Publications by authors named "Fabiola Iagher"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Short- and Long-Term Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Fish Oil on Inflammatory Pain in Rats.

J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Jun 22:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Physiology, Division of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.

Introduction: Dietary supplementation with fish oil is promising as a complementary therapy for inflammatory pain. However, further studies are needed to support its therapeutic potential. For example, the antinociceptive effect of fish oil is widely suggested to be dependent on decreased prostaglandin E (PGE) synthesis, but no previous study has investigated if it affects PGE-induced nociceptive response. Similarly, beneficial long-term effects on inflammatory response are related to early exposure to fish oil, however, whether these effects include decreased inflammatory pain throughout life is not known.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of fish oil on inflammatory pain.

Methods: Dietary fish oil supplementation was performed through two protocols: in adult rats, during 20 days, or in dams, during pregnancy and lactation, with tests performed in adult offspring. The hyperalgesic response induced by carrageenan and its final mediators PGE and norepinephrine was used to model inflammatory pain.

Results: The findings demonstrated for the first time that dietary fish oil (1) decreases the hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan; (2) but not that induced by its final mediator PGE and norepinephrine; (3) increase omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peripheral neural tissue; and (4) attenuates inflammatory pain in individuals exposed to fish oil during pre-natal life and lactation.

Conclusion: Together, these findings support that fish oil decreases inflammatory pain either when consumed during adult life or during prenatal development. Future studies should confirm the therapeutic potential of fish oil in humans, which is essential for the development of public policies to encourage a fish oil richer diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2021.1911006DOI Listing
June 2021

Consumption of latex from Euphorbia tirucalli L. promotes a reduction of tumor growth and cachexia, and immunomodulation in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Jun 28;255:112722. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, PR, Brazil; Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Euphorbia tirucalli L. is an African plant that grows well in Brazil. Individuals diagnosed with cancer frequently consume latex from E. tirucalli, dissolved in drinking water. In vitro studies confirm the antitumor potential of E. tirucalli latex, but in vivo evaluations are scarce.

Aim Of The Study: To evaluate the effect of intake of an aqueous solution of E. tirucalli latex on tumor growth, cachexia, and immune response in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

Materials And Methods: Latex from E. tirucalli was collected and analyzed by LC-MS. Sixty male Wistar rats (age, 90 days) were randomly divided into four groups: C, control group (without tumor); W, Walker 256 tumor-bearing group; SW1, W animals but treated with 25 μL latex/mL water; and SW2, W animals but treated with 50 μL latex/mL water. Animals received 1 mL of latex solution once a day by gavage. After 15 d, animals were euthanized, tumor mass was determined, and glucose and triacylglycerol serum levels were measured by using commercial kits. Change in the body weight during tumor development was calculated, and proliferation capacity of tumor cells was assessed by the Alamar Blue assay. Phagocytosis and superoxide anion production by peritoneal macrophages and circulating neutrophils were analyzed by enzymatic and colorimetric assays. Data are analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, with the significance level set at 5%.

Results: The analysis of the latex revealed the presence of triterpenes. The ingestion of the latex aqueous solution promoted 40% and 60% reduction of the tumor mass in SW1 and SW2 groups, respectively (p < 0.05). The proliferative capacity of tumor cells from SW2 group was 76% lower than that of cells from W group (p < 0.0001). Animals treated with latex gained, on average, 20 g (SW1) and 8 g (SW2) weight. Glucose and triacylglycerol serum levels in SW1 and SW2 animals were similar to those in C group rats. Peritoneal macrophages and blood neutrophils from SW1 and SW2 animals produced 30-40% less superoxide anions than those from W group animals (p < 0.05), but neutrophils from SW2 group showed an increased phagocytic capacity (20%, vs. W group).

Conclusions: E. tirucalli latex, administered orally for 15 d, efficiently reduced tumor growth and cachexia in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Decreased tumor cell proliferative capacity was one of the mechanisms involved in this effect. Further, the data suggest immunomodulatory properties of E. tirucalli latex. The results agree with folk data on the antitumor effect of latex ingestion, indicating that it may be useful as an adjunct in the treatment of cancer patients. For this, further in vivo studies in animal and human models need to be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112722DOI Listing
June 2020

Antitumor and anti-cachectic effects of shark liver oil and fish oil: comparison between independent or associative chronic supplementation in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

Lipids Health Dis 2013 Oct 16;12:146. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Area of Biological and Health Sciences, West University of Santa Catarina, Joaçaba, Brazil.

Background: Shark liver oil (SLOil) and fish oil (FOil), which are respectively rich in alkylglycerols (AKGs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are able to reduce the growth of some tumors and the burden of cachexia. It is known that FOil is able to reduce proliferation rate and increase apoptotic cells and lipid peroxidation of tumor cells efficiently. However, there are few reports revealing the influence of SLOil on these parameters. In the current study, effects of FOil chronic supplementation on tumor growth and cachexia were taken as reference to compare the results obtained with SLOil supplementation. Also, we evaluated if the association of SLOil and FOil was able to promote additive effects.

Methods: Weanling male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: fed regular chow (C), supplemented (1 g/kg body weight) with SLOil (CSLO), FOil (CFO) and both (CSLO + FO). After 8 weeks half of each group was inoculated with Walker 256 cells originating new groups (W, WSLO, WFO and WSLO + FO). Biochemical parameters of cachexia, tumor weight, hydroperoxide content, proliferation rate and percentage of apoptotic tumor cells were analysed. Fatty acids and AKG composition of tumor and oils were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc Tukey test.

Results: Fourteen days after inoculation, SLOil was able to restore cachexia parameters to control levels, similarly to FOil. WSLO rats presented significantly lower tumor weight (40%), greater tumor cell apoptosis (~3-fold), decreased tumor cell proliferation (35%), and higher tumor content of lipid hydroperoxides (40%) than observed in W rats, but FOil showed more potent effects. Supplementation with SLOil + FOil did not promote additive effects. Additionally, chromatographic results suggested a potential incorporation competition between the n-3 fatty acids and the AKGs in the tumor cells' membranes.

Conclusions: SLOil is another marine source of lipids with similar FOil anti-cachectic capacity. Furthermore, despite being less potent than FOil, SLOil presented significant in vivo antitumor effects. These results suggest that the chronic supplementation with SLOil may be adjuvant of the anti-cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-12-146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4015826PMC
October 2013

Galactofuranosyl glycosides: immunomodulatory effects on macrophages and in vivo enhancement of lethality on sepsis.

Chem Biol Interact 2013 Sep 10;205(1):29-37. Epub 2013 Jun 10.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Galactofuranoside derivatives were synthesised by the classic Fischer glycosydation method, and their immune modulation properties were studied in vitro and in vivo. NMR spectroscopic and ESI-MS analyses confirmed the purity and authenticity of all derivatives. Their phagocyte capacities were tested in resident macrophages. Methyl β-galactofuranoside (GFB-Me) and n-octyl β-galactofuranoside (GFB-O) had an immune stimulant effect at 25μmolml(-1) with an enhancement of 35.12%±0.06 SD and 17.49%±0.11 SD, respectively, but Methyl α-galactofuranoside (GFA-Me) and n-octyl α-galactofuranoside (GFA-O) gave a low immune response. Methyl α-galactofuranoside 5,6-O-isopropylidene (GFA-IP) and Methyl β-galactofuranoside 5,6-O-isopropylidene (GFB-IP) had negative values relative to the control group of minus 4.96%±0.10 SD and -40.72%±0.07 SD, respectively. Furthermore, GFB-Me and GFB-Me-IP were evaluated in vivo on the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Cytokine levels and iNOS expression were determined and correlated to mortality data. The results showed that the free HO-5 and HO-6 and the β-configuration are essential for the induction of phagocytic activity by the galactofuranosyl units. The methyl β-galactofuranosides also enhanced lethality during sepsis, increasing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2013.05.014DOI Listing
September 2013

Glutathione and iron at the crossroad of redox metabolism in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi.

Parasitol Res 2013 Jun 26;112(6):2361-6. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Laboratório de Bioquímica de Hemoparasitas e Vetores-LABHEV, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Avenida Luiz de Camões, no. 2090, Bairro Conta Dinheiro, 88520-000, Lages, SC, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hematological and biochemical parameters of blood during acute Trypanosoma evansi infection in Wistar rats. The end points studied were hematologic parameters, red blood cell fragility, iron content, and glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels. Forty-eight animals were infected with trypomastigotes and distributed into five groups according to the level of parasitemia. Twelve non-inoculated animals were used as control. Parasitemia increased progressively, reaching highest scores at 15 days post-inoculation. At this point, several deleterious effects were observed such as an increase in iron content, in osmotic fragility, and in lipid peroxidation index, while glutathione decreased drastically. These changes were highly correlated to parasitemia (p < 0.0001) and among each other (p ≤ 0.001). Hematological indices (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) were also correlated to parasitemia (p ≤ 0.0003) but failed to correlate to the other variables. Along with increase in iron, RBC fragility produced a decrease in RBC, PCV, and Hb, but not in mean corpuscular volume. Decrease in glutathione was negatively correlated to the end products of lipid peroxidation, clearly indicating the establishment of a pro-oxidant condition. The results show that the infection causes hematological impairments, increases iron and osmotic fragility, along with marked oxidative stress in red blood cells of rats inoculated with T. evansi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3400-9DOI Listing
June 2013

Fish oil supplementation improves neutrophil function during cancer chemotherapy.

Lipids 2012 Apr 11;47(4):383-9. Epub 2011 Dec 11.

Department of Physiology, Biological Sciences Building, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR 81540-990, Brazil.

Cancer chemotherapy is associated with neutropenia and impaired neutrophil function. This study aimed to investigate whether supplementation with low dose fish oil (FO), providing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy after surgical tumor (mainly gastrointestinal) removal is able to improve the function of blood neutrophils. Patients (n = 38) receiving chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and leucovorin) were randomized into two groups; one group (control) did not receive a supplement, while the other group (FO) received 2 g FO/day for 8 weeks; the FO provided 0.3 g eicosapentaenoic acid plus 0.4 g docosahexaenoic acid per day. Patients in the control group lost an average of 2.5 kg of weight over the 8 weeks of the study. The number of blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNC), mainly neutrophils, and their functions (phagocytosis and hydrogen peroxide production) decreased in the control group (average decreases of approximately 30, 45 and 17%, respectively). FO prevented these decreases and actually increased body weight (average of 1.7 kg weight gain; p < 0.002 vs. control group), PMNC number (average 29% increase), phagocytosis (average 14% increase) and superoxide production (average 28% increase). FO may be useful in preventing chemotherapy-induced decline in neutrophil number and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-011-3643-0DOI Listing
April 2012

Chronic supplementation with shark liver oil for reducing tumor growth and cachexia in walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

Nutr Cancer 2011 Nov 7;63(8):1307-15. Epub 2011 Oct 7.

Area of Biological and Health Sciences, West University of Santa Catarina, Joaçaba, Brazil.

We investigated the effect of chronic supplementation with shark liver oil (SLO), an antitumor supplement source of n-3 fatty acids and 1-O-alkylglycerols, alone and combined with coconut fat (CF), a source of saturated fatty acids, on Walker 256 tumor growth and cachexia. Male rats were supplemented daily and orally with SLO and/or CF (1 g per kg body weight) for 7 wk. After 7 wk, 50% of animals were subcutaneously inoculated with 3 × 10(7) Walker 256 tumor cells. After 14 days, the rats were killed, the tumors were removed for lipid peroxidation measurement, and blood was collected for glycemia, triacylglycerolemia, and lacticidemia evaluation. Liver samples were obtained for glycogen measurement. Unlike CF, supplementation with SLO promoted gain in body weight, reduction of tumor weight, and maintained glycemia, triacylglycerolemia, lacticidemia, and liver glycogen content to values similar to non-tumor-bearing rats. Combined supplementation of SLO with CF also showed a reversion of cachexia with gain in body mass, reduction of lacticidemia, maintaining the liver glycogen store, and reduction in tumor weight. SLO, alone or combined with CF, promoted increase of tumor lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, SLO supplemented chronically, alone or associated with CF, was able to reduce tumor growth and cachexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2011.607540DOI Listing
November 2011

Tumor growth reduction in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats performing anaerobic exercise: participation of Bcl-2, Bax, apoptosis, and peroxidation.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2011 Aug 18;36(4):533-8. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

Department of Physiology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba-PR, Brazil.

Physical activity has been used in cancer prevention and treatment. In this study, we investigated some of the mechanisms by which anaerobic exercise reduces tumor growth. To do so, rats were trained for 8 weeks. Training consisted of jumping in a swimming pool for ten 30-s sets, with a load that was 50% of body weight attached to the back, 4 times per week. At the sixth week, anaerobic exercise trained rats (EX group) were inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 tumor cells. Tumor weight, apoptotic tumor cells, tumor Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression, tumor lipid peroxidation, and tumor cell proliferation ex vivo were evaluated. Tumor weight was significantly lower in the EX group (∼30%) than in rats that did not undergo training (sedentary group) (p < 0.05). Apoptosis in the tumor cells of EX rats was 2-fold higher than in the tumor cells of sedentary rats; in addition, Bax expression increased by 10% and Bcl-2 decreased by 13% in EX rats. Lipid peroxidation was 4-fold higher in the tumor cells of EX rats than in those of sedentary rats (p < 0.05). Tumor cell proliferation ex vivo was 29% lower in the EX group than in the sedentary group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Walker 256 tumor-bearing exercised rats presented more tumor cell apoptosis, a higher tumor content of lipid peroxides, pro-apoptotic protein expression balance, and reduced tumor weight and cell proliferation ex vivo, compared with sedentary rats. These events, together, account for the lower tumor growth we observed in the EX rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/h11-047DOI Listing
August 2011

Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats.

Lipids Health Dis 2011 Apr 28;10:66. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Department of Physiology, Biological Sciences Building, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Background: Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats.

Methods: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO), obese control group (Ob), coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO) and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO). Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed.

Results: Obese animals (Ob) presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt) showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO) similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30%) and triacylglycerol (TG; 33%) compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob.

Conclusions: Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-10-66DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108314PMC
April 2011

Walker-256 tumor growth is inhibited by the independent or associative chronic ingestion of shark liver and fish oil: a response linked by the increment of peritoneal macrophages nitrite production in Wistar rats.

Nutr Res 2010 Nov;30(11):770-6

Department of Physiology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba-PR, Brazil.

Fish oil (FO) is widely known by its capacity to positively modulate immune parameters and decrease the growth of some tumors. Despite the enormous number of studies addressing the effects of FO, there are few reports showing similar results using other marine sources of lipid compounds with biologic importance. This study aimed to compare the effects of shark liver oil (SLO), which is a source of omega-3 fatty acids and alkylglycerols, with those obtained with FO administration, or the association of both, on tumor growth and the innate immune system in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Beginning at 21 days of age, Wistar rats were fed regular chow and/or FO and/or SLO supplement (1 g/kg body weight per day) for 14 weeks. Walker-256 tumor cells were inoculated on the 90th day. As expected, 14 days after inoculation, rats fed with FO presented tumor weights that were 50% lower than the control tumors (P < .05). The association of both FO and SLO and ingestion of SLO alone also reached the same reduction level. Except for adhesion, all macrophage parameters assayed were 200% higher in rats fed with FO and those supplemented with both FO and SLO compared with control rats. Only reactive nitrogen species production was increased by SLO. These results suggest that SLO might also have indirect antitumor properties. Conversely, there were no additive effects when SLO was administered with FO. Therefore, SLO is another marine compound with in vivo antitumor effects, but its action mechanisms seem not to be related to major modifications on macrophage function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2010.09.015DOI Listing
November 2010

Evaluation of chronic omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on behavioral and neurochemical alterations in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion model of Parkinson's disease.

Neurosci Res 2010 Mar 24;66(3):256-64. Epub 2009 Nov 24.

Laboratório de Neurofisiologia, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) have been widely associated to beneficial effects over different neuropathologies, but only a few studies associate them to Parkinson's disease (PD). Rats were submitted to chronic supplementation (21-90 days of life) with fish oil, rich in omega-3 PUFAs, and were uni- or bilaterally lesioned with 4microg of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the medial forebrain bundle. Although lipid incorporation was evidenced in neuronal membranes, it was not sufficient to compensate motor deficits induced by 6-OHDA. In contrast, omega-3 PUFAs were capable of reducing rotational behavior induced by apomorphine, suggesting neuroprotection over dyskinesia. The beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFAs were also evident in the maintenance of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances index from animals lesioned with 6-OHDA similar to levels from SHAM and intact animals. Although omega-3 PUFAs did not modify the tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta and in the ventral tegmental area, nor the depletion of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in the striatum, DA turnover was increased after omega-3 PUFAs chronic supplementation. Therefore, it is proposed that omega-3 PUFAs action characterizes the adaptation of remaining neurons activity, altering striatal DA turnover without modifying the estimated neuronal population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2009.11.006DOI Listing
March 2010

Anaerobic exercise reduces tumor growth, cancer cachexia and increases macrophage and lymphocyte response in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2008 Dec 8;104(6):957-64. Epub 2008 Aug 8.

Department of Physiology, Biological Science Building, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Here, we investigated the effect of jump exercise on tumor growth, cancer cachexia, lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage function in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (60 days) were divided into sedentary (C) and exercised (E) groups. Jump training consisted of six sets of 10 jumps in water with overload of 50% of body mass with 1 min of resting, four times per week for 8 weeks. After 6 weeks of training, half of each group was inoculated with 2 x 10(7) cells of Walker 256 tumor. Sedentary tumor-bearing and exercised tumor-bearing are referred to as T and TE, respectively. Tumor weight in the T group was 25 g. These animals display loss of weight, hypertriacylglycerolemia, hyperlacticidemia, depletion of glycogen stores and increase in PIF expression. Jump exercise (TE) induced a significant lower tumor weight, preserves liver glycogen stores, partly prevented the hypertriacylglycerolemia, hyperlacticidemia and, prevented the fall in body weight and reduced PIF expression. Lymphocyte was increased by tumor burden (T) and was higher by including exercise (TE). The same was observed regarding phagocytosis and lysosomal volume. Anaerobic exercise decreases tumor growth, cancer cachexia and increases innate and adaptative immune function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0849-9DOI Listing
December 2008

Impact of oral health on quality of life among the elderly population of Joaçaba, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Braz Oral Res 2004 Jan-Mar;18(1):85-91. Epub 2004 Jul 20.

School of Dentistry, Western Santa Catarina University.

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of elderly people in Joaçaba - SC, in Southern Brazil. A survey based on systematic sampling of clusters was carried out with 183 elderly people that belong to old age groups. The survey was conducted in order to assess the oral conditions of the participants (use of and need for prosthesis) based on the criteria from the World Health Organization publication "Oral Health Surveys, Basic Methods", 4th edition. The oral health impact profile (OHIP) was used to evaluate the impact of oral condition in the quality of life. ABIPEME (Brazilian Association of Market Research Institutes) criterion was used, together with the level of education and the number of people in the household to determine social inequalities. The participants were mostly women (82%) and the OHIP mean was 10.35. No correlation was observed between the OHIP level and formal education or between OHIP and number of residents per household. There was a correlation of 0.240 (p = 0.001) between ABIPEME and OHIP. The OHIP mean for those not using maxillary prosthesis was 12.48 and the mean for those using it was 9.81 (p = 0.399). The mean OHIP for those in need of maxillary prosthesis for those who did not need it was 13.00 and 8.88, respectively (p = 0.014). The same trend was found for the use and need for mandibular prosthesis. The conclusion was that the need for maxillary and mandibular prosthesis impacted the quality of life among the elderly population of Joaçaba.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1806-83242004000100016DOI Listing
February 2005
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