Publications by authors named "Farhaan S Vahidy"

55 Publications

A contemporary review of therapeutic and regenerative management of intracerebral hemorrhage.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Nov 14;8(11):2211-2221. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Houston Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, Texas, USA.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains a common and debilitating form of stroke. This neurological emergency must be diagnosed and treated rapidly yet effectively. In this article, we review the medical, surgical, repair, and regenerative treatment options for managing ICH. Topics of focus include the management of blood pressure, intracranial pressure, coagulopathy, and intraventricular hemorrhage, as well as the role of surgery, regeneration, rehabilitation, and secondary prevention. Results of various phase II and III trials are incorporated. In summary, ICH patients should undergo rapid evaluation with neuroimaging, and early interventions should include systolic blood pressure control in the range of 140 mmHg, correction of coagulopathy if indicated, and assessment for surgical intervention. ICH patients should be managed in dedicated neurosurgical intensive care or stroke units where continuous monitoring of neurological status and evaluation for neurological deterioration is rapidly possible. Extravasation of hematoma may be helpful in patients with intraventricular extension of ICH. The goal of care is to reduce mortality and enable multimodal rehabilitative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8607450PMC
November 2021

Impact of mRNA vaccines in curtailing SARS-CoV-2 infection and disability leave utilisation among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: cross-sectional analysis from a tertiary healthcare system in the Greater Houston metropolitan area.

BMJ Open 2021 10 12;11(10):e054332. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Houston Methodist, Houston Methodist Academic Institute, Houston, Texas, USA.

Objectives: We provide an account of real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare workers (HCWs) at a tertiary healthcare system and report trends in SARS-CoV-2 infections and subsequent utilisation of COVID-19-specific short-term disability leave (STDL).

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting And Participants: Summary data on 27 291 employees at a tertiary healthcare system in the Greater Houston metropolitan area between 15 December 2020 and 5 June 2021. The initial 12-week vaccination programme period (15 December 2020 to 6 March 2021) was defined as a rapid roll-out phase.

Main Outcomes And Measures: At the pandemic onset, HCW testing and surveillance was conducted where SARS-CoV-2-positive HCWs were offered STDL. Deidentified summary data of SARS-CoV-2 infections and STDL utilisation among HCWs were analysed. Prevaccination and postvaccination trends in SARS-CoV-2 positivity and STDL utilisation rates were evaluated.

Results: Updated for 5 June 2021, 98.2% (n=26 791) of employees received a full or partial dose of one of the approved mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. The vaccination rate during the rapid roll-out phase was approximately 3700 doses/7 days. The overall mean weekly SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates among HCWs were significantly lower following vaccine roll-out (2.4%), compared with prevaccination period (11.8%, p<0.001). An accompanying 69.8% decline in STDL utilisation was also observed (315 to 95 weekly leaves). During the rapid roll-out phase, SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate among Houston Methodist HCWs declined by 84.3% (8.9% to 1.4% positivity rate), compared with a 54.7% (12.8% to 5.8% positivity rate) decline in the Houston metropolitan area.

Conclusion: Despite limited generalisability of regional hospital-based studies-where factors such as the emergence of viral variants and population-level vaccine penetrance may differ-accounts of robust HCW vaccination programmes provide important guidance for sustaining a critical resource to provide safe and effective care for patients with and without COVID-19 across healthcare systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520585PMC
October 2021

National Trends in Transfer of Patients with Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage: An Analysis of 12-Year Nationwide Data.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Dec 22;30(12):106116. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist, Houston, TX, United States; Houston Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston Methodist, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: The guidelines of the American Hospital Association encourage transferring intracerebral hemorrhage patients from community hospitals to centers with stroke expertise. However, research on the differences in outcomes between transferred intracerebral hemorrhage hospitalizations and directly admitted hospitalizations have been largely limited to small single-center studies. In this study, we explored the national trends in transferred intracerebral hemorrhage hospitalizations, as well as evaluated the differences, in terms of demographic characteristics, co-morbidity, resource utilization, and outcomes, between transferred intracerebral hemorrhage hospitalizations and directly admitted hospitalizations.

Materials And Methods: From the National Inpatient Sample (2004 - 2016), we assessed the linear trends in the proportion of interhospital transfers for intracerebral hemorrhage hospitalizations. We constructed a series of multivariate logistic regression models to explore the association of transfer status with inpatient mortality and discharge disposition, controlling for demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics. We used survey design variables to report nationally weighted estimates.

Results: Among 786,999 hospitalizations, 137,340 (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.4-18.6) were transferred. Overall, interhospital transfers for intracerebral hemorrhage has been increasing over the 12-year period of this study. Patients in transferred hospitalizations were younger, more likely to be white, and more likely to have private insurance. Transferred hospitalizations were associated with significantly lower adjusted odds of inpatient mortality, compared to directly admitted hospitalizations.

Conclusions: As the US healthcare system continues shifting towards value-based care, evidence on the short- and long-term outcomes of transfer of intracerebral hemorrhage patients will inform optimal management of intracerebral hemorrhage patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106116DOI Listing
December 2021

Association Between 2010 Medicare Reform and Inpatient Rehabilitation Access in People With Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 08 13;10(16):e020528. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Stroke Research and Mobile Stroke Unit Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center Houston TX.

Background Evidence suggests intracerebral hemorrhage survivors have earlier recovery compared with ischemic stroke survivors. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services prospective payment system instituted documentation rules for inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) in 2010, with the goal of optimizing patient selection. We investigated whether these requirements limited IRF and increased skilled nursing facility (SNF) use compared with home discharge. Methods and Results Intracerebral hemorrhage discharges to IRF, SNF, or home were estimated using GWTG (Get With The Guidelines) Stroke registry data between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2015 (n=265 444). Binary hierarchical models determined associations between the 2010 Rule and discharge setting; subgroup analyses evaluated age, geographic region, and hospital type. From January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009, 45.5% of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage had home discharge, 22.2% went to SNF, and 32.3% went to IRF. After January 1, 2010, there was a 1.06% absolute increase in home discharge, a 0.46% increase in SNF, and a 1.52% decline in IRF. The adjusted odds of IRF versus home discharge decreased 3% after 2010 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00). Lower odds of IRF versus home discharge were observed in people aged <65 years (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.96), Western states (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.95), and nonteaching hospitals (aOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95). Adjusted odds of SNF versus home discharge increased 14% after 2010 (aOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11-1.18); there were significant associations in all age groups, the Northeast, the South, the Midwest, and teaching hospitals. Conclusions The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 2010 IRF prospective payment system Rule resulted in fewer discharges to IRF and more discharges to SNF in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Health policy changes potentially affect access to intensive postacute rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475024PMC
August 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Susceptibility and COVID-19 Mortality Among Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment: Cross-Sectional Analysis From Hospital Records in a Diverse US Metropolitan Area.

Front Neurol 2021 22;12:692662. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist, Houston, TX, United States.

Persistent knowledge gaps exist as to the extent that preexisting cognitive impairment is a risk factor for susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and mortality from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adults tested for SARS-CoV-2 at a tertiary healthcare system. Cognitive impairment was identified utilizing diagnosis codes (mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, vascular, and other dementias) or cognitive impairment-specific medication use. Propensity score (PS) matched analyses were utilized to report odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association of cognitive impairment with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 mortality. Between March-3rd and December-11th, 2020, 179,979 adults were tested, of whom 21,607 (12.0%) tested positive. We identified 6,364 individuals with preexisting cognitive impairment (mean age: 78.5 years, 56.8% females), among whom 843 (13.2%) tested positive and 139 (19.5%) of those hospitalized died. In the pre-PS matched cohort, cognitive impairment was significantly associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility (OR, CI: 1.12, 1.04-1.21) and COVID-19 mortality (OR, CI: 2.54, 2.07-3.12). One-to-one matches were identified for 6,192 of 6,364 (97.3%) individuals with prior cognitive impairment and 687 of 712 (96.5%) hospitalized patients with prior cognitive impairment. In the fully balanced post-matched cohort, preexisting cognitive impairment was significantly associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR, CI: 1.51, 1.35-1.70); however, cognitive impairment did not confer higher risk of COVID-19 mortality (OR, CI: 0.96, 0.73-1.25). To mitigate the effects of healthcare catastrophes such as the COVID-19 pandemic, strategies for targeted prevention and risk-stratified comorbidity management are warranted among the vulnerable sub-population living with cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.692662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8344862PMC
July 2021

Risk factors for severity of COVID-19 in hospital patients age 18-29 years.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(7):e0255544. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, United States of America.

Background: Since February 2020, over 2.5 million Texans have been diagnosed with COVID-19, and 20% are young adults at risk for SARS-CoV-2 exposure at work, academic, and social settings. This study investigated demographic and clinical risk factors for severe disease and readmission among young adults 18-29 years old, who were diagnosed at a hospital encounter in Houston, Texas, USA.

Methods And Findings: A retrospective registry-based chart review was conducted investigating demographic and clinical risk factors for severe COVID-19 among patients aged 18-29 with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests within a large metropolitan healthcare system in Houston, Texas, USA. In the cohort of 1,853 young adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection at a hospital encounter, including 226 pregnant women, 1,438 (78%) scored 0 on the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and 833 (45%) were obese (≥30 kg/m2). Within 30 days of their diagnostic encounter, 316 (17%) patients were diagnosed with pneumonia, 148 (8%) received other severe disease diagnoses, and 268 (14%) returned to the hospital after being discharged home. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.2, p<0.001), male gender (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7, p = 0.002), Hispanic ethnicity (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1, p = 0.01), obesity (3.1, 95% CI 1.9-5.1, p<0.001), asthma history (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.0, p = 0.003), congestive heart failure (aOR 6.0, 95% CI 1.5-25.1, p = 0.01), cerebrovascular disease (aOR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7-14.7, p = 0.004), and diabetes (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.9-6.2, p<0.001) were predictive of severe disease diagnoses within 30 days. Non-Hispanic Black race (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4, p = 0.04), obesity (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.9, p = 0.046), asthma history (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.7, p = 0.03), myocardial infarction history (aOR 6.2, 95% CI 1.7-23.3, p = 0.01), and household exposure (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2, p = 0.02) were predictive of 30-day readmission.

Conclusions: This investigation demonstrated the significant risk of severe disease and readmission among young adult populations, especially marginalized communities and people with comorbidities, including obesity, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Health authorities must emphasize COVID-19 awareness and prevention in young adults and continue investigating risk factors for severe disease, readmission and long-term sequalae.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255544PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323903PMC
August 2021

Association of cardiovascular risk factor profile and financial hardship from medical bills among non-elderly adults in the United States.

Am J Prev Cardiol 2020 Jun 13;2:100034. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Division of Cardiovascular Prevention & Wellness, Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: While optimal cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile is associated with lower mortality, morbidity, and healthcare expenditures among individuals with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), less is known regarding its impact on financial hardship from medical bills. Therefore, we assessed whether an optimal CRF profile is associated with a lower burden of financial hardship from medical bills and a reduction in cost-related barriers to health.

Methods: We used a nationally representative sample of adults between 18 and 64 years from the National Health Interview Survey between 2013 and 2017. We assessed ASCVD status and the number of risk factors to categorize the study population into 4 mutually exclusive categories: ASCVD (irrespective of CRF profile) and non-ASCVD with poor, average, and optimal CRF profile. Adjusted logistic regression model was used to determine the association of ASCVD/CRF profile with financial hardship from medical bills and cost-related barriers to health (cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN), foregone/delayed care, and high financial distress).

Results: We included 119,388 non-elderly adults, representing 189 million individuals annually across the United States. Non-ASCVD/optimal CRF profile individuals had a lower prevalence of financial hardship and an inability paying medical bills when compared with individuals with ASCVD (24% vs 45% and 6% vs 19%, respectively). Among individuals without ASCVD and an optimal CRF profile, the prevalence of each cost-related barrier to health was <50% compared with individuals with ASCVD. Poor/low income and uninsured individuals within non-ASCVD/average CRF profile strata had a lower prevalence of financial hardship and an inability paying medical bills when compared with middle/high income and insured individuals with ASCVD. Non-ASCVD individuals with optimal CRF profile had the lowest odds of all barriers to health.

Conclusion: Optimal CRF profile is associated with a lower prevalence of financial hardship from medical bills and cost-related barriers to health despite lower income and lack of insurance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpc.2020.100034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315456PMC
June 2020

Social Determinants of Health and Cardiovascular Disease: Current State and Future Directions Towards Healthcare Equity.

Curr Atheroscler Rep 2021 07 26;23(9):55. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Cardiovascular Prevention and Wellness, Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We sought to examine the role of social and environmental conditions that determine an individual's behaviors and risk of disease-collectively known as social determinants of health (SDOH)-in shaping cardiovascular (CV) health of the population and giving rise to disparities in risk factors, outcomes, and clinical care for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in the United States (US).

Recent Findings: Traditional CV risk factors have been extensively targeted in existing CVD prevention and management paradigms, often with little attention to SDOH. Limited evidence suggests an association between individual SDOH (e.g., income, education) and CVD. However, inequities in CVD care, risk factors, and outcomes have not been studied using a broad SDOH framework. We examined existing evidence of the association between SDOH-organized into 6 domains, including economic stability, education, food, neighborhood and physical environment, healthcare system, and community and social context-and CVD. Greater social adversity, defined by adverse SDOH, was linked to higher burden of CVD risk factors and poor outcomes, such as stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease, heart failure, and mortality. Conversely, favorable social conditions had protective effects on CVD. Upstream SDOH interact across domains to produce cumulative downstream effects on CV health, via multiple physiologic and behavioral pathways. SDOH are major drivers of sociodemographic disparities in CVD, with a disproportionate impact on socially disadvantaged populations. Efforts to achieve health equity should take into account the structural, institutional, and environmental barriers to optimum CV health in marginalized populations. In this review, we highlight major knowledge gaps for each SDOH domain and propose a set of actionable recommendations to inform CVD care, ensure equitable distribution of healthcare resources, and reduce observed disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11883-021-00949-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Disparities in COVID-19 hospitalizations and mortality among black and Hispanic patients: cross-sectional analysis from the greater Houston metropolitan area.

BMC Public Health 2021 07 6;21(1):1330. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist, Josie Roberts Administration Building, 7550 Greenbriar Drive, Suite 4.123, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Disparate racial/ethnic burdens of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may be attributable to higher susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to factors such as differences in hospitalization and care provision.

Methods: In our cross-sectional analysis of lab-confirmed COVID-19 cases from a tertiary, eight-hospital healthcare system across greater Houston, multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate hospitalization and mortality odds for non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) vs. non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and Hispanics vs. non-Hispanics.

Results: Between March 3rd and July 18th, 2020, 70,496 individuals were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 12,084 (17.1%) tested positive, of whom 3536 (29.3%) were hospitalized. Among positive cases, NHBs and Hispanics were significantly younger than NHWs and Hispanics, respectively (mean age NHBs vs. NHWs: 46.0 vs. 51.7 years; p < 0.001 and Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic: 44.0 vs. 48.7 years; p < 0.001). Despite younger age, NHBs (vs. NHWs) had a higher prevalence of diabetes (25.2% vs. 17.6%; p < 0.001), hypertension (47.7% vs. 43.1%; p < 0.001), and chronic kidney disease (5.0% vs. 3.3%; p = 0.001). Both minority groups resided in lower median income (median income [USD]; NHBs vs. NHWs: 63,489 vs. 75,793; p < 0.001, Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic: 59,104 vs. 68,318; p < 0.001) and higher population density areas (median population density [per square mile]; NHBs vs. NHWs: 3257 vs. 2742; p < 0.001, Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic: 3381 vs. 2884; p < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, NHBs (vs. NHWs) and Hispanics (vs. non-Hispanic) had higher likelihoods of hospitalization, aOR (95% CI): 1.42 (1.24-1.63) and 1.61 (1.46-1.78), respectively. No differences were observed in intensive care unit (ICU) utilization or treatment parameters. Models adjusted for demographics, vital signs, laboratory parameters, hospital complications, and ICU admission vital signs demonstrated non-significantly lower likelihoods of in-hospital mortality among NHBs and Hispanic patients, aOR (95% CI): 0.65 (0.40-1.03) and 0.89 (0.59-1.31), respectively.

Conclusions: Our data did not demonstrate racial and ethnic differences in care provision and hospital outcomes. Higher susceptibility of racial and ethnic minorities to SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent hospitalization may be driven primarily by social determinants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11431-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258471PMC
July 2021

COVID-19-related state-wise racial and ethnic disparities across the USA: an observational study based on publicly available data from The COVID Tracking Project.

BMJ Open 2021 06 21;11(6):e048006. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

Objective: To evaluate COVID-19 infection and mortality disparities in ethnic and racial subgroups in a state-wise manner across the USA.

Methods: Publicly available data from The COVID Tracking Project at The Atlantic were accessed between 9 September 2020 and 14 September 2020. For each state and the District of Columbia, % infection, % death, and % population proportion for subgroups of race (African American/black (AA/black), Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN), and white) and ethnicity (Hispanic/Latino, non-Hispanic) were recorded. Crude and normalised disparity estimates were generated for COVID-19 infection (CDI and NDI) and mortality (CDM and NDM), computed as absolute and relative difference between % infection or % mortality and % population proportion per state. Choropleth map display was created as thematic representation proportionate to CDI, NDI, CDM and NDM.

Results: The Hispanic population had a median of 158% higher COVID-19 infection relative to their % population proportion (median 158%, IQR 100%-200%). This was followed by AA, with 50% higher COVID-19 infection relative to their % population proportion (median 50%, IQR 25%-100%). The AA population had the most disproportionate mortality, with a median of 46% higher mortality than the % population proportion (median 46%, IQR 18%-66%). Disproportionate impact of COVID-19 was also seen in AI/AN and Asian populations, with 100% excess infections than the % population proportion seen in nine states for AI/AN and seven states for Asian populations. There was no disproportionate impact in the white population in any state.

Conclusions: There are racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 infection/mortality, with distinct state-wise patterns across the USA based on racial/ethnic composition. There were missing and inconsistently reported racial/ethnic data in many states. This underscores the need for standardised reporting, attention to specific regional patterns, adequate resource allocation and addressing the underlying social determinants of health adversely affecting chronically marginalised groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219486PMC
June 2021

Leveraging a health information exchange for analyses of COVID-19 outcomes including an example application using smoking history and mortality.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(6):e0247235. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States of America.

Understanding sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and laboratory risk factors in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 is critically important, and requires building large and diverse COVID-19 cohorts with both retrospective information and prospective follow-up. A large Health Information Exchange (HIE) in Southeast Texas, which assembles and shares electronic health information among providers to facilitate patient care, was leveraged to identify COVID-19 patients, create a cohort, and identify risk factors for both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. The initial sample consists of 8,874 COVID-19 patients ascertained from the pandemic's onset to June 12th, 2020 and was created for the analyses shown here. We gathered demographic, lifestyle, laboratory, and clinical data from patient's encounters across the healthcare system. Tobacco use history was examined as a potential risk factor for COVID-19 fatality along with age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and number of comorbidities. Of the 8,874 patients included in the cohort, 475 died from COVID-19. Of the 5,356 patients who had information on history of tobacco use, over 26% were current or former tobacco users. Multivariable logistic regression showed that the odds of COVID-19 fatality increased among those who were older (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% CI 1.06, 1.08), male (1.91, 95% CI 1.58, 2.31), and had a history of tobacco use (2.45, 95% CI 1.93, 3.11). History of tobacco use remained significantly associated (1.65, 95% CI 1.27, 2.13) with COVID-19 fatality after adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. This effort demonstrates the impact of having an HIE to rapidly identify a cohort, aggregate sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and laboratory data across disparate healthcare providers electronic health record (HER) systems, and follow the cohort over time. These HIE capabilities enable clinical specialists and epidemiologists to conduct outcomes analyses during the current COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Tobacco use appears to be an important risk factor for COVID-19 related death.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247235PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174716PMC
June 2021

Is the worst of the COVID-19 global pandemic yet to come? Application of financial mathematics as candidate predictive tools.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 05 20;11(1):299. Epub 2021 May 20.

Mathematics in Medicine Program, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA.

The Elliott Wave principle is a time-honored, oft-used method for predicting variations in the financial markets. It is based on the notion that human emotions drive financial decisions. In the fight against the COVID-19 global pandemic, human emotions are similarly decisive, for instance in that they determine one's willingness to be vaccinated, and/or to follow preventive measures including the personal wearing of masks, the application of social distancing protocols, and frequent handwashing. On this basis, we postulated that the Elliott Wave Principle may similarly be used to predict the future evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. We demonstrated that this method reproduces the data pattern for various countries and the world (daily new cases). Potential scenarios were then extrapolated, from the best-case corresponding to a rapid, full vaccination of the population, to the utterly disastrous case of slow vaccination, and poor adherence to preventive protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01429-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134815PMC
May 2021

Clinical and Economic Burden of Stroke Among Young, Midlife, and Older Adults in the United States, 2002-2017.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2021 Apr 8;5(2):431-441. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Cardiovascular Prevention and Wellness, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center.

Objective: To assess trends of stroke hospitalization rates, inpatient mortality, and health care resource use in young (aged ≤44 years), midlife (aged 45-64 years), and older (aged ≥65 years) adults.

Patients And Methods: We studied the National Inpatient Sample database (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2017) to analyze stroke-related hospitalizations. We identified data using the codes.

Results: Of 11,381,390 strokes, 79% (n=9,009,007) were ischemic and 21% (n=2,372,383) were hemorrhagic. Chronic diseases were more frequent in older adults; smoking, alcoholism, and migraine were more prevalent in midlife adults; and coagulopathy and intravenous drug abuse were more common in young patients with stroke. The hospitalization rates of stroke per 10,000 increased overall (31.6 to 33.3) in young and midlife adults while decreasing in older adults. Although mortality decreased overall and in all age groups, the decline was slower in young and midlife adults than older adults. The mean length of stay significantly decreased in midlife and older adults and increased in young adults. The inflation-adjusted mean cost of stay increased consistently, with an average annual growth rate of 2.44% in young, 1.72% in midlife, and 1.45% in older adults owing to the higher use of health care resources. These trends were consistent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

Conclusion: Stroke-related hospitalization and health care expenditure are increasing in the United States, particularly among young and midlife adults. A higher cost of stay counterbalances the benefits of reducing stroke and mortality in older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2021.01.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105541PMC
April 2021

Social Determinants of Adherence to COVID-19 Risk Mitigation Measures Among Adults With Cardiovascular Disease.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 06 6;14(6):e008118. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist, Houston, TX (K.K.H., Z.J., M.C.-A., F.S.V., I.A., B.K., K.N.).

Background: Social determinants of health (SDOH) may limit the practice of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk mitigation guidelines with health implications for individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD). Population-based evidence of the association between SDOH and practicing such mitigation strategies in adults with CVD is lacking. We used the National Opinion Research Center's COVID-19 Household Impact Survey conducted between April and June 2020 to evaluate sociodemographic disparities in adherence to COVID-19 risk mitigation measures in a sample of respondents with underlying CVD representing 18 geographic areas of the United States.

Methods: CVD status was ascertained by self-reported history of receiving heart disease, heart attack, or stroke diagnosis. We built de novo, a cumulative index of SDOH burden using education, insurance, economic stability, 30-day food security, urbanicity, neighborhood quality, and integration. We described the practice of measures under the broad strategies of personal protection (mask, hand hygiene, and physical distancing), social distancing (avoiding crowds, restaurants, social activities, and high-risk contact), and work flexibility (work from home, canceling/postponing work). We reported prevalence ratios and 95% CIs for the association between SDOH burden (quartiles of cumulative indices) and practicing these measures adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, comorbidity, and interview wave.

Results: Two thousand thirty-six of 25 269 (7.0%) adults, representing 8.69 million in 18 geographic areas of the United States, reported underlying CVD. Compared with the least SDOH burden, fewer individuals with the greatest SDOH burden practiced all personal protection (75.6% versus 89.0%) and social distancing measures (41.9% versus 58.9%) and had any flexible work schedule (26.2% versus 41.4%). These associations remained statistically significant after full adjustment: personal protection (prevalence ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.73-0.96]; =0.009), social distancing (prevalence ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.51-0.94]; =0.018), and work flexibility (prevalence ratio, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.36-0.79]; =0.002).

Conclusions: SDOH burden is associated with lower COVID-19 risk mitigation practices in the CVD population. Identifying and prioritizing individuals whose medical vulnerability is compounded by social adversity may optimize emerging preventive efforts, including vaccination guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.121.008118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204764PMC
June 2021

Decade-Long Nationwide Trends and Disparities in Use of Comfort Care Interventions for Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 04 7;10(8):e019785. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center for Outcomes Research Houston Methodist Houston TX.

Background Stroke remains one of the leading causes of disability and death in the United States. We characterized 10-year nationwide trends in use of comfort care interventions (CCIs) among patients with ischemic stroke, particularly pertaining to acute thrombolytic therapy with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy, and describe in-hospital outcomes and costs. Methods and Results We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample from 2006 to 2015 and identified adult patients with ischemic stroke with or without thrombolytic therapy and CCIs using validated ( codes. We report adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI of CCI usage across five 2-year periods. Of 4 249 201 ischemic stroke encounters, 3.8% had CCI use. CCI use increased over time (adjusted OR, 4.80; 95% CI, 4.15-5.55) regardless of acute treatment type. Advanced age, female sex, White race, non-Medicare insurance, higher income, disease severity, comorbidity burden, and discharge from non-northeastern teaching hospitals were independently associated with receiving CCIs. In the fully adjusted model, thrombolytic therapy and endovascular thrombectomy, respectively, conferred a 6% and 10% greater likelihood of receiving CCIs. Among CCI users, there was a significant decline in in-hospital mortality compared with all other dispositions over time (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.38-0.56). Despite longer length of stay, CCI hospitalizations incurred 16% lower adjusted costs. Conclusions CCI use among patients with ischemic stroke has increased regardless of acute treatment type. Nonetheless, considerable disparities persist. Closing the disparities gap and optimizing access, outcomes, and costs for CCIs among patients with stroke are important avenues for further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174182PMC
April 2021

Utilization and Availability of Advanced Imaging in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 04 24;14(4):e006989. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurology, McGovern Medical School (Y.K., S.L., R.A., V.L.-R., S.I.S., A.C., L.D.M., S.A.S.), University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

Background: Recent clinical trials have established the efficacy of endovascular stroke therapy and intravenous thrombolysis using advanced imaging, particularly computed tomography perfusion (CTP). The availability and utilization of CTP for patients and hospitals that treat acute ischemic stroke (AIS), however, is uncertain.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using 2 complementary Medicare datasets, full sample Texas and 5% national fee-for-service data from 2014 to 2017. AIS cases were identified using , and , coding criteria. Imaging utilization performed in the initial evaluation of patients with AIS was derived using Current Procedural Terminology codes from professional claims. Primary outcomes were utilization of imaging in AIS cases and the change in utilization over time. Hospitals were defined as imaging modality-performing if they submitted at least 1 claim for that modality per calendar year. The National Medicare dataset was used to validate state-level findings, and a local hospital-level cohort was used to validate the claims-based approach.

Results: Among 50 797 AIS cases in the Texas Medicare fee-for-service cohort, 64% were evaluated with noncontrast head CT, 17% with CT angiography, 3% with CTP, and 33% with magnetic resonance imaging. CTP utilization was greater in patients treated with endovascular stroke therapy (17%) and intravenous thrombolysis (9%). CT angiography (4%/y) and CTP (1%/y) utilization increased over the study period. These findings were validated in the National dataset. Among hospitals in the Texas cohort, 100% were noncontrast head CT-performing, 77% CT angiography-performing, and 14% CTP-performing in 2017. Most AIS cases (69%) were evaluated at non-CTP-performing hospitals. CTP-performing hospitals were clustered in urban areas, whereas large regions of the state lacked immediate access.

Conclusions: In state-wide and national Medicare fee-for-service cohorts, CTP utilization in patients with AIS was low, and most patients were evaluated at non-CTP-performing hospitals. These findings support the need for alternative means of screening for AIS recanalization therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.006989DOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence, predictors, and outcomes of post-thrombectomy seizures in the extended time window.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2021 7;15:100426. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Houston Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States.

Mechanical thrombectomy 6-24 h after the last time where a patient was known to be without signs or symptoms of a stroke is the standard of care for patients with a stroke due to large vessel occlusion. This is referred to as thrombectomy within an extended time window. There have been very few studies looking at patients who had seizures within the first week (early post-stroke seizures) following mechanical thrombectomy in this extended time window. Our study suggests that this group of patients does not have a higher incidence of early post stroke seizures. Our findings do reveal however, that patients who do have early post-stroke seizures may have a less favorable functional outcome at 90 days than those who did not develop early seizures. Hence, rapid identification and subsequent treatment of seizures in these patients is important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebr.2020.100426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903293PMC
January 2021

Do Pandemics Obey the Elliott Wave Principle of Financial Markets?

medRxiv 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Mathematics in Medicine Program, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas, USA.

The Elliott Wave principle is a time-honored, oft-used method for predicting variations in the financial markets. It is based on the notion that human emotions drive financial decisions. In the fight against COVID-19, human emotions are similarly decisive, for instance in that they determine one's willingness to be vaccinated, and/or to follow preventive measures including the wearing of masks, the application of social distancing protocols, and frequent handwashing. On this basis, we postulated that the Elliott Wave Principle may similarly be used to predict the future evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. We demonstrated that this method reproduces the data pattern especially well for USA (daily new cases). Potential scenarios were then extrapolated, from the best-case corresponding to a rapid, full vaccination of the population, to the utterly disastrous case of slow vaccination, and poor adherence to preventive protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.21.21250273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836128PMC
January 2021

Sex differences in susceptibility, severity, and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019: Cross-sectional analysis from a diverse US metropolitan area.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(1):e0245556. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Neurology, McGovern Medical School, UTHealth, Houston, TX, United States of America.

Introduction: Sex is increasingly recognized as an important factor in the epidemiology and outcome of many diseases. This also appears to hold for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Evidence from China and Europe has suggested that mortality from COVID-19 infection is higher in men than women, but evidence from US populations is lacking. Utilizing data from a large healthcare provider, we determined if males, as compared to females have a higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, and if among the hospitalized COVID-19 patients, male sex is independently associated with COVID-19 severity and poor in-hospital outcomes.

Methods And Findings: Using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from a COVID-19 Surveillance and Outcomes Registry (CURATOR). Data were extracted from Electronic Medical Records (EMR). A total of 96,473 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal swab specimens via Polymerized Chain Reaction (PCR) tests were included. For hospital-based analyses, all patients admitted during the same time-period were included. Of the 96,473 patients tested, 14,992 (15.6%) tested positive, of whom 4,785 (31.9%) were hospitalized and 452 (9.5%) died. Among all patients tested, men were significantly older. The overall SARS-CoV-2 positivity among all tested individuals was 15.5%, and was higher in males as compared to females 17.0% vs. 14.6% [OR 1.20]. This sex difference held after adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, marital status, insurance type, median income, BMI, smoking and 17 comorbidities included in Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) [aOR 1.39]. A higher proportion of males (vs. females) experienced pulmonary (ARDS, hypoxic respiratory failure) and extra-pulmonary (acute renal injury) complications during their hospital course. After adjustment, length of stay (LOS), need for mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality were significantly higher in males as compared to females.

Conclusions: In this analysis of a large US cohort, males were more likely to test positive for COVID-19. In hospitalized patients, males were more likely to have complications, require ICU admission and mechanical ventilation, and had higher mortality than females, independent of age. Sex disparities in COVID-19 vulnerability are present, and emphasize the importance of examining sex-disaggregated data to improve our understanding of the biological processes involved to potentially tailor treatment and risk stratify patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245556PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806140PMC
January 2021

Machine Learning to Predict Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Outcomes in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Neurology 2021 01 12;96(4):e553-e562. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

From the Departments of Neurosurgery (J.P.J.S., G.W.H., T.C., R.S.K., A.C.), Internal Medicine (L.Z.), and Neurology (F.S.V.), McGovern Medical School, Center for Precision Health, School of Biomedical Informatics (Z.Z.), and Human Genetics Center, School of Public Health (Z.Z.), The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston; and Department of Neurology (S.P., M.M.), Columbia University, NY.

Objective: To determine whether machine learning (ML) algorithms can improve the prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and functional outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Methods: ML models and standard models (SMs) were trained to predict DCI and functional outcomes with data collected within 3 days of admission. Functional outcomes at discharge and at 3 months were quantified using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for neurologic disability (dichotomized as good [mRS ≤ 3] vs poor [mRS ≥ 4] outcomes). Concurrently, clinicians prospectively prognosticated 3-month outcomes of patients. The performance of ML, SMs, and clinicians were retrospectively compared.

Results: DCI status, discharge, and 3-month outcomes were available for 399, 393, and 240 participants, respectively. Prospective clinician (an attending, a fellow, and a nurse) prognostication of 3-month outcomes was available for 90 participants. ML models yielded predictions with the following area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) scores: 0.75 ± 0.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.84) for DCI, 0.85 ± 0.05 (95% CI 0.75-0.92) for discharge outcome, and 0.89 ± 0.03 (95% CI 0.81-0.94) for 3-month outcome. ML outperformed SMs, improving AUC by 0.20 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.4) for DCI, by 0.07 ± 0.03 (95% CI -0.0018 to 0.14) for discharge outcomes, and by 0.14 (95% CI 0.03-0.24) for 3-month outcomes and matched physician's performance in predicting 3-month outcomes.

Conclusion: ML models significantly outperform SMs in predicting DCI and functional outcomes and has the potential to improve SAH management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905786PMC
January 2021

Prevalence of and Sociodemographic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination Among Adults With Diabetes in the United States.

J Endocr Soc 2020 Nov 24;4(11):bvaa139. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston Texas.

National estimates describing the overall prevalence of and disparities in influenza vaccination among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in United States are not well described. Therefore, we analyzed the prevalence of influenza vaccination among adults with DM, overall and by sociodemographic characteristics, using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey database from 2008 to 2016. Associations between sociodemographic factors and lack of vaccination were examined using adjusted logistic regression. Among adults with DM, 36% lacked influenza vaccination. Independent predictors of lacking influenza vaccination included age 18 to 39 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14-3.00), Black race/ethnicity (OR 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14-1.46), uninsured status (OR 1.88; 95% CI, 1.59-2.21), and no usual source of care (OR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.39-1.85). Nearly 64% individuals with ≥ 4 higher-risk sociodemographic characteristics lacked influenza vaccination (OR 3.50; 95% CI 2.79-4.39). One-third of adults with DM in the United States lack influenza vaccination, with younger age, Black race, and lower socioeconomic status serving as strong predictors. These findings highlight the continued need for focused public health interventions to increase vaccine coverage and utilization among disadvantaged communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvaa139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575128PMC
November 2020

Association Between Sociodemographic Determinants and Disparities in Stroke Symptom Awareness Among US Young Adults.

Stroke 2020 12 26;51(12):3552-3561. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (R.M., J.L.). Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, CT (S.M., H.M.K.). Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (S.M., H.M.K.) and Department of Neurology (R.K.), Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Division of Cardiovascular Prevention and Wellness (J.V.-E., M.C.-A., K.N.) and Center for Outcomes Research (K.N.), Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, TX. Houston Methodist Research Institute, TX (T.Y.). University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (R.S.). Department of Medicine, Medstar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, MD (G.R.G.). Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (S.S.V.). Department of Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown (S.U.K.). Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist Neurological Institute, TX (F.S.V.).

Background And Purpose: Despite declining stroke rates in the general population, stroke incidence and hospitalizations are rising among younger individuals. Awareness of and prompt response to stroke symptoms are crucial components of a timely diagnosis and disease management. We assessed awareness of stroke symptoms and response to a perceived stroke among young adults in the United States.

Methods: Using data from the 2017 National Health Interview Survey, we assessed awareness of 5 common stroke symptoms and the knowledge of planned response (ie, calling emergency medical services) among young adults (<45 years) across diverse sociodemographic groups. Common stroke symptoms included: (1) numbness of face/arm/leg, (2) confusion/trouble speaking, (3) difficulty walking/dizziness/loss of balance, (4) trouble seeing in one/both eyes, and (5) severe headache.

Results: Our study population included 24 769 adults, of which 9844 (39.7%) were young adults who were included in our primary analysis, and represented 107.2 million US young adults (mean age 31.3 [±7.5] years, 50.6% women, and 62.2% non-Hispanic White). Overall, 2718 young adults (28.9%) were not aware of all 5 stroke symptoms, whereas 242 individuals (2.7%; representing 2.9 million young adults in the United States) were not aware of a single symptom. After adjusting for confounders, Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.17-3.28]), non-US born immigration status (odds ratio, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.31-3.11]), and lower education level (odds ratio, 2.77 [95% CI, 1.76-4.35]), were significantly associated with lack of symptom awareness. Individuals with 5 high-risk characteristics (non-White, non-US born, low income, uninsured, and high school educated or lower) had nearly a 4-fold higher odds of not being aware of all symptoms (odds ratio, 3.70 [95% CI, 2.43-5.62]).

Conclusions: Based on data from the National Health Interview Survey, a large proportion of young adults may not be aware of stroke symptoms. Certain sociodemographic subgroups with decreased awareness may benefit from focused public health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031137DOI Listing
December 2020

A Learning Health Care System-Based Approach for Improving Quality of Care Among Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack.

Authors:
Farhaan S Vahidy

JAMA Netw Open 2020 09 1;3(9):e2016123. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16123DOI Listing
September 2020

Racial and ethnic disparities in SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: analysis of a COVID-19 observational registry for a diverse US metropolitan population.

BMJ Open 2020 08 11;10(8):e039849. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas, USA.

Introduction: Data on race and ethnic disparities for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are limited. We analysed sociodemographic factors associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection and explore mediating pathways for race and ethnic disparities in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the COVID-19 Surveillance and Outcomes Registry, which captures data for a large healthcare system, comprising one central tertiary care hospital, seven large community hospitals and an expansive ambulatory/emergency care network in the Greater Houston area. Nasopharyngeal samples for individuals inclusive of all ages, races, ethnicities and sex were tested for SARS-CoV-2. We analysed sociodemographic (age, sex, race, ethnicity, household income, residence population density) and comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index, hypertension, diabetes, obesity) factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to provide adjusted OR (aOR) and 95% CI for likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Structural equation modelling (SEM) framework was used to explore three mediation pathways (low income, high population density, high comorbidity burden) for the association between non-Hispanic black (NHB) race, Hispanic ethnicity and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Results: Among 20 228 tested individuals, 1551 (7.7%) tested positive. The overall mean (SD) age was 51.1 (19.0) years, 62% were females, 22% were black and 18% were Hispanic. NHB and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with lower socioeconomic status and higher population density residence. In the fully adjusted model, NHB (vs non-Hispanic white; aOR, 2.23, CI 1.90 to 2.60) and Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic; aOR, 1.95, CI 1.72 to 2.20) had a higher likelihood of infection. Older individuals and males were also at higher risk of infection. The SEM framework demonstrated a significant indirect effect of NHB and Hispanic ethnicity on SARS-CoV-2 infection mediated via a pathway including residence in densely populated zip code.

Conclusions: There is strong evidence of race and ethnic disparities in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic that are potentially mediated through unique social determinants of health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418666PMC
August 2020

Long-Term Cognitive Impairment Associated With Delirium in Acute Neurological Injury.

Crit Care Explor 2020 Jun 9;2(6):e0130. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Center for Outcomes Research at Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX.

Objectives: To characterize the risk of long-term cognitive impairment associated with delirium in acute neurologic injury patients.

Design: We analyzed a 10-year cohort of adult acute neurologic injury patients (stroke and traumatic brain injury) without preexisting mild cognitive impairment or dementia, utilizing administrative databases. Patients were followed for in-hospital delirium and mild cognitive impairment or dementia. We report incidence and adjusted hazard ratios for mild cognitive impairment or dementia associated with delirium. Subgroups analyzed include acute neurologic injury categories, dementia subtypes, repeated delirium exposure, and age strata.

Setting: We used state emergency department and state inpatient databases for New York, Florida, and California. All visits are included in the databases regardless of payer status.

Patients: We included adult patients with diagnosis of stroke and traumatic brain injury as acute neurologic injury. Patients with preexisting mild cognitive impairment or dementia were excluded.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Among 911,380 acute neurologic injury patients, 5.2% were diagnosed with delirium. Mild cognitive impairment or dementia incidence among delirium patients was approximately twice that of nondelirium patients. In adjusted models, risk of mild cognitive impairment or dementia was higher among patients with delirium (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58). Increased risk was observed across all subgroups including patients less than or equal to 55 years old.

Conclusions: Identification, management, and prevention of in-hospital delirium could potentially improve long-term cognitive outcomes in acute neurologic injury patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314325PMC
June 2020

Use of single versus multiple vasodilator agents in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm: is more better than less?

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 01 12;163(1):161-168. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, 6400 Fannin St, Suite 2800, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Patients with cerebral vasospasm caused by aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are often treated with intra-arterial (IA) vasodilator infusion. However, the optimal drug regimen is yet to be elucidated.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients with aSAH and cerebral vasospasm treated with IA vasodilator infusion was performed. Patients in group 1 (2008-2011) were treated with a single agent, either nicardipine or verapamil, and patients in group 2 (2010-2016) were treated with a regimen of nitroglycerin, verapamil, and nicardipine. The post-infusion improvement ratio (PIIR) was compared between groups. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to determine whether patients treated with multiple vasodilators had an improved functional outcome, defined by the modified Rankin Scale, at discharge and 90-day follow-up.

Results: Among 116 patients from group 1 (N = 47) and group 2 (N = 69), the median age was 54.5 years [IQR, 46-53 years] and 78% were female. Use of multiple-agent therapy resulted in a 24.36% improvement in vessel diameter over single-agent therapy (median PIIR: group 1, 10.5% [IQR, 5.3-21.1%] vs group 2, 34.9% [IQR, 21.4-66.0%]; p < 0.0001). In the adjusted multivariate logistic regression, the use of multiple-agent therapy was associated with a better functional outcome at discharge (OR 0.15, 95% CI [0.04-0.55]; p < 0.01) and at 90-day follow-up (OR 0.20, 95% CI [0.05-0.77]; p < 0.05) when compared to single-agent therapy.

Conclusion: In this study, we found that patients treated for cerebral vasospasm with IA infusion of multiple vasodilators had an increased vessel response and better functional outcomes compared to those treated with a single agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04415-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage With Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 04 1;3(4):e202769. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Center for Outcomes Research, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas.

Importance: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during pregnancy and the postpartum period results in catastrophic maternal outcomes. There is a paucity of population-based estimates of pregnancy-related ICH risk, including risk during the extended postpartum period.

Objective: To evaluate ICH risk during pregnancy and an extended 24-week postpartum period in a population-level cohort and to determine fetal and maternal outcomes as well as demographic and comorbidity factors associated with ICH during pregnancy and post partum.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study used a cohort-crossover design in which patients serve as their own controls when no longer exposed (pregnant or post partum). Administrative data were obtained from all hospital admissions for New York, California, and Florida for a 7- to 10-year period. Participants included all women admitted for labor and delivery who were older than 12 years and did not have a prior diagnosis of ICH. Conditional Poisson regression models were used to evaluate ICH risk, and data were reported as rate ratios and 95% CIs. Data analysis was performed from August 2018 to February 2020.

Exposures: Women were tracked using hospitalization records for the duration of pregnancy (40 weeks), for 24 weeks post partum, and for an additional 64 weeks when no longer exposed.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Diagnosis of ICH during both 64-week observation periods was determined using validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes.

Results: A total of 3 314 945 pregnant women were included (mean [SD] age, 28.17 [6.47] years; 1 451 780 white [43.79%], 474 808 black [14.32%], 246 789 Asian [7.44%], and 835 917 Hispanic [25.22%]). The risk of ICH was significantly higher during the third trimester (2.9 vs 0.7 cases per 100 000 pregnancies; rate ratio, 4.16; 95% CI, 2.52-6.86) and remained elevated during the first 12 weeks post partum (4.4 vs 0.5 cases per 100 000 pregnancies; rate ratio, 9.15; 95% CI, 5.16-16.23). Advanced maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.10), nonwhite race (adjusted ORs, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.73-3.44] for black patients, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.34-3.35] for Asian patients, and 1.59 [95% CI, 1.12-2.26] for Hispanic patients), hypertension (adjusted OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.19-3.42), coagulopathy (adjusted OR, 14.17; 95% CI, 9.17-21.89), preeclampsia or eclampsia (adjusted OR, 9.23; 95% CI, 6.99-12.19), and tobacco use (adjusted OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.53-5.23) were independently associated with ICH during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Pregnancy-related ICH was associated with a higher risk of maternal (relative risk difference, 792.6; absolute risk difference, 0.18) and fetal (relative risk difference, 5.3; absolute risk difference, 0.03) death, compared with pregnancies without ICH.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that the risk of ICH is significantly higher during the third trimester of pregnancy and the first 12 weeks post partum. There are age and race disparities in ICH risk that are associated with devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. These data illustrate the critical need for continuous monitoring and aggressive management of ICH-associated risk factors. These findings suggest that extended postpartum monitoring of high-risk women may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.2769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156993PMC
April 2020
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