Publications by authors named "Essam H Ibrahim"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Characterization of the native honey bee () in the south western region of Saudi Arabia using morphometric and genetic (mtDNA COI) characteristics.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 20;28(4):2278-2284. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

incorporates a few perceived subspecies that vary in their natural properties and farming qualities. Mitochondrial COI gene sequence (mtCOI) has not been used before for bee identification in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this work was to study the morphometry and analyzing the mtCOI of all collected bees. The nucleotide sequence of the mtCOI gene was analyzed. Similarity searches and distances between each obtained DNA and sequences available in GenBank were made. Morphometric analysis revealed close similarities among the studied bees, but these similarities are different from those previously indicated in earlier studies of the same region. Molecular studies revealed that the collected bees are similar to each other and some other sequences found in GenBank, but these bees are a new hybrid or subspecies that are different from those previously reported in the same region, indicating the emergence of a new hybrid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071817PMC
April 2021

Development of in-house ELISAs for the detection of anti-SARS‑CoV‑2 RBD and N IgG and IgM antibodies in biological samples.

J King Saud Univ Sci 2021 Jun 15;33(4):101439. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

By the end of year 2019, the new virus SARS-CoV-2 appeared, causing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and spread very fast globally. A continuing need for diagnostic tools is a must to contain its spread. Till now, the gold standard method, the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), is the precise procedure to detect the virus. However, SARS-CoV-2 may escape RT-PCR detection for several reasons. The development of well-designed, specific and sensitive serological test like enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is needed. This EIA can stand alone or work side by side with RT-PCR. In this study, we developed several EIAs including plates that are coated with either specially designed SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid or surface recombinant proteins. Each protein type can separately detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM or IgG antibodies. For each EIAs, the cut-off value, specificity and sensitivity were determined utilizing RT-PCR confirmed Covid-19 and pre-pandemic healthy and other viruses-infected sera. Also, the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to define the specificities and sensitivities of the optimized assay. The in-house EIAs were validated by comparing against commercial EIA kits. All in-house EIAs showed high specificity (98-99%) and sensitivity (97.8-98.9%) for the detection of IgG/IgM against RBD and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2. From these results, the developed Anti-RBD and anti-N IgG and IgM antibodies EIAs can be used as a specific and sensitive tool to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection, calculate the burden of disease and case fatality rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2021.101439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049187PMC
June 2021

One-spot fabrication and in-vivo toxicity evaluation of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Mar 23;122:111898. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

NanoBioTech Laboratory, Department of Natural Sciences, Division of Sciences, Art and Mathematics, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, FL 33805, USA. Electronic address:

This research, for the first time, report the synthesis of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) consisting poly acrylic acid (PAA) coated cobalt ferrite (CF) using a simple co-precipitation route. Nanocrystalline PAA@CF-NPs, particle size of 9.2 nm, exhibited saturation magnetization as 28.9 emu/g, remnant magnetization as 8.37 emu/g, and coercivity as 543 Oe. Keeping biomedical applications into consideration, PAA@CF-NPs were further analysed to evaluate antimicrobial performance against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) bacteria, and biocompatibility with reference to activated splenic cells. The PAA@CF-NPs were viable to the normal splenic cells (up to 1000 μg/ml) and do not affect the ability of fast dividing ability of the cells (activated splenic cells). An optimized dose of PAA@CF-NPs was intramuscularly administrated (100 μg/ml) into Albino mice to evaluate acute toxicity. The results of these studies suggest that injected PAA@CF-NPs do not affect vital organs mainly including liver and kidneys that confirmed the heptic/renal biocompatibility. The outcomes of this research project such developed nano-system for biomedical applications, mainly for magnetically guided drug delivery and image guided therapies development. However, to support the proposed claims, extended in-vivo studies are required to explore bio-distribution, chronic toxicity, and homeostatic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.111898DOI Listing
March 2021

Silver Nanoparticle Production by and Testing Its Safety, Bioactivity, Immune Modulation, Anticancer, and Insecticidal Potentials.

Bioinorg Chem Appl 2020 24;2020:5626382. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Bisha, Bisha, 511, Saudi Arabia.

a plant belonging to the family Rutaceae, is traditionally used as a medicinal plant and a flavoring agent in food. This work aimed to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the ethanol extract from leaves and test different biological activities as well as insecticidal potentials in the extract and extract prepared AgNPs. Dried and powdered leaves were subjected to extraction using ethanol, and this extract was used to synthesize AgNPs. AgNP synthesis was monitored by the change in color, UV spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy (scanning). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the functional groups in the extracts. Immunological, physiological, anticancer, antibacterial, and insecticidal potentials of the extract and its prepared AgNPs were tested. Results showed the ability of the leaf extract to synthesize. SEM examination revealed a spherical shape of AgNPs with a size of 40-45 nm. The extract contained many functional groups as indicated by FT-IR. The extract alone inhibited the growth of normal rat splenic cells, while the extract containing AgNPs stimulated its growth. Extract alone stimulated HeLa cell proliferation and inhibited HepG2 growth, while both cell line growth was inhibited by the extract containing AgNPs. Both the extract and extract with AgNPs were safe on RBCs and did not cause any severe elevation in liver enzymes. The extract alone and with AgNPs showed insecticidal activity against . Our findings suggest that the leaf extract, alone or with AgNPs, is biologically safe on animal cells and has antibacterial, insecticidal, and immunomodulation potentials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5626382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396051PMC
July 2020

Kaempferol protects against cadmium chloride-induced hippocampal damage and memory deficits by activation of silent information regulator 1 and inhibition of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase-1.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 21;728:138832. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Chrono-Environnement Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, F-25030 Besançon Cedex, France. Electronic address:

The neuroprotective effect of Kaempferol against cadmium chloride (CdCl) -induced neurotoxicity is well reported. The silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) are two related cellular molecules that can negatively affect the activity of each other to promote or inhibit cell survival, respectively. It is still largely unknown if the neurotoxicity of CdCl or the neuroprotection of Kaempferol are mediated by modulating SIRT1 and/or PAPR1 activities. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CdCl-induced memory deficit and hippocampal damage are associated with downregulation/inhibition of SIRT1 and activation of PAPR1, an effect that can be reversed by co-treatment with Kaempferol. Rats (n = 12/group) were divided into 4 groups as control, control + Kaempferol (50 mg//kg), CdCl (0.5 mg/kg), and CdCl + Kaempferol. All treatments were administered orally for 30 days daily. As compared to control rats, CdCl2 reduced rat's final body weights (21.8%) and their food intake (30%), induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in their hippocampi, and impaired their short and long-term recognition memory functions. Besides, the hippocampi of CdCl-treated rats had higher levels of TNF-α (197%), and IL-6 (190%) with a concomitant increase in nuclear activity and levels of NF-κB p65 (721% & 554%). Besides, they showed reduced nuclear activity (53%) and levels (74%) of SIRT1, higher nuclear activity and levels of PARP1 (292% & 138%), increased nuclear levels of p53 (870%), and higher acetylated levels of NF-κB p65 (513%), p53 (644%), PARP1 (696%), and FOXO-2 (149%). All these events were significantly reversed in the CdCl + Kaempferol-treated rats. Of note, Kaempferol also increased levels of MnSOD (73.5%), and GSH (40%), protein levels of Bcl-2 (350%), and nuclear activity (67%) and levels (46%) of SIRT1 in the hippocampi of the control rats. In conclusion, Kaempferol ameliorates CdCl-induced memory deficits and hippocampal oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis by increasing SIRT1 activity and inhibiting PARP1 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138832DOI Listing
August 2020

The Protective Role of Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Monophosphoryl Lipid A Against Vaccinated Murine Schistosomiasis.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Sep 2;65(3):652-660. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, PO Box 9004, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: Schistosomiasis is a disease that afflicts over 220 million people worldwide. To date, there is no vaccine against schistosomiasis and chemotherapy relies basically on a single drug, praziquantel. The current study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effects of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as an adjuvant in soluble egg antigen (SEA)-vaccinated and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

Methods: Mice were divided into two groups of uninfected and Schistosoma mansoni infected. The two groups were treated differently with MPLA, SEA and praziquantel. Study parameters included parasitological, immunological and biochemical parameters.

Results: Parasitological parameters revealed that intraperitoneal injection of MPLA into SEA-vaccinated and S. mansoni-infected mice was effective in reducing the worm and egg burden, granuloma count and diameter as well as the total area of infection in their livers versus SEA-untreated but infected ones. In addition, MPLA showed ameliorative action on the elevated liver oxidative stress marker, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the level of the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) which may have a role in the liver damage and fibrosis due to S. mansoni infection.

Conclusion: Treatment with MPLA has multi-functions in attenuating the deleterious impacts of S. mansoni infection in mice livers. Its effects are mediated through a reduction of ova count, worm burden, granuloma diameter and amelioration of antioxidant defense systems, and liver function biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00204-3DOI Listing
September 2020

Majra Honey Abrogated the Normal and Cancer Cells Proliferation Inhibition by Juniperus procera Extract and Extract/Honey Generated AgNPs.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2020 ;20(8):970-981

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Juniperus procera and Majra honey are well-known as a folk medicine in many countries.

Objectives: This work aimed to study the immunomodulatory effects after mixing Majra honey, J. procera water leaves extract and silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) on immune or cancer cells.

Methods: Juniperus procera water leaves extract and 20% Majra honey were prepared. Both the extract and honey were used separately to synthesize AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized using UV/Vis spectrophotometry and electron microscopy. Bioactive molecules in honey and the extract were explored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Protein profile of honey was explored using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and honey sugar content was determined using High- Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Biological activities of honey and the extract were tested.

Results: The results demonstrated the ability of the extract/honey to produce AgNPs in a spherical shape. The extract/honey contained many functional groups. SDS-PAGE of Majra honey showed many protein bands. HPLC revealed honey is of good quality and no external additives are added to it. The extract and extract+ AgNPs inhibited the growth of normal rat splenic cells while honey stimulated it. The extract+honey turned stimulatory to the splenic cells' growth and significantly diminished the inhibitory potential of the extract containing AgNPs. Both the extract and honey have antimicrobial activities, this potential increased in the presence of AgNPs. Honey and Honey+AgNPs inhibited HepG2 cancer cell proliferation while Hela cell growth inhibited only with honey+AgNPs.

Conclusion: Both honey and the extract have antibacterial and immunomodulatory potentials as well as the power to produce AgNPs. Majra honey alone showed anticancer activity against HepGe2 cells, but not against Hela cells, and when contained AgNPs had anticancer activity on both cell lines. Mixing of Majra honey with J. procera extract showed characterized immunomodulatory potentials that can be described as immunostimulant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520620666200213104224DOI Listing
January 2020

Study of anticancer, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and silver nanoparticles production by Sidr honey from three different sources.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jan 9;8(1):445-455. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS) King Khalid University Abha Saudi Arabia.

Sidr honey is used as food and medicine in many countries. Study of immunomodulatory and anticancer activity of Sidr honey did not tested before. The aim of this work was to study the anticancer activity and immunomodulatory as well as antimicrobial potential of Sidr honey and its synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Sidr honey from three sources (two from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and one from Pakistan) was diluted to 20% and tested for its biological activities and to synthesize AgNPs. The results demonstrated that honeys could produce AgNPs (spherical shape), modulated the growth of normal splenic cells, and have antimicrobial activities. Sidr honey has anticancer activity against HepG2 but not Hela cells. Sidr honey can be used as antimicrobial agent, but can be used as anticancer agent with care as it stimulated cell growth of some lines (e.g., Hala) and inhibited another (e.g., HepG2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977415PMC
January 2020

TH1/TH2 chemokines/cytokines profile in rats treated with tetanus toxoid and .

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 18;26(7):1716-1723. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Natural products, including their purified materials, play a remarkable role in drug development. The Euphorbiaceae family, mainly , is used in some traditional medicine, and has evidence that its latex comprises immunomodulatory properties and cytokine production. This study aimed to measure the production of chemokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12, and RANTES), T1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, and IL-2) and T2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13) in rats after treatments with ethanol latex extract of . Vaccine treated and untreated rats were divided into seven groups to assess antimicrobial activities of the extracted components. After completion of the treatment schedule, blood was withdrawn and sera were collected. The results showed that the main component of the extract was a euphol compound. The extract showed antimicrobial activity and had the ability to modulate innate and adaptive immunity. Animals treated with extract for only 7 days before vaccination showed higher levels of antibody production. The extract showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extract could stimulate both adaptive and innate immunity. Pre-treatment with the extract increased immune responses in vaccinated animals, indicating the usefulness of the extract before immunization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864399PMC
November 2019

Cellular proliferation/cytotoxicity and antimicrobial potentials of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using .

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 17;26(7):1689-1694. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

spp. are used as medicinal plants in many countries like Bosnia, Lebanon, and Turkey. In folk medicines, these plants have been used for treating skin and respiratory tract diseases, urinary problems, rheumatism and gall bladder stones. The objectives of this work were to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a coniferous tree, leaf extract and testing the synthesized AgNPs for its antimicrobial potentials, hemolytic activity, toxicity and the proliferative effects against normal and activated rat splenic cells. Leaf extract was prepared using acetone and ethanol as solvents. AgNPs were prepared using the acetone extract. AgNPs were validated using UV-Vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Functional groups in the extract were identified using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. SEM images of AgNPs showed spherical and cubic shapes with a uniform size distribution with an average size of 30-90 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy showed the presence of many functional groups in the plant extract. AgNPs showed promising antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria and fungus. AgNPs also expressed a stimulating activity towards the rat splenic cells in a dose dependent manner. Acetone as solvent was safer on cells than ethanol. Green synthesized AgNPs using might be used as a broad-spectrum therapeutic agent against microorganisms and as an immunostimulant agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864202PMC
November 2019

Development of Rift Valley fever (RVF) vaccine by genetic joining of the RVF-glycoprotein Gn with the strong adjuvant subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB) and expression in bacterial system.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 22;26(7):1676-1681. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, King Khalid University, Dhahran Al Janoub, Saudi Arabia.

One of the mosquito-borne zoonotic diseases is the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Currently, there is no completely licensed vaccine that can be used to vaccinate animals or humans outside endemic areas. The aim of this work was to use the RVFV glycoprotein (Gn) and the subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB) at gene level and build up fused recombinant vaccine. The gene of CTB was joined to the gene Gn to work as an adjuvant in the resulting fusion protein. The designed merged genes () was tested for restriction sites, open reading frames, expected fusion protein tertiary structure and antigenicity using computer software. The insert sequence was submitted to the BioProject (GenBank). The insert was subcloned into the pQE-31 expression plasmid. The target recombinant protein (rCTB-Gn) was expressed in M15 bacteria, purified and identified by protein gel electrophoresis. The insert got the accession No: PRJNA386723. Analysis of the designed rCTB-Gn protein revealed that it had the right 3D structure, immunogenic and at the correct molecular weight. The presence of the CTB in the proposed vaccine will augment its immunogenicity. Doses and protection levels of the vaccine need to be manipulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864185PMC
November 2019

Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) Using Leaf Ethanol Extract, Their Characterization, and Biological Applications.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 May 18;9(5). Epub 2019 May 18.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA.

The purpose of this study was to explore the collective biological properties of ethanol leaf extract (RcExt) and extract-fabricated gold nanoparticles (RcExt-AuNPs). AuNPs were synthesized using RcExt. Fingerprint data of the biochemicals putatively found in RcExt were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet-visible (HPLC/UV-VIS) analyses. RcExt-AuNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier- transform infrared radiation (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity on the Hela and HepG2 tumor cell lines was tested through cell viability, antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens through a well diffusion assay, hemolytic activity on red blood cells through absorbance reading, and stimulatory/inhibitory effects on splenic cells by cell viability. AuNPs of 200 nm size were synthesized. GC-MS/MS analysis revealed 12 peaks and HPLC/UV-VIS analysis resulted in 18, 13, and five peaks at the wavelengths of 220, 254, and 300 nm, respectively. Cytotoxicity screening revealed that RcExt had stimulatory effects (6.08%) on Hela cells and an inhibitory effect (-28.33%) on HepG2 cells, whereas RcExt-AuNPs showed inhibitory effects (-58.64% and -42.74%) on Hela and HepG2 cells, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of RcExt-AuNPs against tested pathogens was significantly higher (average diameters of inhibition zones were higher (ranging from 9.33 mm to 16.33 mm)) than those of RcExt (ranging from 6.00 mm to 7.33 mm). RcExt and RcExt-AuNPs showed 4.15% and 100% lytic effects, respectively. Inhibitory effects on splenic cells for RcExt-AuNPs were observed to be significantly higher (-30.56% to -72.62%) than those of RcExt (-41.55% to -62.25%) between concentrations of 25 to 200 µg/mL. RcExt-AuNPs were inhibitory against HepG2 and Hela cells, while RcExt inhibited HepG2 but stimulated Hela cells. RcExt-AuNPs showed comparatively more antimicrobial activity. RcExt was safe while RcExt-AuNPs harmful to red blood cells (RBCs). RcExt and RcExt-AuNPs showed inhibitory effects on splenic cells irrespective of dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9050765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567088PMC
May 2019

Biological Activities of Leaves Ethanolic Extract and the Extract Fabricated Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs).

Molecules 2019 Apr 11;24(7). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Unit of Bee Research and Honey Production, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

leaves extract (EpExt) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) phytofabricated with extract (EpExt-AuNPs) were investigated for biological activities. EpExt and EpExt-AuNPs were screened for: (i) anticancer activity against Hela and HepG2 cell lines; (ii) antimicrobial activity; (iii) hemolytic activity; (iv) cytotoxic or stimulatory effects; and (v) insecticidal activity. AuNPs (size 50 nm) were synthesized. (i) EpExt had a stimulatory effect (51.04%) on Hela cells and an inhibitory effect (-12.83%) on HepG2 cells while EpExt-AuNPs showed inhibitory effects (-54.25% and -59.64% on Hela and HepG2 cells respectively). (ii) Antimicrobial activity of EpExt-AuNPs was significantly higher (ranged from 11.67 mm to 14.33 mm) than that of EpExt (ranged from 5.33 mm to 6.33 mm). (iii) Both EpExt and EpExt-AuNPs displayed 100% hemolysis. (iv) A dose-dependent inhibitory effect of EpExt was observed (ranged from -48.5% to -92.1%), which was greater than that of EpExt-AuNPs (ranged from -32.1% to -69.1%) (v) EpExt-AuNPs was more lethal against mosquito larvae with lethal concentration (LC) value (202.692 ppm) compared to EpExt (1430.590 ppm). In conclusion, EpExt-AuNPs were inhibitory against HepG2 and Hela cells, while EpExt inhibited HepG2 but stimulated Hela cells. EpExt-AuNPs had antimicrobial effects. EpExt showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on splenic cells. EpExt-AuNPs were lethal against mosquito larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6480618PMC
April 2019

DNA vaccination using recombinant Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid binding protein (smFABP) gene.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Nov 25;194:53-59. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia; Blood Products Quality Control and Research Department, National Organization for Research and Control of Biologicals, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Schistosomiasis is a fatal disease that has a negative impact on health and economics. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis treatment, but it has no prophylactic effect; therefore, vaccination is an essential requirement in schistosomiasis control. This work was carried out to investigate the possible effect of DNA vaccination against Schistosoma mansoni infection using recombinant S. mansoni fatty acid binding protein (rsmFABP). The smFABP gene was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNAI/Amp in order to obtain an smFABP-pcDNAI recombinant plasmid (DNA vaccine) and was used for the intramuscular DNA vaccination of out-bread Swiss albino mice prior to infection with S. mansoni cercariae. Infected groups, either DNA vaccinated or unvaccinated, were treated with PZQ at week 6 post-infection. After 8 weeks post-infection, all mouse groups were sacrificed and parasitological, immunological and histopathological parameters were studied. DNA vaccinated mice showed a high titer of anti-smFABP-IgG antibodies and acquired significant protection (74.2%, p < 0.01) against S. mansoni infection, with a reduction in ova and granuloma counts. DNA vaccinated and PZQ treated animals had higher titers of anti-smFABP-IgG antibodies and decreased (87%, P < 0.001) parenchymal granulomas compared to the DNA vaccinated PZQ untreated group. Infected mice, either non DNA vaccinated or vaccinated, had very high collagen content and fibrous granulomas (74%) compared to the PZQ treated group (10.3% fibrous granuloma) and PZQ treated + DNA vaccinated group (0% fibrous granuloma). In conclusion, DNA vaccination had protective and anti-pathological effects in naive mice and greatly improved the pathological status in PZQ-treated animals, suggesting an immunological and pathological modulating effect of PZQ treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.09.018DOI Listing
November 2018

Development of species-specific primers for identification of Biomphalaria arabica, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2014 Jan 11;21(1):65-70. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Department of Biological and Medical Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Schistosoma mansoni is mediated through the intermediate host Biomphalaria arabica which lives in Saudi Arabia. Molecular characterization and identification of this intermediate host are important for epidemiological studies of schistosomiasis. The present work aimed to determine the molecular variations among the populations of B. arabica found in Southern part of Saudi Arabia, and to develop species-specific primers for identification of these snails as a first step in the development of multiplex PCR for simultaneously identifying the snails and diagnosing its infections in a single step. Five populations of Saudi B. arabica snails were collected from freshwater bodies. Three populations were collected from Asser and two populations were collected from AL-Baha. Genomic DNA was extracted from snails and was amplified using five different RAPD-PCR primers. The banding patterns of amplified materials by primers P1 and P5 were identical in all populations. However, the rest primers displayed intra-specific differences among populations with variable degrees. Largest sizes of RAPD-PCR products were cloned into TA cloning vector as a preparatory step for DNA sequence analysis. After sequencing, similarity searches of obtained DNA sequences revealed that there are no similar sequences submitted to genebank data bases and its associated banks. The results obtained will be helpful in the development of simultaneous identification of B. arabica snails and diagnosis of S. mansoni infection within it in a single step by an implementation of multiplex PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3937465PMC
January 2014

Antiviral activity of liquorice powder extract against varicella zoster virus isolated from Egyptian patients.

Chang Gung Med J 2012 May-Jun;35(3):231-9

Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of two diseases, varicella (chicken pox) and zoster (shingles). Varicella is a self- limited infection, while zoster is mainly a disease of adults. The present study was conducted to isolate VZV from clinically diagnosed children using cell cultures and compare the activity of liquorice powder extract, an alternative herbal antiviral agent, with acyclovir and interferon alpha 2a (IFN-α2a) against the isolated virus.

Methods: Forty-eight VZV specimens, 26 from vesicular aspirates and 22 from vesicular swabs, from children clinically diagnosed with varicella were isolated on the Vero cell line. Isolates were propagated and identified with specific antiserum using indirect immunofluorescence and immunodot blotting assays. The growth kinetics of the viral isolates was studied. The antiviral activity of liquorice powder extract, acyclovir (ACV) and IFN-α2a was evaluated against the isolated virus.

Results: VZV was successfully isolated in 4 of the 48 specimens, all from vesicular aspirates. The growth kinetics of the viral isolates was time dependent. The inhibitory activity of liquorice powder extract (containing 125 µg/ml glycyrrhizin) when compared to ACV (250 µg/ml) and IFN-α2a is the lowest.

Conclusions: VZV isolates were successfully isolated and propagated using Vero cells. Isolates were identified using indirect immunofluorescent and immunodot blotting techniques. Growth kinetics of the isolates revealed an increase in the viral infectivity titer relative to time. Glycyrrhizin in the crude form has low antiviral activity against VZV compared with acyclovir and interferon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2319-4170.106149DOI Listing
November 2012

Developing species-specific primers to identify Bulinus truncatus and Bulinus beccari, the intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium in Saudi Arabia.

Gene 2012 May 10;499(2):256-61. Epub 2012 Mar 10.

Biology Department, King Khaled University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

This work aimed to determine the inter- and intra-specific variations in populations of Bulinus truncatus and Bulinus beccari, the intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium in Saudi Arabia, and to develop species-specific primers to identify these snails as a first step in the development of multiplex PCR for simultaneously identifying the snails and diagnosing its infections in a single step. Two populations of B. truncatus were collected from Asser and Bisha (A and B), and two B. beccari populations were collected from Mahial Asser and Merba (C and D). The snails' genomic DNA was extracted and amplified using 5 different primers. The primers displayed variable intra- and inter-specific differences across the populations. The largest RAPD-PCR fragments were cloned into a vector as a preparatory step for sequencing. Similarity searches for the sequenced cloned inserts revealed no similar sequences in the GenBank database or its associated databases. Specific primers used to target the B. truncatus and B. beccari genomes were designed using the Gene Runner program and based on the DNA sequences obtained from RAPD fragment sequence analyses. Using these primers for specific PCRs resulted in expected single-band PCR products of 536 bp for B. beccari and 478 bp for B. truncatus. These results will be helpful for simultaneously identifying B. truncatus and B. beccari snails and diagnosing S. haematobium infections within the snails using single step multiplex PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2012.03.024DOI Listing
May 2012

Green tea (Camellia sinesis) ameliorates female Schistosoma mansoni-induced changes in the liver of Balb/C mice.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2011 Oct 22;18(4):361-8. Epub 2011 Jun 22.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, P.O. Box 9004, Saudi Arabia.

This study was designed to assess the effect of green tea, an aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis, on the oxidative stress, antioxidant defense system and liver pathology of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Green tea at concentration of 3% (w/v) was given orally to treated mice as sole source of drinking water from the end of the 4th week to the end of 10th week post-infection; untreated mice were allowed to drink normal water. The data of the studied S. mansoni-infected mice exhibited a suppression of hepatic total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione content. The liver lipid peroxidation was deleteriously elevated in S. mansoni-infected mice. The hepatic total protein content, AST and ALT activities were profoundly decreased in the S. mansoni-infected mice. Most hepatocytes were damaged and showed abnormal microscopic appearance with aggressive necrosis. Both total protein and glycogen levels have been greatly reduced as indicated by histochemical examination. The treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with green tea succeeded to suppress oxidative stress by decreasing the lipid peroxides but failed to significantly enhance the antioxidant defense system and deteriorated changes owing to liver damage and necrosis. In consistence with biochemical data, histopathological and histochemical data indicated that treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with green tea could ameliorate hepatocytes thus reduce cellular necrosis and partially restore both total protein and glycogen levels. Thus, the study concluded that the green tea suppresses the oxidative stress through its constituent with free radicals scavenging properties rather than through the endogenous antioxidant defense system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2011.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3730671PMC
October 2011

Anti-IFN autoantibodies are present in healthy Egyptian blood donors at low titer.

Authors:
Essam H Ibrahim

Cell Immunol 2011 6;271(2):365-70. Epub 2011 Aug 6.

Blood Products Quality Control and Research Department, National Organization for Research and Control of Biologicals, Cairo, Egypt.

Autoantibody against interferon is associated in many viral and non-viral diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies in healthy Egyptian blood donors. The study included 558 (100 females (17.92%) and 458 males (82.08%)) Egyptian healthy blood donors who showed normal levels of liver enzymes and kidney tests and were conformed negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies (Abs), HIV-1/2 Abs, anti-HBc and Treponema Abs. Autoantibody against IFN-alpha-1a and IFN-alpha-2b were screened using ELISA. Anti-IFN-alpha-1a positive cases were found to be 43 subject (7.76%; 6 females (1.08%); 37 males (6.68%)) and anti-IFN-alpha-2b positive cases were found to be 3 (0.54%; all males). Combined positivity against both IFN-alpha-1a and IFN-alpha-2b was 38 (6.86%; 7 females (1.26%) and 31 males (6.60%)). From these findings we can conclude that antibodies against IFN-alpha are present in considerable number at low titer in accepted blood donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.08.002DOI Listing
December 2011

Fingerprint of Biomphalaria arabica, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia, using RAPD-PCR.

Gene 2011 Oct 23;485(2):69-72. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khaled University, Abha, P.O Box 9004, Saudi Arabia.

In the time schistosomisis control programs are implemented in many countries, schistosomiasis continues to spread throughout the world. Among these control strategies is the vector control. Within this context, analysis of the genetic variability of the intermediate host snails is important because it allows identification of specific sequences of the genome of this mollusk related to determine their fingerprint. We investigated Biomphalaria arabica, which is found in Saudi Arabia, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Genetic fingerprint was studied by RAPD-PCR using our own different random primers as well as published primers. The electrophoretic patterns resulting from amplification showed specific polymorphic markers of B. arabica. This information will be helpful in the identification of the snails and demonstrating that RAPD-PCR is an appropriate and efficient methodological approach for establishment of genetic barcode development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2011.06.011DOI Listing
October 2011

Characterization, cloning and expression of NS3 protein gene of hepatitis C genotype 4a.

J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2009 Dec;39(3):865-80

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Clone and express NS3 gene of the Egyptian strain ED43 of HCV genotype 4a in E. coli was studied. Gene and protein sequences of NS3 gene of the ED43 strain were first analyzed using PC/GENE program. DNA homology was 89% the homologies and that of the protein was 78.8% indicating that NS3 gene of the genotype 4a is different from those isolated from other strains. DNA of NS3 region of genotype 4a was amplified from HCV_ED43/PUC19 plasmid. The PCR product was cloned and expressed in E. coli M15 using pQE-30 vector. Fusion protein containing the peptides coded by HCV NS3 (NS3_4a) was expressed by Escherichia coli. The specific HCV antigenicity of the NS3_4a fusion protein was identified by western blotting.
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December 2009