and a pair of inverted repeat regions of 26,255 bp. The all GC content of cp was 34.95%. It encodes a total of 105 unique genes, including 75 protein-coding genes, 26 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. Seventeen genes contain a single intron, and two genes ( and ) have two introns. Phylogenetic analysis results strongly supported that was closely related to
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1931510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168727PMC
May 2021

Effect of granular activated carbon and other porous materials on thermal decomposition of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: Mechanisms and implications for water purification.

Water Res 2021 May 19;200:117271. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of North Dakota, 243 Centennial Drive Stop 8115, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202, United States. Electronic address:

Thermal treatment is routinely used to reactivate the spent granular activated carbon (GAC) from water purification facilities. It is also an integral part of sewage sludge treatment and municipal solid waste management. This study presents a detailed investigation of the fate of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and one PFAS alternative (GenX) in thermal processes, focusing on the effect of GAC. We demonstrate that the thermolysis of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and GenX can occur at temperatures of 150‒200 °C. Three temperature zones were discovered for PFOA, including a stable and nonvolatile zone (≤90 °C), a phase-transfer and thermal decomposition zone (90‒400 °C), and a fast decomposition zone (≥400 °C). The thermal decomposition began with the homolysis of a C‒C bond next to the carboxyl group of PFCAs, which formed unstable perfluoroalkyl radicals. Dual decomposition pathways seem to exist. The addition of a highly porous adsorbent, such as GAC or a copolymer resin, compressed the intermediate sublimation zone of PFCAs, changed their thermal decomposition pathways, and increased the decomposition rate constant by up to 150-fold at 250 °C. The results indicate that the observed thermal decomposition acceleration was linked to the adsorption of gas-phase PFCA molecules on GAC. The presence of non-activated charcoals/biochars with a low affinity for PFOA did not accelerate its thermal decomposition, suggesting that the π electron-rich, polyaromatic surface of charcoal/GAC played an insignificant role compared to the adsorbent's porosity. Overall, the results indicate that (1) substantial decomposition of PFCAs and GenX during conventional thermal GAC/sludge/waste treatment is very likely, and (2) the presence or addition of GAC or other highly porous materials can accelerate thermal PFAS decomposition and alter decomposition pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117271DOI Listing
May 2021

Psychological Impact During the First Outbreak of COVID-19 on Frontline Health Care Workers in Shanghai.

Front Public Health 2021 17;9:646780. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant health threat. Health care worker (HCWs) are at a significant risk of infection which may cause high levels of psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of the COVID-19 on HCWs and factors which were associated with these stresses during the first outbreak in Shanghai. Between February 9 and 21, 2020, a total of 3,114 frontline HCWs from 26 hospitals in Shanghai completed an online survey. The questionnaire included questions on their sociodemographic characteristics, 15 stress-related questions, and General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the 15 stress-related questions which produced four distinct factors for evaluation. Multiple linear regression models were performed to explore the association of personal characteristics with each score of the four factors. Binary logistic analysis was used to explain the association of personal characteristics and these four factors with the GHQ-12. There were 2,691 valid surveys received. The prevalence of emotional distress (defined as GHQ-12 ≥ 12) was noted in 47.7% (95%CI:45.7-49.6%) HCWs. Females (OR = 1.43, 95%CI:1.09-1.86) were more likely to have a psychological distress than males. However, HCWs who work in secondary hospitals (OR = 0.71, 95% CI:0.58-0.87) or had a no contact history (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.35-0.58) were less likely to suffer psychological distress. HCWs who were nurses, married, and had a known contact history were highly likely to have anxiety. HCWs working at tertiary hospitals felt an elevated anxiety regarding the infection, a lack of knowledge, and less protected compared to those who worked at secondary hospitals. Our study shows that the frontline HCWs had a significant psychosocial distress during the COVID-19 outbreak in Shanghai. HCWs felt a lack of knowledge and had feelings of being not protected. It is necessary for hospitals and governments to provide additional trainings and psychological counseling to support the first-line HCWs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.646780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165161PMC
June 2021

Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Regulates Osteoblastic Differentiation Through Wnt/β-Catenin and PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathways in MC3T3-E1 Cells.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 12;12:657953. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in cell multi-directional differentiation, but its role in osteoblast differentiation is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether and how NCAM regulates osteoblastic differentiation. We found that NCAM silencing inhibited osteoblast differentiation in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The function of NCAM was further confirmed in NCAM-deficient mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which also had a phenotype with reduced osteoblastic potential. Moreover, NCAM silencing induced decrease of Wnt/β-catenin and Akt activation. The Wnt inhibitor blocked osteoblast differentiation, and the Wnt activator recovered osteoblast differentiation in NCAM-silenced MC3T3-E1 cells. We lastly demonstrated that osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells was inhibited by the PI3K-Akt inhibitor. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that NCAM silencing inhibited osteoblastic differentiation through inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.657953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150200PMC
May 2021

Detection and Grading of Gliomas Using a Novel Two-Phase Machine Learning Method Based on MRI Images.

Front Neurosci 2021 14;15:650629. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Information Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The early detection and grading of gliomas is important for treatment decision and assessment of prognosis. Over the last decade numerous automated computer analysis tools have been proposed, which can potentially lead to more reliable and reproducible brain tumor diagnostic procedures. In this paper, we used the gradient-based features extracted from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) images to depict the subtle changes within brains of patients with gliomas. Based on the gradient features, we proposed a novel two-phase classification framework for detection and grading of gliomas. In the first phase, the probability of each local feature being related to different types (e.g., diseased or healthy for detection, benign or malignant for grading) was calculated. Then the high-level feature representing the whole MRI image was generated by concatenating the membership probability of each local feature. In the second phase, the supervised classification algorithm was used to train a classifier based on the high-level features and patient labels of the training subjects. We applied this framework on the brain imaging data collected from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University for glioma detection, and the public TCIA datasets including glioblastomas (WHO IV) and low-grade gliomas (WHO II and III) data for glioma grading. The experimental results showed that the gradient-based classification framework could be a promising tool for automatic diagnosis of brain tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.650629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160229PMC
May 2021

LncRNA RP11-390F4.3 inhibits invasion and migration of glioblastoma cells by downregulating ROCK1.

Neuroreport 2021 Jul;32(10):888-893

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang, PR. China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA RP11-390F4.3 in glioblastoma.

Methods: The expression levels of RP11-390F4.3, miR-148a and ROCK1 in glioblastoma and nontumor tissues were measured by performing quantitative PCR (qPCR) and data were compared using paired t test. Linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlations between RP11-390F4.3 and miR-148a/ROCK1 in glioblastoma tissues. The effects of overexpression of RP11-390F4.3, miR-148a and ROCK1 on U-373 MG cell invasion and migration were analyzed by Transwell assay.

Results: RP11-390F4.3 and ROCK1 were both upregulated in glioblastoma, while miR-148a was downregulated in glioblastoma. In glioblastoma, RP11-390F4.3 was positively correlated with ROCK1 but negatively correlated with miR-148a. In glioblastoma cells, overexpression of RP11-390F4.3 led to upregulated ROCK1 and downregulated miR-148a. Cell invasion and migration analysis showed that overexpression of RP11-390F4.3 and ROCK1 resulted in increased, and overexpression of miR-148a resulted in deceased invasion and migration rates of glioblastoma cells.

Conclusion: Therefore, RP11-390F4.3 may upregulate ROCK1 by downregulating miR-148a to promote glioblastoma cell invasion and migration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001676DOI Listing
July 2021

Coordination Polymer Glasses with Lava and Healing Ability for High-Performance Gas Sieving.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Beijing Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry, CHINA.

Coordination polymer (CP) glasses offer a way to tackle the fabrication challenges encountered by inorganic porous membranes and show great potentials for size-exclusive gas separation. However, their processability and performance still cannot simultaneously meet the requirements for high-performance membrane separation. Herein, we have developed a series of CP glasses (M-P-dmbIm, M = Zn, Cd, Cu, and Mn), which possess low vitrification temperature as well as low viscosity (η) and lave capability above the transition temperatures. The derived glass (agM-P-dmbIm) membranes show outstanding performances for H2/CO2, H2/N2, and H2/CH4 separation, which all far surpass the Robeson upper bound and even rival against the best of the state-of-the-art gas separation membranes. The low viscosities not only allow us to hot-cast or hot-press the CP glasses into thin membranes within 5 min without sacrificing their selectivity and permeability, but also endow the resulted glass membranes with healing ability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202102047DOI Listing
May 2021

Context-aware heatstroke relief station placement and route optimization for large outdoor events.

Int J Health Geogr 2021 05 25;20(1):23. Epub 2021 May 25.

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Aomi, Koto, Tokyo, 135-0064, Japan.

Background: Heatstroke is becoming an increasingly serious threat to outdoor activities, especially, at the time of large events organized during summer, including the Olympic Games or various types of happenings in amusement parks like Disneyland or other popular venues. The risk of heatstroke is naturally affected by a high temperature, but it is also dependent on various other contextual factors such as the presence of shaded areas along traveling routes or the distribution of relief stations. The purpose of the study is to develop a method to reduce the heatstroke risk of pedestrians for large outdoor events by optimizing relief station placement, volume scheduling and route.

Results: Our experiments conducted on the planned site of the Tokyo Olympics and simulated during the two weeks of the Olympics schedule indicate that planning routes and setting relief stations with our proposed optimization model could effectively reduce heatstroke risk. Besides, the results show that supply volume scheduling optimization can further reduce the risk of heatstroke. The route with the shortest length may not be the route with the least risk, relief station and physical environment need to be considered and the proposed method can balance these factors.

Conclusions: This study proposed a novel emergency service problem that can be applied in large outdoor event scenarios with multiple walking flows. To solve the problem, an effective method is developed and evaluates the heatstroke risk in outdoor space by utilizing context-aware indicators which are determined by large and heterogeneous data including facilities, road networks and street view images. We propose a Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming model for optimizing routes of pedestrians, determining the location of relief stations and the supply volume in each relief station. The proposed method can help organizers better prepare for the event and pedestrians participate in the event more safely.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12942-021-00275-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147018PMC
May 2021

Construction of Interlayer Conjugated Links in 2D Covalent Organic Frameworks via Topological Polymerization.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 19;143(21):7897-7902. Epub 2021 May 19.

Frontiers Science Center for High Energy Material, Advanced Technology Research Institute (Jinan), Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, P. R. China.

Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) are well-defined polymeric sheets that usually stack in an eclipsed mode via van der Waals forces. Extensive efforts have been made to manipulate interlayer interactions, yet there still lack a way to construct conjugated connections between adjacent layers, which is important for (opto)electronic-related applications. Herein, we report an interlayer topological polymerization strategy to transform the well-organized diacetylene columnar arrays in three different 2D COFs (TAPFY-COF, TAPB-COF, and TAPP-COF) into conjugated enyne chains upon heating in the solid state. The resultant COFs (COF-P) with retained high crystallinity possess broadened absorption bands and narrowed band gaps. The newly formed conjugated chains provide extra charge carrier pathways through direct π-electron delocalization. As a proof-of-concept, after topological polymerization, the conductivity of the TAPFY-COF film achieves 2.8 × 10 S/cm without doping, and the photothermal, photoacoustic, and oxygen reduction catalytic performance of TAPP-COF is significantly improved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c02932DOI Listing
June 2021

Computerized Assessment of the Tumor-stromal Ratio and Proposal of a Novel Nomogram for Predicting Survival in Invasive Breast Cancer.

J Cancer 2021 19;12(12):3427-3438. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Wuhan, China, 430071.

Various studies have verified the prognostic significance of the tumor-stromal ratio (TSR) in several types of carcinomas using manually assessed H&E stained histologic sections. This study aimed to establish a computerized method to assess the TSR in invasive breast cancer (BC) using immunohistochemistry (IHC)-stained tissue microarrays (TMAs), and integrate the TSR into a novel nomogram for predicting survival. IHC-staining of cytokeratin (CK) was performed in 7 prepared TMAs containing 240 patients with 480 invasive BC specimens. The ratio of tumor areas and stromal areas was determined by the computerized method, and categorized as stroma-low and stroma-high groups using the X-tile software. The prognostic value of the TSR at 5-year disease free survival (5-DFS) in each subgroup was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and a novel nomogram for predicting survival in invasive breast cancer was established and assessed. The newly developed computerized method could accurately recognize CK-labeled tumor areas and non-labeled stromal areas, and automatically calculate the TSR. Stroma-low and stroma-high accounted for 38.8% (n = 93) and 61.2% (n = 147) of the cases, according to the cut-off value of 55.5% for stroma ratio. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients in the stroma-high group had a worse 5-DFS compared to patients in the stroma-low group ( = 0.031). Multivariable analysis indicated that the T stage, N status, histological grade, ER status, HER-2 gene, and the TSR were potential risk factors of invasive BC patients, which were included into the nomogram ( < 0.10 for all). The nomogram was well calibrated to predict the probability of 5-DFS and the C-index was 0.817, which was higher than any single predictor. A dynamic nomogram was built for convenient use. The area under the curve (AUC) of the nomogram was 0.870, while that of the TNM staging system was 0.723. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the nomogram had a better risk stratification for invasive BC patients than the TNM staging system. Based on IHC staining of CK on TMAs, this study successfully developed a computerized method for TSR assessment and established a novel nomogram for predicting survival in invasive BC patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.55750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120167PMC
April 2021

A Case of Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast with Mixed Liposarcoma: Case Report and Literature Review.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 6;14:3003-3011. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathology, Shihezi University School of Medicine and the First Affiliated Hospital to Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, 832002, People's Republic of China.

Phyllodes tumors (PTs) account for less than 1% of breast tumors, and malignant PTs account for even less. Here, we described an unusual case of malignant PT with mixed liposarcoma (myxoid liposarcoma [MLP] and pleomorphic liposarcoma [PLP]). A 52-year-old woman discovered a small lump in her left breast. Twenty years later, the lump suddenly grew within 1 month. Mammography showed space-occupying lesions of the left breast. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by hypercellular stroma covering the epithelium and protrusion of the myoepithelium into the cyst to form a lobulated structure; regions of loose mucus and hypercellular structures alternated. A region of peripheral benign fibroadenoma was also observed, and many stellate and spindle cells or signet ring-like cells were identified in loose areas. Some areas showed a characteristic thin branching vascular pattern. In the cell-rich area, adipocytes and odd megakaryocytes were observed. Atypical mitotic figures were observed in the cell-rich and mucus areas (16 mitoses/10 high-power fields [HPF] and 2 mitoses/10 HPF, respectively). In the immunohistochemical analysis, a small number of tumor cells were positive for AE1/3 and vimentin, whereas all cells were negative for cytokeratin 34βE12, E-cadherin, p63, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and S-100, ruling out the possibility of metaplastic carcinoma. Interestingly, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), and p16 were strongly positive in both loose mucus and cell-rich areas. However, the fluorescence in situ hybridization test results showed that MDM2 was not amplified. Combined with morphological characteristics, these findings supported that the tumor was a mixed malignant PT with MLP and PLP. Our patient did not receive radiation therapy, and after 47 months of follow-up, no recurrence or metastasis occurred. This case report serves to expand the morphologic spectrum of mixed malignant PT with liposarcoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S298379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110257PMC
May 2021

Corrigendum to <' Efficient purification of Al by organic complexation method'> <[Journal of Environmental Sciences 80 (2019) 240-247]>.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 23;104:456. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2021.03.019DOI Listing
June 2021

Metal-organic framework membranes with single-atomic centers for photocatalytic CO and O reduction.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2682. Epub 2021 May 11.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, PKU-HKU Joint Laboratory in Rare Earth Materials and Bioinorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, P. R. China.

The demand for sustainable energy has motivated the development of artificial photosynthesis. Yet the catalyst and reaction interface designs for directly fixing permanent gases (e.g. CO, O, N) into liquid fuels are still challenged by slow mass transfer and sluggish catalytic kinetics at the gas-liquid-solid boundary. Here, we report that gas-permeable metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes can modify the electronic structures and catalytic properties of metal single-atoms (SAs) to promote the diffusion, activation, and reduction of gas molecules (e.g. CO O) and produce liquid fuels under visible light and mild conditions. With Ir SAs as active centers, the defect-engineered MOF (e.g. activated NH-UiO-66) particles can reduce CO to HCOOH with an apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of 2.51% at 420 nm on the gas-liquid-solid reaction interface. With promoted gas diffusion at the porous gas-solid interfaces, the gas-permeable SA/MOF membranes can directly convert humid CO gas into HCOOH with a near-unity selectivity and a significantly increased AQE of 15.76% at 420 nm. A similar strategy can be applied to the photocatalytic O-to-HO conversions, suggesting the wide applicability of our catalyst and reaction interface designs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22991-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113524PMC
May 2021

The short-term efficacy of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation versus intravesical instillation for the urethral pain syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

World J Urol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

The Clinical Research Section, Shanghai Research Institute of Acupuncture and Meridian, 650 South Wanping Road, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: Urethral pain syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by disturbing feeling or server pain sensed at the urethra without specific treatment. This double-center, two-arm controlled trial aimed to explore the efficacy of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (EPNS) versus intravesical instillation (II) of heparin and alkalinized lidocaine for urethral pain syndrome (UPS).

Methods: Eighty eligible patients took three sessions of EPNS, or 1 session of II per week, for 6 consecutive weeks. The primary end point was the change of pelvic pain and urgency/frequency symptom (PUF) score from baseline to week 6. Secondary outcome measures included changes of visual analogue scale (VAS) score and three sub-score extracted from PUF score.

Results: The enrolled participants were all included in the intention-to-treat analyses, and baseline characteristics between the two groups were well balanced. The post-treatment PUF score decreased by 10.0 (7.00, 16.50) in the EPNS group, and by 7.0 (3.00, 10.00) in the II group. At the closure of treatment, the medians of changes in symptom score, bother score, pain-related score and VAS score were 6.50 (4.25, 10.00), 4.00 (2.00, 6.00), 6.00 (5.00, 8.00),4.50 (2.25, 6.00), respectively, in the EPNS group, and 4.00 (2.00, 7.00), 3.00 (1.00, 3.00), 3.00 (2.00, 6.00), 2.00 (1.00, 4.00), respectively, in the II group. All the between-group differences were statistically significant.

Conclusion: Compared with the II, the EPNS results in superior pain control and better relief of lower urinary tract symptoms, and deserves further attention.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03671993).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03698-2DOI Listing
May 2021

The p23 of Citrus Tristeza Virus Interacts with Host FKBP-Type Peptidyl-Prolylcis-Trans Isomerase 17-2 and Is Involved in the Intracellular Movement of the Viral Coat Protein.

Cells 2021 Apr 17;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Key Lab of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

is a member of the genus in the family . The p23 of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a multifunctional protein and RNA silencing suppressor. In this study, we identified a p23 interacting partner, FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 17-2, from (CaFKBP17-2), a susceptible host, and (NbFKBP17-2), an experimental host for CTV. The interaction of p23 with CaFKBP17-2 and NbFKBP17-2 were individually confirmed by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. Subcellular localization tests showed that the viral p23 translocated FKBP17-2 from chloroplasts to the plasmodesmata of epidermal cell of leaves. The knocked-down expression level of NbFKBP17-2 mRNA resulted in a decreased CTV titer in plants. Further, BiFC and Y2H assays showed that NbFKBP17-2 also interacted with the coat protein (CP) of CTV, and the complexes of CP/NbFKBP17-2 rapidly moved in the cytoplasm. Moreover, p23 guided the CP/NbFKBP17-2 complexes to move along the cell wall. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of viral proteins interacting with FKBP17-2 encoded by plants. Our results provide insights for further revealing the mechanism of the CTV CP protein movement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10040934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073322PMC
April 2021

Transcriptome Analysis of Needle and Root of in Response to Continuous Drought Stress.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

Lamb. is an important coniferous tree species in ecological environment construction and sustainable forestry development. The function of gene gradual change and coexpression modules of needle and root parts of under continuous drought stress is unclear. The physiological and transcriptional expression profiles of seedlings from 1a half-sibling progeny during drought stress were measured and analyzed. As a result, under continuous drought conditions, needle peroxidase (POD) activity and proline content continued to increase. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots continuously increased, and the root activity continuously decreased. The needles of seedlings may respond to drought mainly through regulating abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormone-related pathways. Roots may provide plant growth through fatty acid β-oxidative decomposition, and peroxisomes may contribute to the production of ROS, resulting in the upregulation of the antioxidant defense system. roots and needles may implement the same antioxidant mechanism through the glutathione metabolic pathway. This study provides basic data for identifying the drought response mechanisms of the needles and roots of .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10040769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070838PMC
April 2021

Effectiveness of Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy in Women with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 28;44(5):252-260. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Nursing, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and ranks second in terms of global incidence. Depression, anxiety, and poor quality of life (QoL) are prevalent in women with breast cancer. Supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT) can potentially benefit these patients.

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of SEGT for women with breast cancer, by focusing on survival, QoL, anxiety, and depression as outcomes.

Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, CINHAL, and PsycInfo in English, and Sinomed, CNKI, CQVIP, and Wanfang in Chinese, were searched from inception up to May 2020 for relevant full-text articles using "SEGT," "breast cancer," and related terms as keywords. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SEGT with baseline conditions of patients with breast cancer were included in the analysis.

Results: Ten studies with a total of 2,879 subjects were analyzed. Overall group differences were found for survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.94; p = 0.004), short-term QoL (mean difference [MD] 8.02, 95% CI 4.85-11.20; p < 0.00001), long-term QoL (MD 11.30, 95% CI 6.75-15.84; p < 0.00001), Profile of Mood States score (POMS) score (MD -0.43, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.13; p = 0.005), anxiety (standardized MD [SMD] -0.30, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.10; p = 0.003), and depression (SMD -0.47, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.29; p < 0.00001).

Conclusions: SEGT is effective in improving QoL and psychosocial status in breast cancer patients, but there is no convincing evidence that it has an impact on survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515756DOI Listing
April 2021

Inflammasome as an Effective Platform for Fibrosis Therapy.

J Inflamm Res 2021 20;14:1575-1590. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Key Laboratory of Anti-Inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Ministry of Education, Anhui Collaborative Innovation Center of Anti-Inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Hefei, Anhui Province, 230032, People's Republic of China.

Fibrosis is the final stage of the development of chronic inflammation. It is characterized by excessive deposition of the extracellular matrix, leading to tissue structure damage and organ dysfunction, which is a serious threat to human health and life. However, the molecular mechanism of fibrosis is still unclear. Inflammasome is a molecular complex of proteins that has been becoming a key innate sensor for host immunity and is involved in pyroptosis, pathogen infection, metabolic syndrome, cellular stress, and tumor metastasis. Inflammasome signaling and downstream cytokine responses mediated by the inflammasome have been found to play an important role in fibrosis. The inflammasome regulates the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, which are both critical for the process of fibrosis. Recently, researches on the function of inflammasome have attracted extensive attention, and data derived from these researches have increased our understanding of the effects and regulation of inflammasome during fibrosis. In this review, we emphasize the growing evidence for both indirect and direct effects of inflammasomes in triggering fibrosis as well as potential novel targets for antifibrotic therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S304180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069677PMC
April 2021

Splicing factor SRSF6 mediates pleural fibrosis.

JCI Insight 2021 May 24;6(10). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Pleural fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix that results in destruction of the normal pleural tissue architecture and compromised function. Tuberculous pleurisy, asbestos injury, and rheumatoid pleurisy are main causes of pleural fibrosis. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play a key role in pleural fibrosis. However, detailed mechanisms are poorly understood. Serine/arginine-rich protein SRSF6 belongs to a family of highly conserved RNA-binding splicing-factor proteins. Based on its known functions, SRSF6 should be expected to play a role in fibrotic diseases. However, the role of SRSF6 in pleural fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, SRSF6 protein was found to be increased in cells of tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPE) from patients, and decellularized TBPE, bleomycin, and TGF-β1 were confirmed to increase SRSF6 levels in PMCs. In vitro, SRSF6 mediated PMC proliferation and synthesis of the main fibrotic protein COL1A2. In vivo, SRSF6 inhibition prevented mouse experimental pleural fibrosis. Finally, activated SMAD2/3, increased SOX4, and depressed miRNA-506-3p were associated with SRSF6 upregulation in PMCs. These observations support a model in which SRSF6 induces pleural fibrosis through a cluster pathway, including SRSF6/WNT5A and SRSF6/SMAD1/5/9 signaling. In conclusion, we propose inhibition of the splicing factor SRSF6 as a strategy for treatment of pleural fibrosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.146197DOI Listing
May 2021

Analysis of differences in the transcriptomic profiles of eutopic and ectopic endometriums in women with ovarian endometriosis.

PeerJ 2021 7;9:e11045. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease among women in their reproductive years. Although much effort has been made, the pathogenesis of this disease and the detailed differences between eutopic endometrial cells and ectopic endometrial cells are still unclear.

Methods: In this study, eutopic and ectopic endometrial cells were collected from patients with and without endometriosis and RNA sequencing was performed. The gene expression patterns and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in eutopic and ectopic endometrial cells, as well as control endometrial cells, were analyzed using a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and the DESeq2 package. The functions of significant genes were detected using Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and qRT-PCR validation was performed.

Results: The results indicated that eight gene modules were found among these three groups. They also indicated that the gene module, which is highly related to eutopic endometrial cells, was mainly enriched in cell adhesion, embryo implantation, etc., while the gene module related to ectopic endometrial cells was mainly enriched in cell migration, etc. The results of differential expression analysis were generally consistent with the WGCNA results through identified significant DEGs between different groups. These DEGs may play an important role in the occurrence of endometriosis, including the infertility associated gene ARNTL and PIWIL2, tissue remodeling gene MMP11, cell survival and migration gene FLT1, inflammatory response gene GNLY, the tumor suppressor genes PLCD1, etc. Further analysis suggested the function of adhesion is stronger in ectopic endometrial cells than in eutopic endometrial cells, while the ectopic endometrium may have a higher potential risk of malignant transformation than eutopic endometrium.

Conclusions: Overall, these data provide a reference for understanding the pathogenesis of endometriosis and its relationship with malignant transformation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035894PMC
April 2021

Mechanism insight into the role of clay particles on enhancing phosphate removal by ferrate compared with ferric salt.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China.

The application of ferrate (Fe(VI)) and ferric chloride as coagulants for treating phosphate wastewater in the presence of kaolin clay particles was comparatively studied. The phosphate removal processes by ferrate and ferric chloride assisted with kaolin clay particles were investigated under different Fe/P molar ratios. At neutral pH, complete removal of phosphates by ferrate and ferric chloride was observed at 2:1 and 6:1 of Fe/P molar ratio, respectively. The effect of kaolin clay particles on the phosphate removal process was discussed by zeta potential, size particle distribution, FTIR and XPS. We showed that with the increase of Fe/P molar ratio, the interaction intensity of kaolin clay particles with Fe flocs was decreased by ferric chloride coagulation while firstly increased and then decreased by ferrate. This depends on the Fe species with positive charge from ferric chloride hydrolysis and ferrate decomposition. Phosphate can inhibit the formation of FeOH and Fe(OH) in the ferric chloride hydrolysis but promote the formation of FeOOH and Fe(OH) in the ferrate decomposition. Kaolin clay particles can more remarkably promote phosphate removal by ferrate than by ferric chloride.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13436-1DOI Listing
April 2021

CP-25 ameliorates methotrexate induced nephrotoxicity via improving renal apoptosis and methotrexate excretion.

J Pharmacol Sci 2021 May 4;146(1):21-28. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Key Laboratory of Anti-Inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Ministry of Education, Anhui Collaborative Innovation Centre of Anti-Inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Hefei, 230032, China. Electronic address:

Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) is a derivative of Paeoniflorin. We investigate beneficial effect of CP-25 on methotrexate (MTX) induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (Bun), plasma creatinine (CREA), urine CREA and protein in the rats were quantitatively measured. Renal tissues were pathologically observed, and apoptosis was detected. Apoptosis related proteins and organic anion transporter-3 (OAT3) expression were determined by western blotting analysis. MTX induced nephrotoxicity and hematotoxicity in rats with abnormal levels of serum Bun, serum CERA, 24 h urine protein excretion, white blood cells, platelets, plateletcrit and abnormal renal pathological appearance. Either pre-treatment or treatment of CP-25 restored normal levels of hematological and renal function parameters, and improved histopathology in rats treated with MTX. CP-25 prevented MTX induced apoptosis of renal tubular cells, and the effect was further confirmed by its regulatory effects on abnormal expression of Bax, cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-8, Cyt-c, Bcl-2. The other important finding is co-administration of CP-25 with MTX significantly increased MTX renal excretion in the damaged rats, and the effect is supposed to be linked with its regulation on abnormal renal OAT3 expression. Taken together, CP-25 shows well protective activity against MTX induced nephrotoxicity, and this effect is via its anti-apoptosis and detoxification properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphs.2021.02.007DOI Listing
May 2021

Tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of drought stress and rehydration in at seedling.

PeerJ 2021 1;9:e10933. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Huaxi, China.

Background: has broad economic benefits and excellent drought resistance; however, its drought response, adaptation, and recovery processes remain unclear.

Methodology: In this study, the response, tolerance, and recovery processes of leaves and roots under drought stress were determined by Illumina sequencing.

Results: Under drought stress, reduced its light-capturing ability and composition of its photosynthetic apparatus, thereby reducing photosynthesis to prevent photo-induced chloroplast reactive oxygen damage during dehydration. The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis process in the roots was suppressed, , , and other genes, which may play important roles in protecting the cell membrane's permeability in root tissues. During the rehydration phase, fatty acid biosynthesis in roots was repressed. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) screened modules that were positively or negatively correlated with physiological traits. The real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results indicated the reliability of the transcriptomic data.

Conclusion: These findings provide valuable information for identifying important components in the drought signaling network and enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which responds to drought stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019532PMC
April 2021

The role of SYT-SSX fusion gene in tumorigenesis of synovial sarcoma.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Jun 24;222:153416. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pathology, Shihezi University School of Medicine & the First Affiliated Hospital to Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, 832002, Xinjiang, China; Department of Pathology, Central People's Hospital of Zhanjiang and Zhanjiang Central Hospital, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, China. Electronic address:

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive malignancy of an unknown tissue origin that is characterized by biphasic differentiation. A possible basis of the pathogenesis of SS is pathognomonic t(X;18) (p11.2; q11.2) translocation, leading to the formation and expression of the SYT-SSX fusion gene. More than a quarter of the patients die of SS metastasis within 5 years after the diagnosis, but the pathogenic factors are unknown. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore the pathogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and clinical treatment options for SS, especially molecular-targeted drug therapy. Recent studies have shown that the SYT-SSX fusion gene associated with SS may be regulated by different signaling pathways, microRNAs, and other molecules, which may produce stem cell characteristics or promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition, resulting in SS invasion and metastasis. This review article aims to show the relationship between the SYT-SSX fusion gene and the related pathway molecules as well as other molecules involved from different perspectives, which may provide a deeper and clearer understanding of the SYT-SSX fusion gene function. Therefore, this review may provide a more innovative and broader perspective of the current research, treatment options, and prognosis assessment of SS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2021.153416DOI Listing
June 2021

Metal-Organic Framework Membranes Encapsulating Gold Nanoparticles for Direct Plasmonic Photocatalytic Nitrogen Fixation.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 13;143(15):5727-5736. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Photocatalytic nitrogen fixation reaction can harvest the solar energy to convert the abundant but inert N into NH. Here, utilizing metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes as the ideal assembly of nanoreactors to disperse and confine gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we realize the direct plasmonic photocatalytic nitrogen fixation under ambient conditions. Upon visible irradiation, the hot electrons generated on the AuNPs can be directly injected into the N molecules adsorbed on Au surfaces. Such N molecules can be additionally activated by the strong but evanescently localized surface plasmon resonance field, resulting in a supralinear intensity dependence of the ammonia evolution rate with much higher apparent quantum efficiency and lower apparent activation energy under stronger irradiation. Moreover, the gas-permeable [email protected] membranes, consisting of numerous interconnected nanoreactors, can ensure the dispersity and stability of AuNPs, further facilitate the mass transfer of N molecules and (hydrated) protons, and boost the plasmonic photocatalytic reactions at the designed gas-membrane-solution interface. As a result, an ammonia evolution rate of 18.9 mmol g h was achieved under visible light (>400 nm, 100 mW cm) with an apparent quantum efficiency of 1.54% at 520 nm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c13342DOI Listing
April 2021

Radiomics analysis of chest CT to predict the overall survival for the severe patients of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Phys Med Biol 2021 05 10;66(10). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Personalized assessment and treatment of severe patients with COVID-19 pneumonia have greatly affected the prognosis and survival of these patients. This study aimed to develop the radiomics models as the potential biomarkers to estimate the overall survival (OS) for the COVID-19 severe patients. A total of 74 COVID-19 severe patients were enrolled in this study, and 30 of them died during the follow-up period. First, the clinical risk factors of the patients were analyzed. Then, two radiomics signatures were constructed based on two segmented volumes of interest of whole lung area and lesion area. Two combination models were built depend on whether the clinic risk factors were used and/or whether two radiomics signatures were combined. Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed for validating two radiomics signatures and C-index was used to evaluated the predictive performance of all radiomics signatures and combination models. Finally, a radiomics nomogram combining radiomics signatures with clinical risk factors was developed for predicting personalized OS, and then assessed with respect to the calibration curve. Three clinical risk factors were found, included age, malignancy and highest temperature that influence OS. Both two radiomics signatures could effectively stratify the risk of OS in COVID-19 severe patients. The predictive performance of the combination model with two radiomics signatures was better than that only one radiomics signature was used, and became better when three clinical risk factors were interpolated. Calibration curves showed good agreement in both 15 d survival and 30 d survival between the estimation with the constructed nomogram and actual observation. Both two constructed radiomics signatures can act as the potential biomarkers for risk stratification of OS in COVID-19 severe patients. The radiomics+clinical nomogram generated might serve as a potential tool to guide personalized treatment and care for these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abf717DOI Listing
May 2021

The Complex Structure of Protein AaLpxC from with ACHN-975 Molecule Suggests an Inhibitory Mechanism at Atomic-Level against Gram-Negative Bacteria.

Molecules 2021 Mar 7;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

New drugs with novel antibacterial targets for Gram-negative bacterial pathogens are desperately needed. The protein LpxC is a vital enzyme for the biosynthesis of lipid A, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The ACHN-975 molecule has high enzymatic inhibitory capacity against the infectious diseases, which are caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, but clinical research was halted because of its inflammatory response in previous studies. In this work, the structure of the recombinant UDP-3--(R-3-hydroxymyristol)--acetylglucosamine deacetylase from in complex with ACHN-975 was determined to a resolution at 1.21 Å. According to the solved complex structure, ACHN-975 was docked into the AaLpxC's active site, which occupied the site of AaLpxC substrate. Hydroxamate group of ACHN-975 forms five-valenced coordination with resides His74, His226, Asp230, and the long chain part of ACHN-975 containing the rigid alkynyl groups docked in further to interact with the hydrophobic area of AaLpxC. We employed isothermal titration calorimetry for the measurement of affinity between AaLpxC mutants and ACHN-975, and the results manifest the key residues (His74, Thr179, Tyr212, His226, Asp230 and His253) for interaction. The determined AaLpxC crystal structure in complex with ACHN-975 is expected to serve as a guidance and basis for the design and optimization of molecular structures of ACHN-975 analogues to develop novel drug candidates against Gram-negative bacteria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962117PMC
March 2021

In Situ Growth of GeS Nanowires with Sulfur-Rich Shell for Featured Negative Photoconductivity.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 19;12(12):3046-3052. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Physics, School of Microelectronics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China.

The negative photoconductivity (NPC) effect originating from the surface shell layer has been considered as an efficient approach to improve the performance of optoelectronic nanodevices. However, a scientific design and precise growth of NPC-effect-caused shell during nanowire (NW) growth process for achieving high-performance photodetectors are still lacking. In this work, GeS NWs with a controlled sulfur-rich shell, diameter, and length are successfully prepared by a simple chemical vapor deposition method. As checked by transmission electron microscopy, the thickness of the sulfur-rich shell ranges from 10.5 ± 1.5 to 13.4 ± 2.5 nm by controlling the NW growth time. The composition of the sulfur-rich shell is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, showing the decrease of S in the GeS shell from the surface to core. When configured into the well-known phototransistor, a featured NPC effect is observed, benefiting the high-performance photodetector with high responsivity of 10 A·W and detectivity of 10 Jones for λ = 405 nm with ultralow intensity of 0.04 mW·cm. However, the thicker-shell NW phototransistor shows an unstable photodetector behavior with smaller negative photocurrent because of more hole-trapping states in the thicker shell. All results suggest a careful design and controlled growth of an NPC-effect-caused shell for future optoelectronic applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00540DOI Listing
April 2021

Xylitol enhances synthesis of propionate in the colon via cross-feeding of gut microbiota.

Microbiome 2021 03 18;9(1):62. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, 310018, China.

Background: Xylitol, a white or transparent polyol or sugar alcohol, is digestible by colonic microorganisms and promotes the proliferation of beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unknown. We studied mice fed with 0%, 2% (2.17 g/kg/day), or 5% (5.42 g/kg/day) (weight/weight) xylitol in their chow for 3 months. In addition to the in vivo digestion experiments in mice, 3% (weight/volume) (0.27 g/kg/day for a human being) xylitol was added to a colon simulation system (CDMN) for 7 days. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing, beneficial metabolism biomarker quantification, metabolome, and metatranscriptome analyses to investigate the prebiotic mechanism of xylitol. The representative bacteria related to xylitol digestion were selected for single cultivation and co-culture of two and three bacteria to explore the microbial digestion and utilization of xylitol in media with glucose, xylitol, mixed carbon sources, or no-carbon sources. Besides, the mechanisms underlying the shift in the microbial composition and SCFAs were explored in molecular contexts.

Results: In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, we found that xylitol did not significantly influence the structure of the gut microbiome. However, it increased all SCFAs, especially propionate in the lumen and butyrate in the mucosa, with a shift in its corresponding bacteria in vitro. Cross-feeding, a relationship in which one organism consumes metabolites excreted by the other, was observed among Lactobacillus reuteri, Bacteroides fragilis, and Escherichia coli in the utilization of xylitol. At the molecular level, we revealed that xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.14), xylulokinase (EC 2.7.1.17), and xylulose phosphate isomerase (EC 5.1.3.1) were key enzymes in xylitol metabolism and were present in Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae. Therefore, they are considered keystone bacteria in xylitol digestion. Also, xylitol affected the metabolic pathway of propionate, significantly promoting the transcription of phosphate acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.8) in Bifidobacterium and increasing the production of propionate.

Conclusions: Our results revealed that those key enzymes for xylitol digestion from different bacteria can together support the growth of micro-ecology, but they also enhanced the concentration of propionate, which lowered pH to restrict relative amounts of Escherichia and Staphylococcus. Based on the cross-feeding and competition among those bacteria, xylitol can dynamically balance proportions of the gut microbiome to promote enzymes related to xylitol metabolism and SCFAs. Video Abstract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01029-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977168PMC
March 2021