Publications by authors named "Diego Galvan"

14 Publications

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Recent Applications of Mixture Designs in Beverages, Foods, and Pharmaceutical Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Foods 2021 Aug 20;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941-598, RJ, Brazil.

Design of Experiments (DoE) is a statistical tool used to plan and optimize experiments and is seen as a quality technology to achieve products excellence. Among the experimental designs (EDs), the mixture designs (MDs) stand out, being widely applied to improve conditions for processing, developing, or formulating novel products. This review aims to provide useful updated information on the capacity and diversity of MDs applications for the industry and scientific community in the areas of food, beverage, and pharmaceutical health. Recent works were selected following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA) flow diagram. Data analysis was performed by self-organizing map (SOM) to check and understand which fields of application/countries/continents are using MDs. Overall, the SOM indicated that Brazil presented the largest number of works using MDs. Among the continents, America and Asia showed a predominance in applications with the same amount of work. Comparing the MDs application areas, the analysis indicated that works are prevalent in food and beverage science in the American continent, while in Asia, health science prevails. MDs were more used to develop functional/nutraceutical products and the formulation of drugs for several diseases. However, we briefly describe some promising research fields in that MDs can still be employed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391317PMC
August 2021

Effects of adding spices with antioxidants compounds in red ale style craft beer: A simplex-centroid mixture design approach.

Food Chem 2021 Dec 27;365:130478. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Food Science and Technology, State University of Londrina (UEL), Londrina, PR 86057-970, Brazil.

The growing demand for authentic products that provide sensory characteristics combined with health benefits has been the focus of current studies. This study developed a Red Ale style craft beer with spices such as turmeric (T), black pepper (P) and aroma hops (H), used isolated or in mixtures. A mixture design was employed to evaluate the total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the green and aged beers formulations. The spice extracts influenced the product's shelf-life. The addition of spices into the beers did not affect the physicochemical parameters that classify the Red Ale style, according to the hierarchical cluster analysis, except for aroma hops. A multiresponse optimization approach simultaneously maximized the antioxidant activity and the phenolic compounds in beers. The ideal formulation obtained for green beers was 25% T and 37.5% P and H; for aged beers, the formulation was 50% T, 20% P and 30% H.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130478DOI Listing
December 2021

Compact low-field NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics applied to the analysis of edible oils.

Food Chem 2021 Dec 27;365:130476. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86.057-970 Londrina, Brazil.

Compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric tools opens new perspectives for NMR use. This work compares the potential of 43, 60 and 400 MHz NMR spectroscopy for quality control of edible oils. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) models built on the three NMR devices had equivalent performances for fatty acids and iodine value, and the models built with the low field spectra were equivalent to the high field. Moreover, performances for calibration indicated that most of the models built with medium/or high-resolution fields presented reproducibility values lower than the minimum accepted by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS). Compared to classical methods, this new approach allows the application of medium resolution devices as a sample screening tool in analytical laboratories since it allows the spectrum obtention in a few seconds, without the need for sample preparation or the use of deuterated solvents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130476DOI Listing
December 2021

An overview of research of essential oils by self-organizing maps: A novel approach for meta-analysis study.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 07 14;20(4):3136-3163. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Essential oils (EOs) are commercially important products, sources of compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities considered indispensable for several fields, such as the food industry, cosmetics, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, sanitary and agricultural industries. In this context, this systematic review and meta-analysis, a novel approach will be presented using chemometric tools to verify and recognize patterns of antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of EOs according to their geographic, botanical, chemical, and microbiological distribution. Scientific papers were selected following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses statement flow diagram, and the data were evaluated by the self-organizing map and hierarchical cluster analysis. Overall, this novel approach allowed us to draw an overview of antioxidants and antimicrobials activities of EOs reported in 2019, through 585 articles evaluated, obtaining a dataset with more than 10,000 data, distributed in more than 80 countries, 290 plant genera, 150 chemical compounds, 30 genera of bacteria, and 10 genera of fungi. The networks for geographic, botanical, chemical, and microbiological distribution indicated that Brazil, Asia, the botanical genus Thymus, species Thymus vulgaris L. "thyme," the Lamiaceae family, limonene, and the oxygenated monoterpene class were the most representative in the dataset, while the species Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were the most used to assess the antimicrobial activity of EOs. This work can be seen as a guide for the processing of metadata using a novel approach with non-conventional statistical methods. However, this preliminary approach with EOs can be extended to other sources or areas of food science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12773DOI Listing
July 2021

The Spread of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Brazil: An Overview by Kohonen Self-Organizing Map Networks.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 3;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

COVID-19 Research Group, Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941-598, RJ, Brazil.

: In the current pandemic scenario, data mining tools are fundamental to evaluate the measures adopted to contain the spread of COVID-19. In this study, unsupervised neural networks of the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) type were used to assess the spatial and temporal spread of COVID-19 in Brazil, according to the number of cases and deaths in regions, states, and cities. : The SOM applied in this context does not evaluate which measures applied have helped contain the spread of the disease, but these datasets represent the repercussions of the country's measures, which were implemented to contain the virus' spread. This approach demonstrated that the spread of the disease in Brazil does not have a standard behavior, changing according to the region, state, or city. The analyses showed that cities and states in the north and northeast regions of the country were the most affected by the disease, with the highest number of cases and deaths registered per 100,000 inhabitants. : The SOM clustering was able to spatially group cities, states, and regions according to their coronavirus cases, with similar behavior. Thus, it is possible to benefit from the use of similar strategies to deal with the virus' spread in these cities, states, and regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57030235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999572PMC
March 2021

E-sensing and nanoscale-sensing devices associated with data processing algorithms applied to food quality control: a systematic review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 29:1-41. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Devices of human-based senses such as e-noses, e-tongues and e-eyes can be used to analyze different compounds in several food matrices. These sensors allow the detection of one or more compounds present in complex food samples, and the responses obtained can be used for several goals when different chemometric tools are applied. In this systematic review, we used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, to address issues such as e-sensing with chemometric methods for food quality control (FQC). A total of 109 eligible articles were selected from PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Thus, we predicted that the association between e-sensing and chemometric tools is essential for FQC. Most studies have applied preliminary approaches like exploratory analysis, while the classification/regression methods have been less investigated. It is worth mentioning that non-linear methods based on artificial intelligence/machine learning, in most cases, had classification/regression performances superior to non-liner, although their applications were seen less often. Another approach that has generated promising results is the data fusion between e-sensing devices or in conjunction with other analytical techniques. Furthermore, some future trends in the application of miniaturized devices and nanoscale sensors are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1903384DOI Listing
March 2021

Can Socioeconomic, Health, and Safety Data Explain the Spread of COVID-19 Outbreak on Brazilian Federative Units?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 30;17(23). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

COVID-19 Research Group, Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro RJ 21941-598, Brazil.

Infinite factors can influence the spread of COVID-19. Evaluating factors related to the spread of the disease is essential to point out measures that take effect. In this study, the influence of 14 variables was assessed together by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) of the type Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), to verify the relationship between numbers of cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Brazilian states for 110 days. The SOM analysis showed that the variables that presented a more significant relationship with the numbers of cases and deaths by COVID-19 were influenza vaccine applied, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), ventilators, physicians, nurses, and the Human Development Index (HDI). In general, Brazilian states with the highest rates of influenza vaccine applied, ICU beds, ventilators, physicians, and nurses, per 100,000 inhabitants, had the lowest number of cases and deaths from COVID-19, while the states with the lowest rates were most affected by the disease. According to the SOM analysis, other variables such as Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), tests, drugs, and Federal funds, did not have as significant effect as expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730726PMC
November 2020

Stable body size of Alpine ungulates.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Jul 15;7(7):200196. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zürcherstr. 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

In many species, decreasing body size has been associated with increasing temperatures. Although climate-induced phenotypic shifts, and evolutionary impacts, can affect the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial ecosystems through biological and metabolic rules, evidence for shrinking body size is often challenged by (i) relatively short intervals of observation, (ii) a limited number of individuals, and (iii) confinement to small and isolated populations. To overcome these issues and provide important multi-species, long-term information for conservation managers and scientists, we compiled and analysed 222 961 measurements of eviscerated body weight, 170 729 measurements of hind foot length and 145 980 measurements of lower jaw length, in the four most abundant Alpine ungulate species: ibex (), chamois (), red deer () and roe deer (). Regardless of age, sex and phylogeny, the body mass and size of these sympatric animals, from the eastern Swiss Alps, remained stable between 1991 and 2013. Neither global warming nor local hunting influenced the fitness of the wild ungulates studied at a detectable level. However, we cannot rule out possible counteracting effects of enhanced nutritional resources associated with longer and warmer growing seasons, as well as the animals' ability to migrate along extensive elevational gradients in the highly diversified alpine landscape of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.200196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428221PMC
July 2020

Calibration Transfer of Partial Least Squares Regression Models between Desktop Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometers.

Anal Chem 2020 10 14;92(19):12809-12816. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86.057-970 Londrina, Brazil.

Low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-H NMR) devices based on permanent magnets are a promising analytical tool to be extensively applied to the process analytical chemistry scenario. To enhance its analytical applicability in samples where the spectral resolution is compromised, multivariate regression methods are required. However, building a robust calibration model, such as partial least squares (PLS) regression, is a laborious task because (1) the number of measurements required during the calibration process is large and (2) the procedure must be repeated when the instrument is changed or after a certain period due to the long-term stability of the instrument. Thus, the present work describes the application of calibration transfer methodologies (direct standardization (DS), piece-wise direct standardization (PDS), and double-window piece-wise direct standardization (DWPDS)) on LF-H NMR to exempt the necessity of a recalibration procedure when moving from the original spectrometer to a second one with the same, lower, or higher magnetic field. These calibration transfer methodologies were tested with PLS models built on a 60 MHz (for the proton Larmor frequency) spectrometer to predict the specific gravity (SG), distillation temperature (T50%), and final boiling point (FBP) of commercial gasoline. The results showed that the DWPDS method applying only 2 to 7 transference samples enables the transference of all PLS models built on the primary instrument (60 MHz) to other (43, 60, and 80 MHz) different instruments, reaching the same RMSEP values as the primary instrument: 1.2 kg/m for SG, 5.1 °C for FBP, and 1.1 °C for T50%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00902DOI Listing
October 2020

Author Correction: Tree rings reveal globally coherent signature of cosmogenic radiocarbon events in 774 and 993 CE.

Nat Commun 2018 12 17;9(1):5399. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620144, Russia.

The original version of this Article contained an error in the Data Availability section, which incorrectly read 'All data will be freely available via https://www.ams.ethz.ch/research.html .' The correct version states ' http://www.ams.ethz.ch/research/published-data.html ' in place of ' https://www.ams.ethz.ch/research.html '. This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07636-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297216PMC
December 2018

Mathematical modeling of multicomponent NaCl and KCl diffusion process during the salting of pre-cooked champignon mushrooms.

Food Chem 2019 Feb 2;273:99-105. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Chemistry, State University of Londrina (UEL), Londrina, PR 86057-970, Brazil.

Wet salting is an old preservation method however the NaCl has been frequently associated to high blood pressure issues. The KCl has been used as partial replacement without affecting the acceptability of the final product. In this study, the simultaneous diffusion of NaCl and KCl in champignon mushrooms in static brine and brine under agitation was modeled based on the generalization of Fick's second diffusion law and simulated using the finite element method. Main and crossed diffusion coefficients, as well as the Biot number, were determined using the super modified simplex optimization method by means of percentage error minimization. Deviations between the simulated and experimental data were 5.78% for NaCl and 4.78% for KCl in static brine and 4.95% for NaCl and 4.35% for KCl in brine with agitation and, the main diffusion coefficients 2.692 × 10 ms for sodium and 2.953 × 10 ms for potassium were obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.01.188DOI Listing
February 2019

Tree rings reveal globally coherent signature of cosmogenic radiocarbon events in 774 and 993 CE.

Nat Commun 2018 09 6;9(1):3605. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg, 620144, Russia.

Though tree-ring chronologies are annually resolved, their dating has never been independently validated at the global scale. Moreover, it is unknown if atmospheric radiocarbon enrichment events of cosmogenic origin leave spatiotemporally consistent fingerprints. Here we measure the C content in 484 individual tree rings formed in the periods 770-780 and 990-1000 CE. Distinct C excursions starting in the boreal summer of 774 and the boreal spring of 993 ensure the precise dating of 44 tree-ring records from five continents. We also identify a meridional decline of 11-year mean atmospheric radiocarbon concentrations across both hemispheres. Corroborated by historical eye-witness accounts of red auroras, our results suggest a global exposure to strong solar proton radiation. To improve understanding of the return frequency and intensity of past cosmic events, which is particularly important for assessing the potential threat of space weather on our society, further annually resolved C measurements are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06036-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6127282PMC
September 2018

Forest resilience to drought varies across biomes.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 05 28;24(5):2143-2158. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Ionplus AG. Lerzenstrasse, Dietikon, Switzerland.

Forecasted increase drought frequency and severity may drive worldwide declines in forest productivity. Species-level responses to a drier world are likely to be influenced by their functional traits. Here, we analyse forest resilience to drought using an extensive network of tree-ring width data and satellite imagery. We compiled proxies of forest growth and productivity (TRWi, absolutely dated ring-width indices; NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for 11 tree species and 502 forests in Spain corresponding to Mediterranean, temperate, and continental biomes. Four different components of forest resilience to drought were calculated based on TRWi and NDVI data before, during, and after four major droughts (1986, 1994-1995, 1999, and 2005), and pointed out that TRWi data were more sensitive metrics of forest resilience to drought than NDVI data. Resilience was related to both drought severity and forest composition. Evergreen gymnosperms dominating semi-arid Mediterranean forests showed the lowest resistance to drought, but higher recovery than deciduous angiosperms dominating humid temperate forests. Moreover, semi-arid gymnosperm forests presented a negative temporal trend in the resistance to drought, but this pattern was absent in continental and temperate forests. Although gymnosperms in dry Mediterranean forests showed a faster recovery after drought, their recovery potential could be constrained if droughts become more frequent. Conversely, angiosperms and gymnosperms inhabiting temperate and continental sites might have problems to recover after more intense droughts since they resist drought but are less able to recover afterwards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14082DOI Listing
May 2018

Towards a better understanding of long-term wood-chemistry variations in old-growth forests: A case study on ancient Pinus uncinata trees from the Pyrenees.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jun 28;625:220-232. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Dept. Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Univ. Barcelona, Avd. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Dendrochemical studies in old forests are still underdeveloped. Old trees growing in remote high-elevation areas far from direct human influence constitute a promising biological proxy for the long-term reconstructions of environmental changes using tree-rings. Furthermore, centennial-long chronologies of multi-elemental chemistry at inter- and intra-annual resolution are scarce. Here, we use a novel non-destructive method by applying Micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) to wood samples of old Pinus uncinata trees from two Pyrenean high-elevation forests growing on acidic and basic soils. To disentangle ontogenetic (changes in tree age and diameter) from environmental influences (e.g., climate warming) we compared element patterns in sapwood (SW) and heartwood (HW) during the pre-industrial (1700-1849) and industrial (1850-2008) periods. We quantified tree-ring growth, wood density and relative element concentrations at annual (TRW, tree-ring) to seasonal resolution (EW, earlywood; LW, latewood) and related them to climate variables (temperature and precipitation) and volcanic eruptions in the 18th and 19th centuries. We detected differences for most studied elements between SW and HW along the stem and also between EW and LW within rings. Long-term positive and negative trends were observed for Ca and K, respectively. Cl, P and S showed positive trends during the industrial period. However, differences between sites were also notable. Higher values of Mg, Al, Si and the Ca/Mn ratio were observed at the site with acidic soil. Growing-season temperatures were positively related to growth, maximum wood density and to the concentration of most elements. Peaks in S, Fe, Cl, Zn and Ca were linked to major volcanic eruptions (e.g., Tambora in 1815). Our results reveal the potential of long-term wood-chemistry studies based on the μXRF non-destructive technique to reconstruct environmental changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.229DOI Listing
June 2018
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