Publications by authors named "Eduardo González-Espinoza"

5 Publications

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Cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients from living donors with and without valganciclovir prophylaxis and with immunosuppression based on anti-thymocyte globulin or basiliximab.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 14;107:18-24. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Nephrology and Organ Transplant Unit, Specialties Hospital, National Western Medical Centre, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

Background: In our population, anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) of 1 mg/Kg/day for 4 days is used; which permits not using valgancyclovir (VGC) prophylaxis in some renal transplant recipients (RTR) with moderate risk (R+), to reduce costs. This study aimed to determine the incidence and risk of developing cytomegalovirus (CMV), with or without prophylaxis, when exposed to low doses of ATG or basiliximab (BSL).

Patients And Methods: A retrospective cohort included 265 RTR with follow-up of 12 months. Prophylaxis was used in R-/D+ and some R+. Tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone were used in all patients. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the risk of CMV in RTR with or without VGC.

Results: Cytomegalovirus was documented in 46 (17.3%) patients: 20 (43.5%) with CMV infection, and 26 (56.5%) with CMV disease. Anti-thymocyte globulin was used in 39 patients (85%): 32 R+, six D+/R-, and one D-/R-. ATG was used in 90% (27 of 30) of patients with CMV and without prophylaxis. The multivariate analysis showed an association of risk for CMV with the absence of prophylaxis (RR 2.29; 95% CI 1.08-4.86), ATG use (RR 3.7; 95% CI 1.50-9.13), TAC toxicity (RR 3.77; 95% CI 1.41-10.13), and lymphocytes at the sixth post-transplant month (RR 1.77; 95% CI 1.0-3.16).

Conclusions: Low doses of ATG favored the development of CMV and a lower survival free of CMV compared with BSL. In scenarios where resources for employing VGC are limited, BSL could be an acceptable strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.032DOI Listing
April 2021

Donor-specific antibodies development in renal living-donor receptors: Effect of a single cohort.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Dec;35:20587384211000545

Department of Physiology, University Health Sciences Center, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Minimization in immunosuppression could contribute to the appearance the donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) and graft failure. The objective was to compare the incidence of DSA in renal transplantation (RT) in recipients with immunosuppression with and without steroids. A prospective cohort from March 1st, 2013 to March 1st, 2014 and follow-up (1 year), ended in March 2015, was performed in living donor renal transplant (LDRT) recipients with immunosuppression and early steroid withdrawal (ESW) and compared with a control cohort (CC) of patients with steroid-sustained immunosuppression. All patients were negative cross-matched and for DSA pre-transplant. The regression model was used to associate the development of DSA antibodies and acute rejection (AR) in subjects with immunosuppressive regimens with and without steroids. Seventy-seven patients were included (30 ESW and 47 CC). The positivity of DSA class I (13% vs 2%;  < 0.05) and class II (17% vs 4%,  = 0.06) antibodies were higher in ESW versus CC. The ESW tended to predict DSA class II (RR 5.7; CI (0.93-34.5,  = 0.06). T-cell mediated rejection presented in 80% of patients with DSA class I ( = 0.07), and 86% with DSA II ( = 0.03), and was associated with DSA class II, (RR 7.23; CI (1.2-44),  = 0.03). ESW could favor the positivity of DSA. A most strictly monitoring the DSA is necessary for the early stages of the transplant to clarify the relationship between T-cell mediated rejection and DSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20587384211000545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020398PMC
March 2021

The Alteration of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Markers at Six-Month Post-living Kidney Donation.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 29;7:382. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Physiology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Therapeutics, University Center of Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico.

Donors have a higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease than the general population. Some mechanisms mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress may be involved as risk factors. The objective of the study was to evaluate the behavior of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in living renal donors with a 6-month follow-up. A single prospective cohort was performed in 88 renal donors. At the end of the follow-up, the levels of lipoperoxides, 6.52 ± 1.12 mM, and 8-isoprostanes, 63.75 ± 13.28 pg/mL, were lower than before donation, 10.20 ± 3.95 mM ( < 0.001) and 67.54 ± 9.64 pg/mL ( = 0.026), respectively. Initial levels of nitric oxide (NO), 356.09 ± 59.38 μM increased at the end of the follow-up, 467.08 ± 38.74 μM ( < 0.001). It was observed in the final determination of donors decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), 0.74 ± 0.57 U/L and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), 556.41 ± 80.37 nmol, in comparison with the levels obtained in the initial determination, 1.05 ± 0.57 U/L ( < 0.001) and 827.93 ± 162.78 nmol ( < 0.001), respectively. The pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 showed no differences at 6 months after donation. The enzyme oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1) responsible for repairing oxidative damage to DNA, showed a decrease in its concentration at the end of the study in donor men, 0.40 ± 0.21 ng/mL compared to the initial levels, 0.55 ± 0.32 ng/mL ( = 0.025). The marker, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) exhibited an increase in donor men at the final determination 2.28 ± 1.99 ng/mL, compared to the concentration before donation, 1.72 ± 1.96 ng/mL ( < 0.001). We found significant changes in the markers of the oxidative state with increased NO and 8-OHdG, as well as a significant decrease in the antioxidant defenses SOD, GPx, and in the DNA repair enzyme in living renal donors after 6 months of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.00382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403208PMC
July 2020

Occult hepatitis B in kidney transplants recipients and donors from Western Mexico.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Feb 24;91:17-21. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Instituto de Biología Molecular en Medicina y Terapia Génica, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum and/or liver from HBsAg-negative subjects. Our aim was to determine OBI frequency in serum and genomic DNA in patients undergoing renal transplant and their cognate donors in a selected population from Western Mexico.

Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 94 donors and their cognate recipients (188 participants) before kidney transplantation. Identification of HBV DNA was carried-out by nested (S-region) and semi-nested (Pol-region) PCR in both genomic and serum DNA samples from 188 participants at pre-surgical stage and from a subset of 73 recipients at three-month follow-up.

Results: HBV-DNA was not detected in either genomic or serum DNA samples from recipients or donors prior to transplantation. After three-months of follow-up, 2 out of 73 (2.7%, 95% CI: 0.9-11.9%) recipients were positive to HBV-DNA (Pol-region) in genomic DNA samples using a high sensitivity Taq DNA polymerase.

Conclusions: OBI incidence in recipients of kidney transplant may be higher than previously recognized. Detection of HBV-DNA was higher in genomic DNA than in serum samples using a high sensitivity Taq DNA polymerase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding this specific topic in Mexicans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.10.023DOI Listing
February 2020

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Atorvastatin on the Kidney Graft of Living Donor Transplants.

Ann Transplant 2018 Jun 29;23:442-449. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Biomedical Research Unit 02, Specialties Hospital, Western National Medical Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

BACKGROUND Recent studies have demonstrated that statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, which could be considered beneficial in kidney transplantations. This study assesses the anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin on the kidney grafts of living donor transplants. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a randomized clinical trial, kidney donors were divided into 2 groups. The study group constituted 24 donors who received 40 mg atorvastatin, and 24 donors who received a placebo control, 4 weeks prior to transplantation. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured before and after atorvastatin administration. CRP and renal function of kidney recipients were measured at baseline and 1, 6, and 24 hours after transplantation. RESULTS After 4 weeks of treatment, the CRP level was 5.62±3.82 mg/dL in the control group and 3.27±0.62 mg/dL in the study group (P=0.007). Upon reperfusion, CRP levels in recipients at 1 hour were, 5.8±3.9 and 3.8±1.0 mg/dL, respectively (P=0.04). Twenty-four hours after the kidney transplantations, serum creatinine levels were 2.5±1.5 mg/dL in the study group and 3.7±2.4 mg/dL in the control group (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that the use of atorvastatin prior to allograft procurement of kidney transplant, reduces the acute kidney inflammatory burden profile, and promotes an improved kidney function recovery following transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AOT.908521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6248064PMC
June 2018