Publications by authors named "Effat Merghati Khoei"

63 Publications

Sociodemographic Characteristics, HIV-Related Risk Behaviors and HIV preva-lence of Vulnerable Men in Tehran, Iran.

Curr HIV Res 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Health Informatics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto. Japan.

Background: Sexual minorities, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), are dis-proportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS compared to heterosexual men . The increased prevalence of HIV/AIDs among this group of individuals is associated with increased participation in HIV-related risk behavior, such as multiple sexual partnerships and in-jection drug use. However, very little is known about the prevalence of HIV and the risk behaviors related to HIV infection among MSM in Iran. This absence of data is due to the increased discrimination and stigmatization MSM, and other vulnerable popula-tions, face in Iran. This study was conducted to identify HIV-related risks, HIV preva-lence and sociodemographic characteristics of the MSM population in Iran.

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM attending the Sexual Health Clinic at Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2018. A sexual health screening question-naire was used to aid in identifying HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV status was deter-mined using an HIV rapid test and confirmed by an ELISA.

Results: One hundred MSM enrolled in this study, from whom 41% aged 18-25 years old. The majorities were single; almost one-third had a diploma degree. Only a fifth were employed, and about a quarter (25%) reported substance abuse. Among eighty-three people (83%) reported having sex during the past three months, and only 27 (27.3%) of participants always used condoms for sex. Among 80 participants tested for HIV, two positive results were detected (2.5%).

Conclusion: Data collected through a sexual health questionnaire indicate that the prevalence of HIV is increased among MSM in Iran. This finding sheds light on the urgent need for the implemenation of social programs providing counseling and healthcare to vulnerable populations in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X19666210412114627DOI Listing
April 2021

Exploring the care received by HPV-positive married women at a colposcopy clinic in Tehran, Iran: A qualitative study.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Jul 30;9(7):3549-3554. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Public Health, The Herbert H. & Grace A. Dow College of Health Professions, Central Michigan University, Michigan, USA.

Objectives: Patient experience is the focus of individual care and services to meet patient needs, but this depends on how health care providers deliver their services. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive married women from the care they received from health professionals at a colposcopy clinic in Tehran, Iran.

Materials And Methods: Three focus group discussions were conducted between September and December 2016 with 30 women who had recently been referred to the clinic for cervical screening or colposcopy. Samples were collected by a purposeful sampling method in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The focus group discussions were carefully recorded at the same time as data collection. After ensuring the data saturation, interviews were terminated and data were categorized. Data was analyzed by direct conventional content analysis using MAXQDA-10.

Results: Two themes and three sub-themes resulted from the data analysis, including emotional responses (anxiety and fear of women), and appropriate/inappropriate behavior of the healthcare providers.

Conclusion: Healthcare providers, by identifying factors that affect patient's stress, could help reduce the negative outcomes such as patients' emotional responses to HPV positive results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1243_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567230PMC
July 2020

A qualitative inquiry of sexuality in Iranian couples using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills paradigm.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2019 Dec 17;94(1):27. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Science, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Sexuality is interwoven with individuals' information, motivation, and behaviors.

Objective: To explore sexually related information, motivation, and behaviors that Iranian newly married couples utilized through their marital lives.

Methods: We employed in-depth face-to-face interviews with 22 couples between the ages of 21 and 35 years to collect rich qualitative data. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Our data analysis process was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model as a potential framework for understanding of the participants' sexual and marital lives.

Results: IMB's conceptual bases were adequately reflected in the participants' sexual narratives. The participants highlighted information needs related to their sexual relationships and services that should be provided by the relevant programs in the educational and national health system. Fulfillment of each other's sexual needs was identified as the most important motivation of the participants. Sexual needs of husband, love, and liking were the main motivations for women's sexual submission. The main behaviors found included couples' communication skills and performing using feminine traits by women in order to fit the role of a sexually skillful wife.

Conclusion: Our data analysis revealed that couples shared a proper comprehension of each other's means of sexual behaviors. A dominance of religious discourse, non-verbal, mostly physical means of communication was employed by the couples to express or initiate sexual interactions. Furthermore, our findings support the utility of IMB as a potential basis for understanding married couples' sexual lives. Our data highlight an implication to expand the motivation structure of the IMB model to incorporate an individual's sexual understandings and the sexual needs to promote mutual and pleasurable sexual life within the Iranian culture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42506-019-0024-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364699PMC
December 2019

Iranian women's experiences of infertility: A qualitative study.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2019 Apr 27;18(1):65-72. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Brian and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center (BASIR), Neuroscience Institution, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: There are concerns and diverse experiences related to infertility and childlessness. The lived experience of infertile people from various cultures needs to be explored.

Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Iranian women experiences of their infertility.

Materials And Methods: The data comprised interviews about fertility issues in the Persian language with eighteen women, aged 17-45 yr old, who agreed to be interviewed at the Mottahari Infertility Treatment Clinic, affiliated to the Urmia University of Medical Sciences about their fertility problems. They were approached by the researchers at the time of their first visit. The verbatim transcribed interviews were analyzed using deductive conventional content analysis.

Results: The experiences of the informants were conceptualized into four major themes: 1) Shock (subthemes: Disbelief and Denial); 2) Reaction (subthemes: Distress, Guilt, Loss of self-esteem and Sexual reluctance); 3) Processing (subthemes: Internal processing, Avoidance, Marriage at risk, External processing, Stigma caused by the family and Stigma caused by the community) and 4) Reorientation (subthemes: Forgetting, Marriage to saving marriage and Sexual consent).

Conclusion: Infertility can be a challenging condition. Considering that infertility-related issues affect Iranian women more contextual factors is necessary. So, culturally sensitive and gender specific protocols are suggested to provide suitable and about culturally sensitive and gender-specific protocols is a necessity in order to provide suitable care to infertile women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijrm.v18i1.6203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996123PMC
April 2019

Randomized controlled trial protocol to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention using information, motivation and behavioral skills model on sexual satisfaction of new couples in Iran.

Reprod Health 2019 Nov 15;16(1):168. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Science, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Sexual satisfaction is considered as one of the key factors in assessing a person's quality of life and the quality and continuity of marital relationships. According to the results of reports in Iran, many couples are dissatisfied with their sexual lives. Sexuality education is one of the important strategies to prevent early sexual problems and improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to compare the efficacy of sexual and marital enrichment package using information, motivation and behavioral skills model on sexual satisfaction of new couples in Iran to routine sexual care program that provided at governmental health centers.

Methods: This is a randomized, controlled, superiority trial with two parallel groups. One hundred new couples (n = 200) will be recruited and randomized with simple randomization method and a 1:1 allocation. Recruitment will be from governmental health centers and calling on social networks. Couples will be randomized to intervention which will receive Sexual and Marital Enrichment package and control group (routine care at health centers). Couples will be followed up for 4 months. Then primary outcomes (mean score of couples' sexual information, motivation and behavior skills) and secondary outcome (mean score of couples' sexual satisfaction) of study will be measured through the online questionnaire.

Discussion: This trial will be examined the impact of the sexual and marital skills training package tailored to the values and norms governing the sexual life of Iranian couples on their sexual satisfaction. If the trial is effective, its results will be presented to policy makers for implementation at national level.

Trial Registration: (Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) number): IRCT20181211041926N1. Date of registration: March 2, 2019.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-019-0821-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858637PMC
November 2019

An Exploratory Mixed Method Study for Developing and Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Information, Motivation and Behavioral Skills Scale (SIMBS) in Iranian Couples.

J Res Health Sci 2019 Jun 18;19(2):e00447. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center & Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: This study was designed to construct and assay the psychometric properties of a scale in order to recognize sexual information, motivation and behavioral skills of Iranian couples.

Study Design: a mixed method study.

Methods: This was an exploratory mixed method investigation conducted in two stages from Sep 2017 to Jun 2018 in Isfahan, Iran. First, qualitative methods (individual interviews with 22 couples) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. Second, psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed. Reliability was evaluated by composite reliability, Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and internal consistency. Moreover, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were carried out to examine construct validity. To evaluate content validity were performed CVI and CVR.

Results: An item pool comprising 107 statements related to couple 'sexual information, motivation and behavioral skills were generated in the first stage. In the second stage, item reduction was exerted and the final issue of the questionnaire including 51 items was expanded. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the final version displayed that the scale had good reliability and structure. The results from exploratory factory analysis demonstrated a 9-factor solution for the scale that jointly reported for the 39.5% of the observed variance. The mean scores of the CVI and CVR were 0.92 and 0.90, respectively. Additional analyses indicated acceptable results for composite reliability for the subscale of instrument ranging from 0.78 to 0.95.

Conclusion: The sexual information, motivation and behavioral skills scale is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used in future studies on Iranian couples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183540PMC
June 2019

Assessing Iranians' parental competence: Development and psychometric properties of the Children's Sexual Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ-IR), Iranian Version.

Health Promot Perspect 2019 25;9(2):131-136. Epub 2019 May 25.

Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

Parents are the first line mediators in sexuality development of children. However, the majority of parents tend to have close supervision on children sexual behaviors, particularly in the conservative cultures. This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of an instrument to measure Iranian parents' competence in caring and nurturing their children sexually. The questionnaire was designed based on the principles in measurement, Waltz'stheory. The Iranian version of Children's Sexual Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ-IR) was developed and completed by 386 mothers and 101 fathers who participated in a community based sexuality education program in Tehran, capital of Iran. Reliability was assessed by Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient and Split half. CSBQ-IR was evaluated for its construct, inclusiveness and content validity by principal component analysis. The Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient and Split half reliability were found 0.425 and 0.457 that was on acceptable range. Meaning, grammar, wording and item allocation of the questionnaire were found to be appropriate with (content validity ratio [CVR]=0.99) and(content validity index [CVI]=0.8) respectively. CSBQ-IR provides a valid assessment of the parents' competency or incompetency in nurturing, communication, and managing their children's sexual behaviors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/hpp.2019.18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6588811PMC
May 2019

Estimating the household drought driven food insecurity using system dynamics model: The case of afar national regional state of Ethiopia.

Hum Antibodies 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Building resilient communities has emerged as a dominant schema in the policy arena and in academia in the wake of recent disasters. Food insecurity is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that is not appropriately captured by conventional proxy indicators currently used to assess the problem in developing countries. Ethiopia like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, continues to experience high levels of drought driven food insecurity despite decades of implementing poverty alleviation and prevention programmes. These persistent droughts, combined with the devastating impact of climate change continue to threaten the livelihoods of thousands of men, women and children, who depend on agriculture for their livelihoods.

Objective: The overall objective of this study was to assess and analyze the drought driven food insecurity situation, malnutrition and derive policy implications in the Afar National Regional State of Ethiopia.

Methods: Mixed methods designs which include both qualitative and quantitative were used. The subjects of the study were men and women dwellers, government officials and other stakeholders in Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. Four Hundred Twenty Two (422) eligible households were enrolled consecutively from randomly selected two Districts in Afar National Regional State of Ethiopia which were selected by stratified Randomized method. The Districts were randomly allocated into 3 Keble's from Amibara and 2 Keble's from Awash Fentale. Two FGD (total of 10 FGDs participants that mean each Districts = 5 FGD) and 10 KIIs from Amibara and Awash Fentale were conducted. Standard questionnaires were used for data collection after validating the instruments. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23. Associated factors and multiple logistic regressions were employed. The study significance was conducted by using α 5% level.

Results: In this research (58.1%) of the participants agreed that lower crop yield occurred due to heavy rains/floods were not shocks among households. While (41.9%) were shocks on households who travel further loyal for grazing was the highest level of shocks among all those listed. On top of that majority (56.8%) of under five children were < 60% by their weight/age and (33.9%) between 61 and 70%. There was significant difference among MUAC (P= 0.007), BMI (P= 0.003) and height, weight, MUAC, BMI and weight/age among under five children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-190376DOI Listing
April 2019

Assessment of malnutrition and anthropometric measurement among 0-59 months aged children in Amibara and Awash Fentale districts, afar national regional state of Ethiopia.

Hum Antibodies 2019 ;27(S1):43-52

Department of Health in Emergencies and Disasters, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Famines and food shortages are one of the most common long time histories of Ethiopia. Hence, malnutrition has been persisted at alarming raters in the country. Moreover, it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Afar National Regional State of Ethiopia. Specifically, in Amibara and Awash Fentale districts. The anthropometric data were presented on height, weight, MUAC, weight/height/Age and Body Mass Index (BMI) of under-five children.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted from March 01, 2017 to June 15, 2018. The data was collected by using anthropometric measurement. A multi stage random sampling procedure was applied in order to recruit the required sample size. The data collections were conducted at two selected districts in Afar region by trained interviewers and health care providers. The data were analyzed by using SPSS Version 23. Bivariate analysis between dependent and independent variables was employed. Multivariate analysis was also done to control for possible confounding variable by selecting variable which show statistically significant association (P< 0.05).

Results: Out of 410 under five children's anthropometric finding, the majorities (62.7%) of those registered under five children were male and (33.3%) were female. The majority (46.8%) of under five children were less than or equal to 50 cm by their height. Most (54.1%) of under five children were less than or equal to 12.5 cm by their MUAC. It indicated that they were diagnosed with severe malnutrition based on anthropometric measurements. Meanwhile, majority (64%) of under five children were less than 60% their weight/age. Regression analysis result indicated that all of the variables were not significant predictors of BMI for under five children (P> 0.05). Based on ANOVA result, there was significant difference between sex and other predictors (P= 0.031). This finding implies that improvement in food aid and poverty alleviation programs are very important. Based on the finding, it is important to provide high quality and quantity of food. Moreover, less access to assets and health services commonly contributed for malnutrition. Highlighting under five children's malnutrition will help to develop and design future policies and programs in Ethiopia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-190371DOI Listing
April 2020

Impact of climate change on community health and resilience in Ethiopia: A review article.

Hum Antibodies 2019 ;27(S1):11-22

Department of Health in Emergencies and Disasters, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Drought is a serious issue which might be caused by climate change that could create famine and health problems. Drought reduces air quality, increases fungal infestation, reduces people hand washing, affects mental health, leads to malnutrition by decreasing agricultural production, and increases diseases transmitted by insects. This study aimed to determine and describe community health status through building drought resilience in Ethiopia.

Methods: This review was conducted based on the available peer-reviewed articles that were published from January 2004 to December 2018 Online databases from PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched for studies related to the building drought and community health resilience at different regions of Ethiopia that were published in English language. The search was made by using "Emergency disaster", "prevention", "preparedness", "response", "recovery", "drought", "food insecurity", "coping strategies" and "drought health policy" as keywords.

Results: Most of the reviewed articles deal with the impact of climate change on the human health in relation to food security. The associated factors of the impact of drought on food security is basically due to lack of irrigation and farmland, the scarcity of water due to the direct effect of drought, flood, severe soil erosion, livestock dispossession, family size of the household and literacy of the households. Various coping strategies were employed by the households to alleviate the high and continued food insecurity problem such as reducing the number and amount of meal, scrounging cash and grain, searching for off-farm and non-farm jobs, getting food aid, vending of livestock, and partake in food for work programs.

Conclusion: The findings explored components of the coping strategies to the building resilience create fruitful health conditions for the food insecure household. The effect of agricultural support services as reliance's on drought and community health situation was regarded as a positive outcome. Moreover, the means to get adequate food security strategies in all regions of Ethiopia should be designed. Furthermore, future researches are recommended for finding the best building strategies for each region of Ethiopia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-190364DOI Listing
April 2020

A Randomized Trial of a Relationship-Enhancement Approach in Improving Marital Intimacy in Middle-Aged Iranian Couples.

J Sex Marital Ther 2019 29;45(3):190-200. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

g Department of Midwifery , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz , Iran.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a relationship enhancement education and counseling (REEC) program on improving middle-aged couples' marital intimacy. The randomized controlled trial study was conducted in Tabriz, Iran, from May to December 2017. Thirty-two married couples, attending a public health center and meeting the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to the intervention (receiving REEC) and control (receiving routine care) groups. The outcome measures were marital intimacy, sexual motivation, and sexual function. Data were collected at three points in time. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used for the purpose of data analysis. In all analyses, the interventional group outperformed the control group on all outcome measures. In the intervention group, results showed statistically significant improvement in all variables of interest after one week and 12 weeks in comparison with preintervention. Upon the completion of the experimentation, it can be concluded that a REEC program positively affects marital intimacy, sexual function, and sexual motivation in middle-aged couples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2018.1501447DOI Listing
December 2019

Prevalence of intimate partner violence and reproductive health outcomes among Afghan refugee women in Iran.

Health Care Women Int 2019 02 20;40(2):213-237. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

g Public Health Center, Deputy of Health , Semnan University of Medical Sciences , Semnan , Iran.

Refugee women are at high risk of experiencing high level of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and its negative impacts. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based household survey with refugees in a settlement in the city of Semnan, Iran, from 2016 to 2017. Afghan refugee women (n = 188) with ages between 15 and 49 years were recruited for the survey. Overall, about 79.8% of the participants reported to have experienced a form of IPV in the past 12 months. IPV exposure is associated with a negative reproductive health outcome. The high prevalence of IPV found among refugee women in the present research and its strong links with poor reproductive health outcomes, underline the urgent need for the development and testing of appropriate interventions in refugee settlements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2018.1529766DOI Listing
February 2019

Sexual motivations during the menopausal transition among Iranian women: a qualitative inquiry.

BMC Womens Health 2018 11 23;18(1):191. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Health Education & Promotion, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Women's sexuality may be adversely affected during the menopausal transition. This exploratory qualitative study was conducted to explore how women assign meaning to and process sexual motivation during the menopausal transition.

Methods: We purposefully approached 22 married women ages 44-59 (52.81 ± 3.6 years) in urban health care centers and workplaces in Tabriz city, located in northwest Iran. Individual face-to-face interviews were performed at a place and time convenient to the women. All interviews were audio recorded and then transcribed to create verbatim written accounts. Inspiring Graneheim and Lundman approach, we employed conventional content analysis to derive coding categories directly from our row data.

Findings: Four main themes emerged from data analysis: "Diminished sexual capacity" (effect of menopause, Illnesses associated with mid-life, desire discrepancy); "intimate coupling" (lack of physical and/or emotional intimacy, couple communication and romance); "sociocultural scripts" (sexual script, parental responsibilities); and "sense of youthfulness" (having an active and happy life, maintaining physically attractiveness).

Conclusion: The qualitative findings suggest that providing sexual health education and counseling, to encourage critical discussions regarding current sociocultural scripts and to create an environment that would enable men and women alike to adopt a healthy and happy lifestyle for eliminating barriers and preserving and enhancing motivational factors associated with sexuality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0684-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260987PMC
November 2018

Elements associated with Iranian women's sexual behaviours: A cross-sectional study.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2018 May;16(5):349-354

Department of Midwifery, Khalkhal Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal, Iran.

Background: Women constitute about half of the Iranian population. Sexual behaviour is one of the most important elements in their lives. Identifying the elements associated with sexual behaviours seems necessary in order to draw a thorough picture of Iranian women's sexuality.

Objective: To elicit information from Iranian women at their reproductive ages on sexual behaviours related to their elements including sexual capacity, sexual motivation, performance and sexual scripts.

Materials And Methods: Study participants involved 295 women at reproductive age from five different cities. Women completed a national self-reporting questionnaire on elements related to sexual behaviours. The elements included sexual capacity, sexual motivation, sexual performance, and sexual script. Pearson's correlation variance analysis and multi-linear regression were used to analyze data.

Results: Significant positive correlation was found between the sexual capacity, motivation, performance, and sexual script (p<0.001). Linear regression showed that the effective variable on the sexual performance were women's ages (p=0.02), and tertiary education (p=0.05). A significant association was found between age and sexual motivation score, too. A significant relation was observed between the history of pregnancy and level of education with a positive response to sexual script questions

Conclusion: Identifying the elements of sexual behaviours would help women understand their sexual behaviours and related influencing factors. Therefore, enrichment of women's sexuality is needed; also a well-planned educational program is a need for women to understand their sexuality-related potentials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046209PMC
May 2018

Theory-based interventions in STIs/HIV Prevention: A systematic review of the literature in Iran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2017 26;31:131. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

Department of Health Education & Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Various theory-based interventions (TBIs) have been done to prevent STI/HIV. The current study aimed at reviewing the TBIs for STI/HIV prevention in Iran. We systematically searched 6 English and Persian electronic databases to identify TBIs conducted for STI/HIV prevention in Iran. General searches were conducted using PubMed MeSH terms. Articles were included if they were interventional and conducted using models and theories, aimed at reducing the risk of STIs, were quasi-experimental or experimental, and if their full text was available. Overall, 1042 studies were found. Finally, 13 original studies met our inclusion criteria. The findings indicated that HBM and TPB were the most frequently used theory/models. High school students and drug abusers were the most common target groups in the included studies. The results revealed that the majority of the conducted TBIs contained a methodological weakness. Conducting randomized controlled trials is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the TBIs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.31.131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014754PMC
December 2017

Sexual Behaviors and Its Predictors among Iranian Women Living in Kashan City 2017: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Fertil Steril 2018 Jun 20;12(3):207-212. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

The Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Institution for Risk Behavior Reduction, Director of Family and Sexual Health Division, Brian and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience Institution, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic Address:

Bachground: Women's sexual well-being has been the center of attention in the field of sexology. Study of sexual behavior and investigating its predictors are important for women's health promotion. This study aimed to explore the components of women's sexual behaviors and their possible associations with demographic variables.

Materials And Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study (descriptive and analytic) that was conducted in Kashan city, Iran. A National Sexual Behavior Assessment Questionnaire was completed by 500 women of 15 to 49 who referred to the public health centers. To analyze the data, R software was used, ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (for parametric or nonparametric data, respectively) were used to compare outcomes among different groups. In order to evaluate the correlation between the subscales, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used.

Results: From all participants, 31.8% obtained high scores in the sexual capacity, 21.2% had high scores in sexual motivation and 0.2% had high scores in sexual function. In sexual script component, 86.2% of women who held traditional beliefs toward sexual behaviors; the majority (91.5%) of women believed in mutual and relational sexuality, 83.4% believed in androcentricity (male-dominated sexuality). Pearson correlation test showed a significant positive correlation between sexual capacity, motivation, function and sexual script. Linear Regression model showed that sexual capacity is associated with women's education and age of her spouse. Sexual function and sexual motivation were significantly associated with the age of subjects' spouses.

Conclusion: In this study, subjects had low scores in sexual performance while higher scores were achieved in sexual capacity and motivation. This discrepancy can be attributed to the role of sexual scripts dominating the participants' sexual interactions in this study. We suggest gender-specific and culturally-sensitive education should become a part of women's health programs in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2018.5228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6018176PMC
June 2018

Barriers to Health Service Utilization Among Iranian Female Sex Workers: A Qualitative Study.

J Prev Med Public Health 2018 Mar;51(2):64-70

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: In most countries around the world, sex work is an illegal activity. Female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran hide their identities, and they are known to be a hard-to-reach population. Despite free access to HIV testing, fewer than half of FSWs receive HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to characterize the reasons for which FSWs do not seek testing at drop-in centers (DICs) and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) centers in Iran.

Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in 2016. The participants were 24 FSWs who received services at VCT centers and DICs for vulnerable females in the north of Iran and 9 males who were the clients of FSWs. In this study, we made use of purposive sampling and carried out a thematic analysis.

Results: We found 4 major and 6 minor themes. The major themes were: fear of being infected (with HIV), stigma, indifference, and knowledge.

Conclusions: Despite the significant efforts made by the government of Iran to establish and expand DICs for vulnerable females, the number of FSWs receiving services at these centers has not been very considerable. Consequently, by introducing and implementing training programs for peer groups, it may be possible to take steps toward establishing strategic programs for the control and prevention of HIV/AIDS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897233PMC
March 2018

Religious teachings and sexuality of women living in Rafsanjan: A qualiattive inquiry.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2017 Dec;15(12):771-778

Brain and Spinal Cord Research Center (BASIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Background: Islamic doctrine and related teachings play a seminal role in constructing the sexual performance of followers, women in particular

Objective: The aim was to explore women's understandings of Islamic Shiite principles related to their sexuality.

Materials And Methods: In a qualitative content analysis approach, four individual interviews and seven focus groups conducted in Rafsanjan, a big city in Kerman province in Iran. Content analysis was used to extract meanings and themes.

Results: Three major themes were emerged describing the sexual concepts and religious-related teachings concerning women's sexual understandings and performances: "unconditional sexual submission" (Tamkin), "paradox between virtue and unconditional sexual submission" and "misconceptions".

Conclusion: Religious teachings have a basic and comprehensive role in sexuality construction and sexual health of women. However, occasional inconsistency between beliefs, learning and sexual expectations, practices, and situations would lead to jeopardize the psychological and somatic health of women. Religious-related misconceptions have essential role in creating sexual problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816237PMC
December 2017

How Do Iranian People with Spinal Cord Injury Understand Marriage?

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2017 ;23(1):71-77

Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-altering experience. There is little information about the perspectives of people with SCI toward marriage. To explore the understandings of Iranian adults with SCI about marriage. In this qualitative inquiry, using a semi-structured interview guide, we collected data from 53 single adults with SCI (41 men and 12 women) who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran. Barun and Clarke's thematic analysis approach was applied for data analysis. "Marriage" was thematized in outer and inner scenarios. The outer scenario was explored in terms of physical disability identified as a seminal determinant in successful marriage. "Attractiveness," "able body for breadwinning," "sexually active," and "reproduction" were dominant concepts extracted from the participants' narratives. The participants' inner scenarios revealed that marriage would be welcomed if a potential partner accepted them as a "whole person" regardless of their SCI condition. The findings suggest that adults with SCI do not ignore or reject marriage, however it was not their life priority due to major concerns that they had internalized. Considering the quality of care, people with SCI must be reassured about their potential to get married. SCI-based sexuality education and premarital counseling support the patients in their postmarital lives. Our findings will provide decision makers and health providers with significant insight for utilizing culturally appropriate services for people with SCI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1310/sci2301-71DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5340511PMC
October 2018

Sexual Health Education at Home: Attitude and Practice of Iranian Parents.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Jan;47(1):146-147

The Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Family & Sexual Health Division, Brian & Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Institution of Neuroscience, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756595PMC
January 2018

Sexual Risk Behaviors and Condom Use Barriers in Iranian Men with Substance Use Disorders.

Addict Health 2017 Jan;9(1):40-47

Associate Professor, Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to investigate risky sexual behaviors (RSBs) and condom use barriers in Iranian men with substance use disorders (SUDs).

Methods: Of the total 1800 outpatient drug free (ODF) and methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) active centers in Tehran, Iran, six were selected to participate in the current study. Data were collected (n = 300 men) using three questionnaires including a demographic questionnaire, the Risky Sexual Behavior Questionnaire (RSBQ), and the Condom Barriers Scale (CBS). The statistical software R, analysis of variance post hoc and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) logistic regression tests were used in data analysis.

Findings: The majority, (n = 194, 64.7%) reported at least one lifetime episode of RSBs. Compared to married participants (23.1%), 88.5% of single and 87.0% of divorced men had a history of RSB. Generally, the lowest and highest subscale scores of the CBS were related to sexual experience (2.60 ± 0.71) and access/availability structure (3.77 ± 0.54), respectively. The results of MANOVA analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the CSB subscales based on the participants' education and marital status (P < 0.001). Only the partner barrier subscale had a significant negative relationship (P = 0.003) with RSB.

Conclusion: Sexual dynamic of Iranian men with SUDs is different. Barriers to condom use seem to be socio-culturally determined. Culturally acceptable strategies need to be utilized in Iranian clinical settings reaching beyond simply condom accessibility for this at risk population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5628767PMC
January 2017

Development of a Sexual Needs Rehabilitation Framework in Women Post-Spinal Cord Injury: A Study From Iran.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018 03 18;99(3):548-554. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center (BASIR), Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: To develop a sexual needs rehabilitation framework in women after spinal cord injury (SCI).

Design: Mixed-methods study. The study consisted of 3 steps: (1) a primary needs assessment with quantitative and qualitative methods; (2) prioritization of identified needs by expert panels; and (3) development of a framework.

Setting: Multi-dimensional clinical referral center.

Participants: Married women (N=31) with an SCI that occurred at least 1 year ago.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main Outcome Measures: Development of sexual needs rehabilitation framework.

Results: The quantitative phase in the first phase showed that the total mean ± SD score of the Sexual Quality of Life-Female questionnaire was 60.47±1.53, and the total mean ± SD score of the Female Sexual Function Index was 50.54±11.35. Moreover, women's sexual understanding post-SCI in the qualitative assessment revealed the following 3 main themes: (1) "dilemma leading to limited sexual activity"; (2) "seeking positive sexual adjustment"; and (3) "lack of client-based sexual and reproductive education/counseling in the rehabilitation process." Results from prioritizing identified needs in the second step indicated that the most important needs related to sexual aspects of life. In the final step, the framework for Iranian woman with post-SCI sexual rehabilitative needs developed with focus on sexual behavior complication post-SCI as a main need.

Conclusions: It is important to assess probable unmet needs before designing, planning, and implementing an interventional rehabilitative health care program, especially when focusing on issues of sexuality. A developed framework can be applied by the rehabilitation team during initial caregiving and can be continued as long as needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2017.08.477DOI Listing
March 2018

Interventions for Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Humanitarian Settings: A Protocol for a Systematic Review.

PLoS Curr 2017 Jul 12;9. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Humanitarian emergencies and the number of people who are adversely affected are increasing. In such emergencies, the vulnerability of women and girls to gender-based violence increases signifi-cantly and they often experience high levels of intimate partner violence (IPV). There are a limited number of interventions to reduce gender-based violence (GBV) and IPV in the contexts of humanitarian emergencies, and there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of these preventive interventions. This is the protocol for a systematic review that will synthesize the evidence on interventions for primary or secondary prevention of IPV in humanitarian settings, and assess the effect of existing types of IPV-related interventions in these settings.

Methods And Design: The PRISMA-P 2015 statement has been used to prepare this report. Studies published from January 2000 to January 2017 will be reviewed with no language limits. Any experimental, quasi-experimental, or controlled trials will be included. A combination of four key concepts, including "IPV" AND "population" AND "humanitarian setting" AND "intervention" will be used in the search and a variety of information sources will be used: (1) bibliographic databases; (2) special databases and grey literature; (3) and the reference lists of eligible studies. Two reviewers will independently screen articles, extract relevant data and assess study quality. Discrepancies will be resolved through consensus. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and the quality of evidence will be assessed using the CONSORT checklist. A narrative synthesis will be provided. If a sufficient number of studies are found, their results will be pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. For dichotomous outcomes, summaries of intervention effects for each study will be provided by calculating risk ratios with 95% confidence interval. Standardized mean differences will be used for continuous outcomes.

Discussion: The review will be useful for IPV management policy and related planning. It will help researchers, policymakers and guideline developers with an interest in reducing violence against women among refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), and conflict-affected population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/currents.dis.f41d45fbdca13babe4ae5be0f9732e75DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5553713PMC
July 2017

The Existing Approaches to Sexuality Education Targeting Children: A Review Article.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Jul;46(7):890-898

The Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to assess what is already known about sexuality education (SE)-related policy or practical issues using review methods to search and critically appraise the existing SE approaches targeting children under age 12 yr.

Methods: We completed the data collection by an extensive search of the English and Persian published and unpublished literature, evidence from experts in the topic, and by searching citations. The MeSH-terms were sexuality and training, sexuality education and programs or approaches, sexuality and children, sexuality education and parents, sex or sexuality education, sex education and parents or caregivers. A systematic search of medical and health-related databases, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science was undertaken for the years 1970-2015 together with citation searching, reference list checking and recommendations from stakeholders to identify evidence for SE.

Results: According to the inclusion criteria, 20 documents were identified. They were synthesized into three main categories as sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes, and parents' skills to manage children's sexual behavior and related education. Employed approaches to children's sexuality were reported to be effective in developing healthy sexual behavior in children. Education was identified as the primary focus of the included packages and guidelines. Parents were recognized as first line educators in SE. However, interventions aiming to improve parents' skills in SE for children were limited. In other words, developing skills in parents, and their competency in children's sexual behavior management were not specified in the existing programs.

Conclusion: Parents' skill-building must be the focus of SE programs in order to address children' sexual development goals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5563870PMC
July 2017

Gaining comprehensive data about sexual knowledge through surveys.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2017 Apr;15(4):239-244

Reproductive Biotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute (ACECR), Tehran, Iran.

Background: Delivery of sexual health services rely on rigorous facts extracted from surveys, but often those facts cannot be available due to the lack of culturally-sensitive questionnaires.

Objective: our aim was to show the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Acquisition of Sexual Information Test (ASIT), a measure selected due to its assemblages with Iranian culture.

Materials And Methods: Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the questionnaire. Cross-sectional study was carried out and psychometric properties of the Iranian version were tested in a thirty sample of reproductive-age women. Face validity was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Content validity was also assessed by calculating two quantitative indicators as content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR). Reliability was assessed by test-retest analyses.

Results: Impact score was 1.5, the majority of participants (83.3%) stated that the overall level of questionnaire was high but some of the questions were irrelevant to sexual knowledge. Many questions (90%) gained a CVR less than 0.56, and all of them gained CVIs lower than 0.7. Correlation in test-retest reliability was 0.85.

Conclusion: sexual knowledge questionnaire seems to be culturally inappropriate for Iranian women. Although, we need survey data for assessing the evidence-based needs for sexual health and best practice, but the questions addressing various dimensions of sexuality must be culturally sensitive, comprehensive and appropriate. Our findings suggest that ASIT as a well-known measure should be used in Iranian population with caution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5555042PMC
April 2017

Development and Psychometric Properties of the Decision Making on the Type of Delivery Questionnaire in Iranian Women.

Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2017 Jul;5(3):292-302

Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: A tool which can help to decide on the determinants in selecting the delivery type is an effective step towards the goals of the World Health. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale based on Iranian culture to make decision on the type of delivery.

Methods: This is a methodological study using a questionnaire proposed by Schneider. The following steps were used to design the project. In the first step, perceptions and experiences of 45 pregnant women, postpartum women, midwives, gynecologists and non-pregnant women were determined based on interviews and observations using focused ethnography. In the second stage, the terms in the questionnaire based on qualitative study was assessed. Then, in the third stage, psychometric testing of the decision making on the type of delivery scale (DMTDS) based on the cultural concepts of decision making towards the type of delivery and its influencing factors based on focused ethnography using face validity, content validity, construct validity, internal consistency and reliability was done on400 pregnant and postpartum women.

Results: The initially developed scale consisted of 60 items on a 5-point Likert scale, which reduced to 43 items following measurement of the face and content validity. The results of the exploratory factor analysis elicited 36 items and a seven-factor structure including motivational beliefs on vaginal delivery, social beliefs towards childbirth, motivational beliefs on cesarean delivery, personal beliefs, sources of information, catastrophic thinking and child birth experiences. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.80) confirmed the high internal consistency of the scale.

Conclusion: The developed questionnaire appears to be a valid and reliable tool for health care providers to measure the women's decision making towards type of delivery. Therefore, this tool can be used in the Iranian community. The scale may help the midwives and obstetricians to be aware of the women's decision regarding their choice of delivery and as a result to plan appropriately in order to reduce unnecessary cesarean sections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5478750PMC
July 2017

Development and Psychometric Properties of Social Exclusion Questionnaire for Iranian Divorced Women.

Iran J Public Health 2017 May;46(5):640-649

Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Divorce, especially in women, could be assessed from socio-cultural perspective as well as psychological viewpoint. This assessment requires cultural adopted as well as valid and reliable questionnaire. This study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a questionnaire in order to address social consequences in Iranian divorced women.

Methods: This was an exploratory mixed method study conducted during 2012 to 2014. According to the grounded theory approach in the first phase, social exclusion was extracted as a core of understanding process in participants. Based on, 47 preliminary generated items reliability and validity were assessed. In the second phase, the divorced women were recruited from a safe community center in Tehran through convenience sampling.

Results: Exploratory factor analysis conducted on the questionnaires of 150 divorced women with mean age 41.76±8.49 yr, in that, indicated five dimensions, discriminative marital status, economic dependence on marital status, exclusionary marital status, and traumatic marital status health risks and, frightening marital status that jointly accounted for the 64% of the variance observed. An expert panel approved the face and content validity of the developed tool. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient were found to be 0.70 and 0.85, respectively.

Conclusion: The present study provided a valid and reliable measure as Social Exclusion Questionnaire in Iranian divorced women (SEQ-IDW) to address social post-divorce consequences, which might help to improve women's social health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5442277PMC
May 2017

Sexual Risk Behaviors Constructed in Iranian Women's Life with Substance Use Disorders: A New Implication of Human Ecological Theory.

Addict Health 2016 Jul;8(3):157-169

Associate Professor, Center for Health Related Social and Behavioral Sciences Research, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.

Background: Drug abuse is one of the important variables influencing protective sexual behavior. The objective of this study was to explore how risky sexual behaviors develop in drug abusing women using human ecological theory.

Methods: In this study, we used a descriptive exploratory approach. The participants were 32 drug abusing women from two of the selected drop-in centers (DICs) in south Tehran, Iran, where we could have access to a vast number of female drug users. Data was collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data using Graneheim and Lundman procedure.

Findings: Risky sexual behavior in drug use disorders in women was found in four themes with thirteen emerged; sexual untaught at micro-system with two subthemes "unsafe home" and "drop out of school", Perception of differences at meso-system with three subthemes "lack of link between family and school", "doing manly behavior" and "low awareness of health puberty than peers", inappropriate marriages at exo-system with three subthemes "stigma", "fear of losing love relationship" and "self-devotion", marginalization at macro-system with four subthemes "barrier access to rights", "selling sex as a tool of security", "lack of belief as a sex worker" and "mistrust and doubt partner" using implication of human ecological theory.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that strategies supporting the discovery of risky sexual behaviors in drug use disorders in women are important in order to provide counseling and education to form their decisions toward safety sex.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5422012PMC
July 2016

Sexual Life During Pregnancy: Effect of an Educational Intervention on the Sexuality of Iranian Couples: A Quasiexperimental Study.

J Sex Marital Ther 2018 Jan 11;44(1):45-55. Epub 2017 May 11.

d Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

The sexual life of couples and their needs during pregnancy receive little attention in practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention delivered to pregnant couples to improve their sexual function and satisfaction. This quasiexperimental study was conducted on 128 couples, allocated into two groups of intervention (group A: couples, group B: pregnant women) and one control group (C). Postintervention, the mean of the total score of sexual function and satisfaction of the couples was significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). It seems sexuality education specific for prenatal care would be effective.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2017.1313799DOI Listing
January 2018

Paradoxical attitudes toward premarital dating and sexual encounters in Tehran, Iran: a cross-sectional study.

Reprod Health 2016 Aug 30;13:102. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Department of Population, Health & Family Planning, National Population Studies and Comprehensive Management Institute, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The purpose of this study is to assess attitudes toward premarital dating and sexual encounters in individuals aged 15-49 years in Tehran.

Methods: Utilizing the attitudes section of an original cross-sectional study (n = 755) aimed at assessing sexual health needs of adults, this paper examined personal attitudes towards premarital dating, non-sexual relationships and sexual encounters in both male and female adults aged between 15-49 years. Multi-stage cluster random sampling and a validated/reliable questionnaire were used. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using statistical software.

Results: The results indicated that the majority of the participants were supportive of dating. Almost three-fourths of the males were more positively inclined towards non-sexual, yet tactile, affectionate interactions between unmarried males and females as opposed to only half of the females (70 % vs. 50.5 %). Also, males held significantly more liberal attitudes than females in their acceptance of premarital sex. On preserving virginity prior to marriage, 43 % of the males felt that it was important for a female to be a virgin, whereas only 26 % felt it was important for males to remain a virgin. Interestingly, more females (61 %) supported the importance of a female's virginity compared with the importance of males' virginity (48 %). This study showed that, being a male, of a younger age, single, and being less religious or being secular were important determinants of a liberal sexual attitude.

Conclusion: These results might reflect a socio-cultural transition in the sexual attitudes of different age groups of participants - a phenomenon that will need empirical studies to unpack in the Iranian socio-cultural context.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-016-0210-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5006512PMC
August 2016