Publications by authors named "Elham Dadfar"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fatal pneumococcus meningitis in a child with complement factor ficolin-3 deficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 02 10;8(2):778-779. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology Section 7631, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.07.039DOI Listing
February 2020

Activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in monocytes derived from chronic kidney disease patients.

PLoS One 2013 23;8(7):e68937. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Experimental Cancer Medicine-Clinical Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have significantly increased morbidity and mortality resulting from infections and cardiovascular diseases. Since monocytes play an essential role in host immunity, this study was directed to explore the gene expression profile in order to identify differences in activated pathways in monocytes relevant to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and increased susceptibility to infections. Monocytes from CKD patients (stages 4 and 5, estimated GFR <20 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and healthy donors were collected from peripheral blood. Microarray gene expression profile was performed and data were interpreted by GeneSpring software and by PANTHER tool. Western blot was done to validate the pathway members. The results demonstrated that 600 and 272 genes were differentially up- and down regulated respectively in the patient group. Pathways involved in the inflammatory response were highly expressed and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was the most significant pathway expressed in the patient group. Since this pathway has been attributed to a variety of inflammatory manifestations, the current findings may contribute to dysfunctional monocytes in CKD patients. Strategies to interfere with this pathway may improve host immunity and prevent cardiovascular complications in CKD patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0068937PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3720736PMC
March 2014

Expression of neutrophil SOD2 is reduced after lipopolysaccharide stimulation: a potential cause of neutrophil dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011 Jul 2;26(7):2195-201. Epub 2010 Nov 2.

Department of Nephrology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Neutrophils from patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are dysfunctional and thus a contributing factor to the risk of infections. The mechanisms for leucocyte dysfunction in CKD are not fully understood. It is known that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates transcription of several genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines. We therefore aimed to study the effect of LPS on neutrophil expression of genes related to the inflammatory response to address the hypothesis that LPS-induced gene transcriptions are altered in CKD patients.

Methods: We analysed gene expression of LPS-stimulated neutrophils from 30 patients with CKD and 15 healthy controls. Superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), IL1A, IL-1R1, IL-1R2 and IL8RA gene expression from both neutrophils and differentiated HL60 cells were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Differentiated HL60 cells were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-7-acetate (PMA) after inhibition of SOD2 by small interfering RNA followed by respiratory burst assessment using flow cytometry.

Results: LPS stimulation induced a significant mobilization of CD11b on neutrophils from CKD and healthy controls. Upregulation of SOD2, IL1A, IL-1R1 and IL-1R2 gene expression in neutrophils from healthy controls after LPS stimulation was contrasted by no change in gene transcription (IL-1R1 and IL-1R2) or even a downregulation in patients with CKD (SOD2 and IL1A). Inhibition of SOD2 reduced the PMA-induced respiratory burst and IL1A, IL-1R1, IL-1R2 and IL8RA gene expression in neutrophil-differentiated HL60 cells.

Conclusions: Because of the critical role of SOD2 in the generation of hydrogen peroxide during phagocytosis, downregulation of SOD2 gene expression after LPS stimulation in neutrophils from patients with CKD indicates a potential mechanism for neutrophil dysfunction and cytokine dysregulation in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq673DOI Listing
July 2011

Monocyte and neutrophil chemotactic activity at the site of interstitial inflammation in patients on high-flux hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration.

Blood Purif 2009 27;28(1):47-52. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Department of Nephrology, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

Background/aims: We have observed a difference between patients on low-flux hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis and patients on hemodiafiltration (HDF) or high-flux HD in the capacity of transmigrated leukocytes to mobilize CD11b in response to inflammatory stimuli compared with healthy subjects. This could be due to different interstitial chemokine concentrations.

Methods: We measured concentrations of circulating and interstitial macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in 10 patients on HDF or high-flux HD and 11 healthy subjects by using immunoassay.

Results: The interstitial concentrations of MIP-1 alpha, MMP-9/NGAL and IL-8 were similar in patients and healthy subjects, while the corresponding concentration of MCP-1 was significantly higher in patients on HDF or high-flux HD as compared with healthy subjects (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: We suggest that an equal or higher concentration of chemokines in the interstitium in patients with HDF or high-flux HD might be one mechanism responsible for the preserved function of transmigrated leukocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000210037DOI Listing
September 2009

Eosinophil cationic protein stimulates TGF-beta1 release by human lung fibroblasts in vitro.

Inflammation 2007 Oct;30(5):153-60

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodeling are features of asthma. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is released by activated eosinophils and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) has major functions in the fibrotic process. We therefore hypothesized that ECP stimulates TGF-beta(1) release by human lung fibroblasts. Fibroblasts in monolayer displayed a constitutive release of TGF-beta(1), which increased in presence of ECP (436 +/- 60 vs. 365 +/- 48 pg/ml at 48 h; P < 0.01). mRNA expression of TGF-beta(1) was almost twofold in ECP-stimulated fibroblasts. ECP in three-dimensional cultures stimulated both TGF-beta(1) release (180 +/- 61 vs. 137 +/- 54 pg/ml; P < 0.01) and fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction (28 vs. 39% of initial gel area at 48 h; P < 0.001). ECP stimulates TGF-beta(1)-release by human lung fibroblasts, suggesting a potential mechanism for eosinophils in the fibrotic response. This may be an important mechanism by which ECP promotes remodeling of extra cellular matrix leading to airway fibrosis in asthmatics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-007-9032-4DOI Listing
October 2007

Activation of peripheral and in vivo transmigrated neutrophils in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

Atherosclerosis 2007 Jun 11;192(2):328-34. Epub 2006 Sep 11.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Accumulating evidence support a role of neutrophils in coronary artery disease (CAD). However little is known about the action of neutrophils at a local inflammatory site represented by an atherosclerotic plaque. To gain insight into these issues, we applied a skin blister model that permits analyses of in vivo transmigrated neutrophils. We hypothesised that the chronic inflammation in stable CAD mediates priming of neutrophils that impacts the out-come of neutrophil action at an inflammatory site. Thirteen patients with angiographically verified CAD were eligible for study entry together with 13 age and sex matched controls. Markers of inflammation (IL-6 and CRP), neutrophil activation (IL-8 and MMP-9/NGAL), and functional aspects (CD11b up-regulation and intracellular H(2)O(2) production) of peripheral and in vivo transmigrated neutrophils were studied. Systemic IL-8 and MMP-9/NGAL concentrations were significantly increased in patients indicating a primed state in circulating neutrophils. In vivo transmigrated neutrophils in stable CAD patients had an increased propensity to release MMP-9/NGAL and a reduced capacity to up-regulate CD11b and to produce hydrogen peroxide. These aberrations at the inflammatory site may be a consequence of a primed state of circulating neutrophils and point towards potential mechanisms whereby neutrophils at a local inflammatory site may contribute to the pathogenesis of CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.08.003DOI Listing
June 2007

Interleukin-8 response in cells from the human urinary tract induced by lipopolysaccharides of Proteus mirabilis O3 and O18.

J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1381-4

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: Proteus mirabilis is a common pathogen associated mainly with complicated urinary tract infections and sometimes with septicemia. There is great serological diversity of the microorganism. While P. mirabilis O3 is commonly found in patients with infections, the serotype O18 rarely occurs. The O18 lipopolysaccharide contains a phosphocholine substitute, which makes it unique among Proteus strains. To explain different clinical significance of the strains we evaluated the biological activity of the lipopolysaccharides of P. mirabilis O3 and O18, as measured by interleukin-8 (IL-8) production.

Materials And Methods: Three cell lines were used, namely uroepithelial cells, renal epithelial cells and monocytes. IL-8 production was determined on the protein and mRNA levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively, and CD14 expression on the cell surface was studied using flow cytometry.

Results: Uroepithelial cells and monocytes reacted to lipopolysaccharides by higher IL-8 production compared with renal epithelial cells. Cell specific IL-8 response corresponded to the cell expression of CD14. Renal epithelial cells produced more IL-8 after stimulation with the phosphocholine rich lipopolysaccharide O18, although adding phosphocholine alone did not induce or increase IL-8 production.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that different cells within the human urinary tract have different roles during urinary tract infection. The biological activity and pathogenicity of P. mirabilis lipopolysaccharides might be determined by their specific chemical structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000149032.20713.edDOI Listing
April 2005

Granulocyte extravasation and recruitment to sites of interstitial inflammation in patients with renal failure.

Am J Nephrol 2004 May-Jun;24(3):330-9. Epub 2004 May 26.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: We have shown that leukocytes collected from sites of interstitial inflammation in patients on hemodialysis have a disturbed expression of CD11b compared to cells from healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to study adhesion molecule expression on granulocytes in the peripheral circulation and at sites of interstitial inflammation in patients with renal failure.

Methods: Two skin blisters were raised in 10 patients and 19 healthy subjects and interstitial exudates collected (0 h). Skin chambers were applied and exposed to buffer or serum for 10 h in order to induce an intermediate and an intense interstitial inflammation. Cells and blister fluid were collected for determination of leukocyte count, CD11b/CD62L expression, interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration in the interstitium and blister activity in terms of CD11b up-regulation.

Results: At the sites of intermediate and intense inflammation, granulocytes from patients with renal failure showed significantly higher expression of CD62L (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) and significantly lower expression of CD11b (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively) compared to corresponding cells from healthy subjects. The interstitial concentration of IL-8 was significantly lower at the sites of intermediate (p < 0.005) and intense inflammation (p < 0.05) in patients with renal failure compared to in healthy subjects. In order to explore whether the decreased CD11b expression observed in patients is due to the interstitial milieu, blister exudates from patients and healthy subjects were incubated with leukocytes from healthy blood donors. Blister exudates from patients had a similar capacity to mobilize CD11b on granulocytes in vitro compared with blister exudates from healthy subjects. There was no consistent correlation between the expression of adhesion molecules on granulocytes in the interstitium and the concentration of IL-8 or the total interstitial concentration of chemotactic mediators.

Conclusion: Constitutive cellular determinants are probably involved in the disturbed expression of adhesion molecules on granulocytes at sites of interstitial inflammation in patients with renal failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000078743DOI Listing
February 2005

Leukocyte CD11b and CD62l expression in response to interstitial inflammation in CAPD patients.

Perit Dial Int 2004 Jan-Feb;24(1):28-36

Division of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Very little is known about the kinetics of leukocyte recruitment and the modulation of adhesion molecules on leukocytes in the interstitium at the site of inflammation outside the peritoneal cavity in patients on peritoneal dialysis. These issues were addressed in the present study.

Patients And Methods: Two skin blisters were raised in 10 patients on peritoneal dialysis and in 19 healthy subjects. After 12 hours, blister exudates were collected and the blisters were thereafter challenged with buffer or autologous serum in order to establish an intermediate and an intense cutaneous inflammation. Leukocyte count, leukocyte CD11b/CD62L expression, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were determined in blood and at the three sites of interstitial inflammation by immunostaining, flow cytometry, and ELISA.

Results: In monocytes and granulocytes, expression of CD11b increased and CD62L decreased significantly during the transmigration process from the peripheral blood into the three sites of interstitial inflammation. In the nonstimulated blister, expression of CD11b on both monocytes and granulocytes was similar in patients and healthy subjects. At the site of intermediate inflammation, expression of CD11b on both monocytes and granulocytes was significantly higher in healthy subjects compared to patients (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 respectively). At the site of intense inflammation, expression of CD11b on granulocytes was significantly lower (p < 0.001), and CD62L significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients. Interstitial concentrations of MCP-1 and IL-8 at the sites of intermediate inflammation were significantly higher in healthy subjects compared to patients (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05 respectively). However, at the site of intense inflammation, similar concentrations of MCP-1 and IL-8 were observed. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between concentrations of MCP-1 and IL-8 in blister exudates and expression of CD11b on monocytes and granulocytes at the sites of interstitial inflammation.

Conclusion: The ability of monocytes and granulocytes to modulate the expression of adhesion molecule in response to interstitial inflammation was significantly impaired in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Furthermore, these data suggest that the expression of CD11b on leukocytes is not dependent on concentrations of IL-8 and MCP-1 in interstitium in this patient group.
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October 2004

Monocyte adhesion molecule expression in interstitial inflammation in patients with renal failure.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004 Mar;19(3):614-22

Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Patients with renal failure have an increased susceptibility to infections. We therefore studied the recruitment of monocytes and their expression of adhesion molecules CD11b and CD62L at the site of interstitial inflammation in patients with renal failure. Furthermore, we studied if the capacity of monocytes to up-regulate CD11b in interstitial inflammation was determined by the interstitial concentration of chemotactic factors.

Methods: Three intensities of interstitial inflammation (0, intermediate and intense) were established in skin blister chambers. Leukocyte count, CD11b/CD62L expression, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and blister activity in terms of CD11b mobilization were determined.

Results: The CD62L expression on monocytes was lower in the peripheral circulation in patients with renal failure compared with healthy subjects (P<0.005 and P<0.001). At the site of interstitial inflammation patients had a higher expression of CD62L (intermediate, P<0.05; intense, P<0.005). Furthermore, monocytes from patients had an impaired capacity to mobilize CD11b both in the peripheral circulation (P<0.005) and at the intermediate and intense sites of interstitial inflammation (P<0.005 and P<0.001, respectively) compared with cells collected from healthy subjects. We incubated monocytes in blister exudates, in order to explore whether this phenomenon is caused by cellular factors and/or to the interstitial concentration of chemotactic mediators. The expression of CD11b on monocytes from healthy blood donors incubated in blister exudates from either patients or healthy subjects in vitro was similar. The interstitial concentration of MCP-1 at the site of intermediate inflammation was significantly lower in patients with renal failure compared with the corresponding blister exudate collected from healthy subjects (P<0.05), but no differences were observed at the site of intense inflammation. Furthermore, neutralizing the action of MCP-1 in blister exudates with monoclonal antibodies did not have any impact on monocyte CD11b expression following incubation in blister exudates.

Conclusion: These studies indicate that the impaired capacity of monocytes to mobilize CD11b at the site of inflammation in patients with renal failure is more dependent on constitutive cellular factors than the concentration of CD11b mobilizing factors in the interstitium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfg585DOI Listing
March 2004
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