Publications by authors named "Farzad Aala"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fatal necrotising cutaneous mucormycosis due to novel species: a case study.

J Wound Care 2021 Jun;30(6):465-468

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This case report describes the progressive wound infection in the left thigh of a 34-year-old man due to an old landmine explosion. The infection developed into rapidly spreading skin and soft tissue necrotising infection, despite antifungal therapy and surgical debridement. The report provides evidence that spp. should be added to the list of mucoralean fungi that can cause severe necrotising infection. It also highlights the need for improved early diagnostic procedures and enhanced understanding of virulence factors that contribute to necrotising infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2021.30.6.465DOI Listing
June 2021

In vitro synergy of echinocandins with triazoles against fluconazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2020 06 9;21:331-334. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) is a common non-albicans Candida species ranked as the second common cause of bloodstream infections. Azole resistance and elevated echinocandin MICs have been reported for these fungi. This study was conducted to determine the interactions between azoles and echinocandins against C. parapsilosis species complex.

Materials And Methods: Fifteen fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis complex were included: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 7), C. orthopsilosis (n = 5) and C. metapsilosis (n = 3). The activity of azoles (fluconazole, itraconazole) and echinocandins (anidulafungin, micafungin) alone and in combination was determined using checkerboard broth microdilution. The results were determined based on the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI).

Results: In vitro combination of fluconazole with anidulafungin was found to be synergistic (FICI 0.07-0.37) and decreased the MIC range from 4-64 μg/mL to 0.5-16 μg/mL for fluconazole and from 2-8 μg/mL to 0.125-1 μg/mL for anidulafungin. Similarly, interactions of fluconazole with micafungin (FICI 0.25-0.5), itraconazole with anidulafungin (FICI 0.15-0.37) and itraconazole with micafungin (FICI 0.09-0.37) were synergistic.

Conclusion: The combination of fluconazole and itraconazole with either anidulafungin or micafungin demonstrated synergistic interactions against C. parapsilosis species complex, especially against isolates with elevated MIC values. However, the use of these combinations in clinical practice and the clinical relevance of in vitro combination results remain unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2019.11.003DOI Listing
June 2020

A simple and low cost tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method for detection triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Aug 18;46(4):4537-4543. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The mutation at codon L98 accompanied by a tandem repeat of 34 base pairs (TR/L98H) in the 5´upstream region of cyp51A is the principal mechanism of triazole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus. We aimed to evaluate a simple and low-cost tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR technique for detection of TR/L98H mutations in the cyp51A gene of azole-resistant A. fumigatus. The tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay optimized by four primers in one reaction consists of external primers for detection of tandem repeats in the promoter region and internal primers for detection of a point mutation in codon 98 (L98H) in the cyp51A gene of azole-resistant A. fumigatus. The specificity of TR/L98H mutation detection was assessed by testing 36 clinical and environmental A. fumigatus strains. The tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay from A. fumigatus, containing wild-type sequence (T allele) and L98H mutation at cyp51A (A allele), yielded two DNA fragments of 908 bp and 740 bp and two of 942 bp and 212 bp, respectively. None of the A. fumigatus isolates without the TR/L98H mutation yielded false-positive results. The ARMS-PCR assay was 100% concordant with DNA sequencing results. Prevalence and screening of the TR/L98H mutation in the cyp51A gene in A. fumigatus isolates may now be determined by a fast, low-cost, and simple method in resource-poor settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04909-1DOI Listing
August 2019

Morphological changes and induction of antifungal resistance in due to different CO2 levels.

Curr Med Mycol 2017 Sep;3(3):21-26

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Purpose: Aspergillosis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised and neutropenic patients. () is the most common causative agent of this infection. Due to variable CO concentrations that pathogens are exposed to during the infection process and to understand the role of CO, we examined the effects of various CO concentrations as one of the environmental factors on morphological changes and induction of antifungal resistance in .

Materials And Methods: strains were cultured and incubated under 1%, 3%, 5%, and 12% CO atmospheres, each time for one, two, and four weeks. The control culture was maintained for one week without CO atmosphere. Morphological changes were investigated and antifungal susceptibility test was performed according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 document. The results of different CO atmospheres were compared with that of the control sample.

Results: We found that 1%, 3%, 5%, and 12% CO atmospheres were associated with morphological colony changes. Macroscopically, the colonies were shallow dark green, smooth, crisp to powdery with reduced growth; microscopic examination revealed the absence of conidiation. The induction of antifungal resistance in the susceptible strains to itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B increased after exposure to 12% CO atmosphere and four weeks of incubation. The MIC values for itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B were 16 g/ml, 1 g/ml, and 16 g/ml, respectively. These values for the control group were 0.125 g/ml, 0.125 g/ml, and 2 g/ml, respectively.

Conclusion: Exposure to different CO atmospheres induced morphological changes in , it seems to increase the MIC values, as well. In parallel, resistance to both itraconazole and voriconazole was also observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/cmm.3.3.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5914923PMC
September 2017

Effects of on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by .

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2016 Jul 29;9(7):e35452. Epub 2016 May 29.

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran.

Background: Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites mainly produced by . This species can contaminate a wide range of agricultural commodities, including cereals, peanuts, and crops in the field. In recent years, research on medicinal herbs, such as , have led to reduced microbial growth, and these herbs also have a particular effect on the production of aflatoxins as carcinogenic compounds.

Objectives: In this study, we to examine as a natural compound used to inhibit the growth of and to act as an anti-mycotoxin.

Materials And Methods: In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of for was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2. The rate of aflatoxin production was determined using the HPLC technique after exposure to different concentrations (62.5 - 125 mg/mL) of the gum. The changes in expression levels of the gene were analyzed with a quantitative real-time PCR assay.

Results: The results showed that can inhibit growth at a concentration of 125 mg/mL. HPLC results revealed a significant decrease in aflatoxin production with 125 mg/mL of , and AFL-B1 production was entirely inhibited. Based on quantitative real-time PCR results, the rate of gene expression was significantly decreased after treatment with .

Conclusions: has anti-toxic properties in addition to an inhibitory effect on growth, and is able to decrease aflatoxin production effectively in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, this herbal extract maybe considered a potential anti-mycotoxin agent in medicine or industrial agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.35452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5076382PMC
July 2016

Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Recovered from Endotracheal Tube in an Intensive Care Unit.

Adv Med 2016 23;2016:9242031. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6446, Sanandaj, Iran.

Aims. Biofilms formed by Candida species which associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species isolated from endotracheal tubes from ICU patients. Methods. One hundred forty ICU patients with tracheal tubes who were intubated and mechanically ventilated were surveyed for endotracheal tube biofilms. Samples were processed for quantitative microbial culture. Yeast isolates were identified to the species level based on morphological characteristics and their identity was confirmed by PCR-RFLP. Antifungal susceptibility testing was determined according to CLSI document (M27-A3). Results. Ninety-five strains of Candida were obtained from endotracheal tubes of which C. albicans (n = 34; 35.7%) was the most frequently isolated species followed by other species which included C. glabrata (n = 24; 25.2%), C. parapsilosis (n = 16; 16.8%), C. tropicalis (n = 12; 12.6%), and C. krusei (n = 9; 9.4%). The resulting MIC90 for all Candida species were in increasing order as follows: caspofungin (0.5 μg/mL); amphotericin B (2 μg/mL); voriconazole (8.8 μg/mL); itraconazole (16 μg/mL); and fluconazole (64 μg/mL). Conclusion. Candida species recovered from endotracheal tube are the most susceptible to caspofungin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9242031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5011531PMC
September 2016

Genotyping of clinical and environmental Aspergillus flavus isolates from Iran using microsatellites.

Mycoses 2016 Apr 12;59(4):220-225. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Aspergillus flavus is the second most important Aspergillus species causing human infections in tropical countries. Despite an increasing number of infections of A. flavus in Iran, the molecular epidemiology of clinical and environmental strains has not been well studied. We used a panel of nine microsatellite markers to analyse the genetic relatedness of A. flavus. Microsatellite typing of 143 (n = 119 clinical and n = 24 environmental) isolates demonstrated 118 different genotypes. A possible outbreak at a pulmonary ward was discovered. The discriminatory power for the individual markers ranged from 0.4812 to 0.9457 and the panel of all nine markers combined yielded a diversity index of 0.9948. This high-resolution typing method assists in better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of A. flavus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.12451DOI Listing
April 2016

Inhibitory effect of allicin and garlic extracts on growth of cultured hyphae.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2014 Mar;17(3):150-4

Department of Medical Mycology & Parasitology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective(s): Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is one of the most common dermatophytes worldwide. This fungus invaded skin appendages of humans and animals. Recently, resistance to antifungal drugs as well as appearance of side effects due to indication of these kinds of antibiotics has been reported. Besides, using some plant extracts have been indicated in herbal medicine as an alternative treatment of these fungal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) and pure allicin on the growth of hypha in T. rubrum using Electron miscroscopy.

Materials And Methods: This study was carried out to observe the morphological changes of T. rubrum treated with allicin as well as aqueous garlic extract using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Results: SEM surveys, showed that hypha treated with allicin has rough and granular like surface, abnormal and irregularly-shape. However, hypha treated with garlic extract had rough and fluffy surface and also irregularly-shape. TEM studies also found that hypha treated with allicin displays disintegration of cytoplasm, breaking down in cell membrane and the cell wall, and collapsing of hypha, meanwhile hypha treated with garlic extract exhibiting degradation and dissolution of cytoplasm components, demolition of cell wall and cell membrane, and hypha appeared to break.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that pure allicin (6.25 µg/ml and 12.5 µg/ml) is more efficient in inhibition of the growth in hyphal cells compare to the garlic extract (2 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml) and they could be used as alternatives in treatment of dermatophytosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4016684PMC
March 2014

Antimicrobial effects of allicin and ketoconazole on trichophyton rubrum under in vitro condition.

Braz J Microbiol 2012 Apr 1;43(2):786-92. Epub 2012 Jun 1.

Department of Medical Mycology & Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences , Sanandaj, Kurdistan , Iran.

Dermatophytosis is caused by a group of pathogenic fungi namely, dermatophytes, is among the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Azole drugs are widely used in the treatment of dermatomycosis, but can cause various side effects and drug resistance to the patients. Hence, for solving this problem can be used from the plant extract as alternative for chemical drugs. Allicin is a pure bioactive compound isolated from garlic was tested for its potential as a treatment of dermatomycosis in this study. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy of pure allicin against ten isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and the MIC50 and MIC90 ranged from 0.78-12.5 μg/ml for allicin. The results revealed that the order of efficacy based on the MICs values, all isolates showed almost comparable response to allicin and ketoconazole except for some isolates, at 28 °C for both 7 and 10 days incubation. Mann-Whitney test indicate that MICs at 7 days incubation was not observed a significant difference between the effects of allicin and ketoconazole (p > 0.05), but MICs at 10 days incubation, a significant difference was observed (p ≤ 0.05). On the other side, time kill studies revealed that allicin used its fungicidal activity within 12-24 h of management in vitro as well as ketoconazole. In conclusion, allicin showed very good potential as an antifungal compound against mycoses-causing dermatophytes, almost the same as the synthetic drug ketoconazole. Therefore, this antifungal agent appears to be effective, safe and suitable alternative for the treatment of dermatomycosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822012000200044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768852PMC
April 2012

In vitro investigation of antifungal activity of allicin alone and in combination with azoles against Candida species.

Mycopathologia 2010 Apr 19;169(4):287-95. Epub 2009 Nov 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Candidiasis is a term describing infections by yeasts from the genus Candida, and the type of infection encompassed by candidiasis ranges from superficial to systemic. Treatment of such infections often requires antifungals such as the azoles, but increased use of these drugs has led to selection of yeasts with increased resistance to these drugs. In this study, we used allicin, an allyl sulfur derivative of garlic, to demonstrate both its intrinsic antifungal activity and its synergy with the azoles, in the treatment of these yeasts in vitro. In this study, the MIC(50) and MIC(90) of allicin alone against six Candida spp. ranged from 0.05 to 25 microg/ml. However, when allicin was used in combination with fluconazole or ketoconazole, the MICs were decreased in some isolates. Our results demonstrated the existing synergistic effect between allicin and azoles in some of the Candida spp. such as C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, but synergy was not demonstrated in the majority of Candida spp. tested. Nonetheless, In vivo testing needs to be performed to support these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-009-9251-3DOI Listing
April 2010

Randomized comparative clinical trial of Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion and clotrimazole 1% lotion for the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.

Indian J Dermatol 2008 ;53(3):115-8

Besat Hospital, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran.

Aims: To compare the therapeutic effects of topical Artremisia sieberi 5% lotion with topical clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.

Materials And Methods: 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor and microscopic identification of Malassezia furfur were randomly assigned to treatment with either topical Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion (group 1) or topical clotrimazole 1% lotion (group 2) for 2 weeks. Group 1 and group 2 consisted of 51 and 49 patients respectively. The patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically at baseline and every 2 weeks for a period of 4 weeks.

Results: At the end of the second week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 65.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P<0.01), but at the same time mycological cure rate was 92.2% for group 1 and 73.5% for group 2 (P<0.05). At the end of the fourth week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 59.2% for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P<0.01), and at the same time mycologic cure rate was 96.1% for group 1 and 65.3% for group 2 (P<0.01).

Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion was more effective than clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.43209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2763746PMC
June 2010
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