Publications by authors named "Clifford R Jack"

696 Publications

Regional Brain Stiffness Analysis of Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27970DOI Listing
October 2021

Neuroimaging correlates of gait abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Oct 12;32:102850. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Progressive supranuclear palsy is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by tau inclusions and neurodegeneration in the midbrain, basal ganglia, thalamus, premotor and frontal cortex. Neurodegenerative change in progressive supranuclear palsy has been assessed using MRI. Degeneration of white matter tracts is evident with diffusion tensor imaging and PET methods have been used to assess brain metabolism or presence of tau protein deposits. Patients with progressive supranuclear palsy present with a variety of clinical syndromes; however early onset of gait impairments and postural instability are common features. In this study we assessed the relationship between multimodal imaging biomarkers (i.e., MRI atrophy, white matter tracts degeneration, flortaucipir-PET uptake) and laboratory-based measures of gait and balance abnormalities in a cohort of nineteen patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. The PSP rating scale and its gait midline sub-score were strongly correlated to gait abnormalities but not to postural imbalance. Principal component analysis on gait variables identified velocity, stride length, gait stability ratio, length of gait phases and dynamic stability as the main contributors to the first component, which was associated with diffusion tensor imaging measures in the posterior thalamic radiation, external capsule, superior cerebellar peduncle, superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, body and splenium of the corpus callosum and sagittal stratum, with MRI volumes in frontal and precentral regions and with flortaucipir-PET uptake in the precentral gyrus. The main contributor to the second principal component was cadence, which was higher in patients presenting more abnormalities on mean diffusivity: this unexpected finding might be related to compensatory gait strategies adopted in progressive supranuclear palsy. Postural imbalance was the main contributor to the third principal component, which was related to flortaucipir-PET uptake in the left paracentral lobule and supplementary motor area and white matter disruption in the superior cerebellar peduncle, putamen, pontine crossing tract and corticospinal tract. A partial least square model identified flortaucipir-PET uptake in midbrain, basal ganglia and thalamus as the main correlate of speed and dynamic component of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy. Although causality cannot be established in this analysis, our study sheds light on neurodegeneration of brain regions and white matter tracts that underlies gait and balance impairment in progressive supranuclear palsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8527041PMC
October 2021

Contribution of Alzheimer's biomarkers and risk factors to cognitive impairment and decline across the Alzheimer's disease continuum.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

Introduction: Amyloid beta (Aβ), tau, and neurodegeneration jointly with the Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors affect the severity of clinical symptoms and disease progression.

Methods: Within 248 Aβ-positive elderly with and without cognitive impairment and dementia, partial least squares structural equation pathway modeling was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of imaging biomarkers (global Aβ-positron emission tomography [PET] uptake, regional tau-PET uptake, and regional magnetic resonance imaging-based atrophy) and risk-factors (age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E [APOE], and white-matter lesions) on cross-sectional cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline.

Results: Sixteen percent of variance in cross-sectional cognitive impairment was accounted for by Aβ, 46% to 47% by tau, and 25% to 29% by atrophy, although 53% to 58% of total variance in cognitive impairment was explained by incorporating mediated and direct effects of AD risk factors. The Aβ-tau-atrophy pathway accounted for 50% to 56% of variance in longitudinal cognitive decline while Aβ, tau, and atrophy independently explained 16%, 46% to 47%, and 25% to 29% of the variance, respectively.

Discussion: These findings emphasize that treatments that remove Aβ and completely stop downstream effects on tau and neurodegeneration would only be partially effective in slowing of cognitive decline or reversing cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12480DOI Listing
October 2021

Using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative to improve early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Center for Neurodegenerative Research, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Introduction: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has accumulated 15 years of clinical, neuroimaging, cognitive, biofluid biomarker and genetic data, and biofluid samples available to researchers, resulting in more than 3500 publications. This review covers studies from 2018 to 2020.

Methods: We identified 1442 publications using ADNI data by conventional search methods and selected impactful studies for inclusion.

Results: Disease progression studies supported pivotal roles for regional amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau deposition, and identified underlying genetic contributions to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vascular disease, immune response, inflammation, resilience, and sex modulated disease course. Biologically coherent subgroups were identified at all clinical stages. Practical algorithms and methodological changes improved determination of Aβ status. Plasma Aβ, phosphorylated tau181, and neurofilament light were promising noninvasive biomarkers. Prognostic and diagnostic models were externally validated in ADNI but studies are limited by lack of ethnocultural cohort diversity.

Discussion: ADNI has had a profound impact in improving clinical trials for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12422DOI Listing
September 2021

Associations of amyloid and neurodegeneration plasma biomarkers with comorbidities.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Introduction: Blood-based biomarkers of amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration are entering clinical use. It is critical to understand what factors affect the levels of these markers.

Methods: Plasma markers (Aβ42, Aβ40, NfL, T-tau, Aβ42/40 ratio) were measured on the Quanterix Simoa HD-1 analyzer for 996 Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) participants, aged 51 to 95 years. All other data were collected during in-person MCSA visits or abstracted from the medical record.

Results: Among cognitively unimpaired (CU) participants, all plasma markers correlated with age. Linear regression models revealed multiple relationships. For example, higher Charlson Comorbidity Index and chronic kidney disease were associated with higher levels of all biomarkers. Some relationships differed between mild cognitive impairment and dementia participants.

Discussion: Multiple variables affect plasma biomarkers of amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration among CU in the general population. Incorporating this information is critical for accurate interpretation of the biomarker levels and for the development of reference ranges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12466DOI Listing
September 2021

Relationship of APOE, age at onset, amyloid and clinical phenotype in Alzheimer disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Aug 25;108:90-98. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the most well-established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its relationship to age at onset and clinical phenotype is unclear. We aimed to assess relationships between APOE genotype and age at onset, amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and typical versus atypical clinical presentations in AD. Frequency of APOE ε4 carriers by age at onset was assessed in 447 AD patients, 138 atypical AD patients recruited by the Neurodegenerative Research Group at Mayo Clinic, and 309 with typical AD from ADNI. APOE ε4 frequency increased with age at onset in atypical AD but showed a bell-shaped curve in typical AD where highest frequencies were observed between 65 and 70 years. Typical AD showed higher APOE ε4 frequencies than atypical AD only between the ages of 57 and 69 years. Global Aβ standard uptake value ratios did not differ according to APOE e4 status in either group. APOE genotype varies by both age at onset and clinical phenotype in AD, highlighting the heterogeneous nature of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.08.012DOI Listing
August 2021

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Pathology and Its Association With Amyloid-β PET Signal.

Neurology 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Objective: To determine the contribution of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET tracer retention.

Methods: Participants from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging and Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center with antemortem PiB-PET imaging for amyloid beta (Aβ) and later underwent autopsy were included in this study. Pathologic regional leptomeningeal, parenchymal, capillary CAA, and Aβ plaque burden were calculated from one hemisphere. Regional lobar amyloid SUVr on PET was calculated from the same hemisphere sampled at autopsy. Single- and multiple-predictor linear-regression models were used to evaluate the relative contributions of pathologically determined regional CAA and Aβ plaques to antemortem PiB-PET SUVr.

Results: Forty-one participants (30 male, 11 female) with a mean age at death of 75.7 (10.6) years were included. Twenty-seven (66%) had high PiB signal with a mean of 2.3 (1.2) years from time of PET scan to death; twenty-four (59%) had a pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. On multivariate analysis, CAA was not associated with PiB-PET SUVr while plaques remained associated with PiB-PET SUVr in all regions (all p <0.05). In patients without frequent amyloid plaques, CAA was not associated with PiB-PET in any region.

Conclusion: We did not find evidence that pathologically-confirmed regional CAA burden contributes significantly to proximal antemortem regional PiB-PET signal, suggesting that amyloid PET imaging for measurement of cortical amyloid burden is unconfounded by CAA on a lobar level. Whether CAA burden contributes to PiB-PET signal in patients with severe CAA phenotypes, such as lobar hemorrhage, requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012770DOI Listing
September 2021

Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with Worsening White Matter Disease and Ventricular Enlargement.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;83(4):1729-1740

Berman Center for Clinical Research and Outcomes, Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a growing public health issue in the elderly, is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment.

Objective: To investigate the mechanisms through which CKD impacts brain health using longitudinal imaging.

Methods: We identified 97 participants (74 CKD and 23 non-CKD) from the BRINK (BRain IN Kidney Disease), a longitudinal study of CKD with two MRI scans (baseline and 3-year follow-up). We measured the associations between baseline and change in kidney disease biomarkers of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), considered a measure of microvascular inflammation, and imaging outcomes of cortical thickness and ventricular volume from structural MRI, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) volume from FLAIR images, and fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum (FACC).

Results: There were white matter-specific changes as observed by increased WMH volume and decreased FACC in CKD participants, as well as ventricular volume increase in both CKD and non-CKD groups reflective of aging-related changes. Decline in eGFR was associated with decrease in the FACC, suggesting that subtle early white matter changes due to kidney disease can be captured using DTI. An increase in UACR was associated with increase in ventricular volume.

Conclusion: Our results support the role of eGFR as a measure of kidney microvascular disease which is associated with concurrent white matter damage in CKD. Future work is needed to investigate the possible link between endothelial microvascular inflammation (as measured by an increased UACR) and ventricular volume increase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210604DOI Listing
January 2021

Brain White Matter Structure and Amyloid Deposition in Black and White Older Adults: The ARIC-PET Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 25;10(17):e022087. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Stroke Branch National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Intramural Research ProgramNIH Bethesda MD.

Background White matter abnormalities are a common feature of aging and Alzheimer disease, and tend to be more severe among Black individuals. However, the extent to which white matter abnormalities relate to amyloid deposition, a marker of Alzheimer pathology, remains unclear. This cross-sectional study examined the association of white matter abnormalities with cortical amyloid in a community sample of older adults without dementia and examined the moderating effect of race. Methods and Results Participants from the ARIC-PET (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities-Positron Emission Tomography) study underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, which quantified white matter hyperintensity volume and microstructural integrity using diffusion tensor imaging. Participants received florbetapir positron emission tomography imaging to measure brain amyloid. Associations between measures of white matter structure and elevated amyloid status were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Among 322 participants (43% Black), each SD increase in white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with a greater odds of elevated amyloid (odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.03-1.83) after adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. In race-stratified analyses, a greater white matter hyperintensity volume was more strongly associated with elevated amyloid among Black participants (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.15-3.50), compared with White participants (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.89-1.89). However, the race interaction was not statistically significant ( interaction=0.09). We found no association between white matter microstructure and elevated amyloid. Conclusions The results suggest a modest positive relationship between white matter hyperintensity and elevated amyloid in older adults without dementia. Although the results indicate that this association is nonsignificantly stronger among Black participants, these findings will need to be confirmed or refuted using larger multiracial cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.022087DOI Listing
September 2021

Gray and White Matter Correlates of Dysphagia in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.

Mov Disord 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Dysphagia is a common symptom of progressive supranuclear palsy often leading to aspiration pneumonia and death.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how impairments of the oral and pharyngeal phases of the swallow and airway incursion during liquid swallows relate to gray and white matter integrity.

Methods: Thirty-eight participants with progressive supranuclear palsy underwent videofluorographic swallowing assessment and structural and diffusion tensor head magnetic resonance imaging. Penalized linear regression models assessed relationships between swallowing metrics and regional gray matter volumes and white matter fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity.

Results: Oral phase impairments were associated with reduced superior parietal volumes and abnormal diffusivity in parietal and sensorimotor white matter, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Pharyngeal phase impairments were associated with disruption to medial frontal lobe, corticospinal tract, and cerebral peduncle. No regions were predictive of airway incursion.

Conclusions: Differential patterns of neuroanatomical impairment corresponded to oral and pharyngeal phase swallowing impairments. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28731DOI Listing
August 2021

Sex Difference in the Relation Between Marital Status and Dementia Risk in Two Population-Based Cohorts.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;83(3):1269-1279

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: The modifying effect of sex on the relation between marital status and dementia has yet to be determined.

Objective: To examine if sex modifies the association between marital status and incident dementia.

Methods: Population-based samples from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA, N = 3,471) and the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Study (H70-study, N = 913) were used. A multiplicative interaction term was used to analyze the modifying effect of sex on the relation between marital status (married versus not married) and incident dementia using Cox regression models. Further, risk of dementia by marital status was also evaluated in models separated by sex.

Results: In the MCSA, there was an interaction between marital status and sex in relation to dementia (p = 0.015). In contrast, in the H70-study, no significant interaction was observed (p = 0.28). Nevertheless, in both studies, not married men had increased risk of dementia compared to married men in models adjusted for age, education, and number of children (H70-study: 1.99; 1.06-3.76, MCSA: 1.43; 1.08-1.89). Associations remained similar after additional adjustment for depression, BMI, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus (H70-study: 2.00; 1.05-3.82, MCSA: 1.32; 0.99-1.76). Further, no significant association was observed between marital status and dementia in women (H70-study: 1.24; 0.82-1.89, MCSA: 0.82; 0.64-1.04).

Conclusion: Sex had a modifying effect on the association between marital status and incident dementia. In analyses separated by sex, not married men had an increased risk of dementia compared to married men, while no significant association was observed between marital status and risk of dementia in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490335PMC
January 2021

A Comparison of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Methods of Defining Objective Subtle Cognitive Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Based on Cogstate One Card Learning Accuracy Performance.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;83(2):861-877

Division of Neurocognitive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Longitudinal, but not cross-sectional, cognitive testing is one option proposed to define transitional cognitive decline for individuals on the Alzheimer's disease continuum.

Objective: Compare diagnostic accuracy of cross-sectional subtle objective cognitive impairment (sOBJ) and longitudinal objective decline (ΔOBJ) over 30 months for identifying 1) cognitively unimpaired participants with preclinical Alzheimer's disease defined by elevated brain amyloid and tau (A+T+) and 2) incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) based on Cogstate One Card Learning (OCL) accuracy performance.

Methods: Mayo Clinic Study of Aging cognitively unimpaired participants aged 50 + with amyloid and tau PET scans (n = 311) comprised the biomarker-defined sample. A case-control sample of participants aged 65 + remaining cognitively unimpaired for at least 30 months included 64 who subsequently developed MCI (incident MCI cases) and 184 controls, risk-set matched by age, sex, education, and visit number. sOBJ was assessed by OCL z-scores. ΔOBJ was assessed using within subjects' standard deviation and annualized change from linear regression or linear mixed effects (LME) models. Concordance measures Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) or C-statistic and odds ratios (OR) from conditional logistic regression models were derived. sOBJ and ΔOBJ were modeled jointly to compare methods.

Results: sOBJ and ΔOBJ-LME methods differentiated A+T+ from A-T- (AUC = 0.64, 0.69) and controls from incident MCI (C-statistic = 0.59, 0.69) better than chance; other ΔOBJ methods did not. ΔOBJ-LME improved prediction of future MCI over baseline sOBJ (p = 0.003) but not over 30-month sOBJ (p = 0.09).

Conclusion: Longitudinal decline did not offer substantial benefit over cross-sectional assessment in detecting preclinical Alzheimer's disease or incident MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8506654PMC
January 2021

Relationships between β-amyloid and tau in an elderly population: An accelerated failure time modelww.

Neuroimage 2021 Nov 29;242:118440. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic 200 1st St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905.

Using positron emission tomography (PET)-derived amyloid and tau measurements from 1,495 participants, we explore the evolution of these values over time via an accelerated failure time (AFT) model. The AFT model assumes a shared pattern of progression, but one which is shifted earlier or later in time for each individual; an individual's time shift for amyloid and for tau are assumed to be linked. The resulting pattern for each outcome consists of an earlier indolent phase followed by sharp progression of the accumulation rate. APOE ε4 shifts the amyloid curve leftward (earlier) by 6.1 years, and the tau curve leftward by 2.6 years. Female sex shifts the amyloid curve leftward by 2.4 years and the tau curve leftward by 2.6 years. Per-person shifts (i.e., the individual's deviation from the population mean) for the onset of amyloid accumulation ranged from 13 years earlier to 13 years later (10th to 90th percentile) than average and 11 years earlier to 14 years later for tau, with an estimated correlation of 0.49. The average delay between amyloid increase and tau increase was 13.3 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8499700PMC
November 2021

Comparison of CSF phosphorylated tau 181 and 217 for cognitive decline.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Introduction: The prognostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phosphorylated tau 217 (p-tau217) and p-tau181 is not understood.

Methods: Analyses included 753 Mayo Clinic Study on Aging participants (median age = 71.6; 57% male). CSF amyloid beta (Aβ)42 and p-tau181 were measured with Elecsys immunoassays. CSF p-tau181 and p-tau217 were also measured with Meso Scale Discovery (MSD). We used Cox proportional hazards models for risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and linear mixed models for risk of global and domain-specific cognitive decline and cortical thickness. Analyses were stratified by elevated brain amyloid based on CSF Aβ42 or amyloid positron emission tomography for those with imaging.

Results: CSF p-tau217 was superior to p-tau181 for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. CSF MSD p-tau181 and p-tau217 were associated with risk of MCI among amyloid-positive individuals. Differences between CSF p-tau measures predicting cortical thickness were subtle.

Discussion: There are subtle differences for CSF p-tau217 and p-tau181 as prognostic AD markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12415DOI Listing
July 2021

Detection of Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta 1-42, p-tau, and t-tau assays.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Introduction: We aimed to provide cut points for the automated Elecsys Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers.

Methods: Cut points for Elecsys amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau), and t-tau/Aβ42 and p-tau/Aβ42 ratios were evaluated in Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (n = 804) and Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (n = 70) participants.

Results: The t-tau/Aβ42 and p-tau/Aβ42 ratios had a higher percent agreement with normal/abnormal amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) than the individual CSF markers. Reciever Operating Characteristic (ROC)-based cut points were 0.26 (0.24-0.27) for t-tau/Aβ42 and 0.023 (0.020-0.025) for p-tau/Aβ42. Ratio cut points derived from other cohorts performed as well in our cohort as our own did. Individual biomarkers had worse diagnostic properties and more variable results in terms of positive and negative percent agreement (PPA and NPA).

Conclusion: CSF t-tau/Aβ42 and p-tau/Aβ42 ratios are very robust indicators of AD. For individual biomarkers, the intended use should determine which cut point is chosen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12406DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of Plasma Phosphorylated Tau Species With Amyloid and Tau Positron Emission Tomography, Neurodegeneration, Vascular Pathology, and Cognitive Outcomes.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Sep;78(9):1108-1117

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Importance: Cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau (p-tau) 181, p-tau217, and p-tau231 are associated with neuropathological outcomes, but a comparison of these p-tau isoforms in blood samples is needed.

Objective: To conduct a head-to-head comparison of plasma p-tau181 and p-tau231 measured on the single-molecule array (Simoa) platform and p-tau181 and p-tau217 measured on the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform on amyloid and tau positron emission tomography (PET) measures, neurodegeneration, vascular pathology, and cognitive outcomes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study included data from the Mayo Clinic Study on Aging collected from March 1, 2015, to September 30, 2017, and analyzed between December 15, 2020, and May 17, 2021. Associations between the 4 plasma p-tau measures and dichotomous amyloid PET, metaregion of interest tau PET, and entorhinal cortex tau PET were analyzed using logistic regression models; the predictive accuracy was summarized using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) statistic. Of 1329 participants without dementia and with p-tau181 and p-tau217 on MSD, 200 participants with plasma p-tau181 and p-tau231 on Simoa and magnetic resonance imaging and amyloid and tau PET data at the same study visit were eligible.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Primary outcomes included amyloid (greater than 1.48 standardized uptake value ratio) and tau PET, white matter hyperintensities, white matter microstructural integrity (fractional anisotropy genu of corpus callosum and hippocampal cingulum bundle), and cognition.

Results: Of 200 included participants, 101 (50.5%) were male, and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 79.5 (71.1-84.1) years. A total of 177 were cognitively unimpaired (CU) and 23 had mild cognitive impairment. Compared with amyloid-negative CU participants, among amyloid-positive CU participants, the median (IQR) Simoa p-tau181 measure was 49% higher (2.58 [2.00-3.72] vs 1.73 [1.45-2.13] pg/mL), MSD p-tau181 measure was 53% higher (1.22 [0.91-1.56] vs 0.80 [0.66-0.97] pg/mL), MSD p-tau217 measure was 77% higher (0.23 [0.17-0.34] vs 0.13 [0.09-0.18] pg/mL), and Simoa p-tau231 measure was 49% higher (20.21 [15.60-25.41] vs 14.27 [11.27-18.10] pg/mL). There were no differences between the p-tau species for amyloid PET and tau PET metaregions of interest. However, among CU participants, both MSD p-tau181 and MSD p-tau217 more accurately predicted abnormal entorhinal cortex tau PET than Simoa p-tau181 (MSD p-tau181: AUROC, 0.80 vs 0.70; P = .046; MSD p-tau217: AUROC, 0.81 vs 0.70; P = .04). MSD p-tau181 and p-tau217 and Simoa p-tau181, but not p-tau231, were associated with greater white matter hyperintensity volume and lower white matter microstructural integrity.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this largely presymptomatic population, these results suggest subtle differences across plasma p-tau species and platforms for the prediction of amyloid and tau PET and magnetic resonance imaging measures of cerebrovascular and Alzheimer-related pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314178PMC
September 2021

Phonological Errors in Posterior Cortical Atrophy.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2021 16;50(2):195-203. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is an atypical variant of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that presents with visuospatial/perceptual deficits. PCA is characterized by atrophy in posterior brain regions, which overlaps with atrophy occurring in logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), another atypical AD variant characterized by language difficulties, including phonological errors. Language abnormalities have been observed in PCA, although the prevalence of phonological errors is unknown. We aimed to compare the frequency and severity of phonological errors in PCA and lvPPA and determine the neuroanatomical correlates of phonological errors and language abnormalities in PCA.

Methods: The presence and number of phonological errors were recorded during the Boston Naming Test and Western Aphasia Battery repetition subtest in 27 PCA patients and 27 age- and disease duration-matched lvPPA patients. Number of phonological errors and scores from language tests were correlated with regional gray matter volumes using Spearman correlations.

Results: Phonological errors were evident in 55% of PCA patients and 70% of lvPPA patients, with lvPPA having higher average number of errors. Phonological errors in PCA correlated with decreased left inferior parietal and lateral temporal volume. Naming and fluency were also associated with decreased left lateral temporal lobe volume.

Conclusions: Phonological errors are common in PCA, although they are not as prevalent or severe as in lvPPA, and they are related to involvement of left temporoparietal cortex. This highlights the broad spectrum of clinical symptoms associated with AD and overlap between PCA and lvPPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8376759PMC
July 2021

Pattern and degree of individual brain atrophy predicts dementia onset in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 5;13(1):e12197. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

The Florey Institute University of Melbourne Parkville Victoria Australia.

Introduction: Asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (DIAD-MC) are ideal candidates for preventative treatment trials aimed at delaying or preventing dementia onset. Brain atrophy is an early feature of DIAD-MC and could help predict risk for dementia during trial enrollment.

Methods: We created a dementia risk score by entering standardized gray-matter volumes from 231 DIAD-MC into a logistic regression to classify participants with and without dementia. The score's predictive utility was assessed using Cox models and receiver operating curves on a separate group of 65 DIAD-MC followed longitudinally.

Results: Our risk score separated asymptomatic versus demented DIAD-MC with 96.4% (standard error = 0.02) and predicted conversion to dementia at next visit (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.15, 1.49]) and within 2 years (area under the curve = 90.3%, 95% CI [82.3%-98.2%]) and improved prediction beyond established methods based on familial age of onset.

Discussion: Individualized risk scores based on brain atrophy could be useful for establishing enrollment criteria and stratifying DIAD-MC participants for prevention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256623PMC
July 2021

FDG PET metabolic signatures distinguishing prodromal DLB and prodromal AD.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 4;31:102754. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background And Purpose: Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by hypometabolism in the parieto-occipital cortex and the cingulate island sign (CIS) on F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Whether this pattern of hypometabolism is present as early as the prodromal stage of DLB is unknown. We investigated the pattern of hypometabolism in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who progressed to probable DLB compared to MCI patients who progressed to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and clinically unimpaired (CU) controls.

Methods: Patients with MCI from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center who underwent FDG PET at baseline and progressed to either probable DLB (MCI-DLB; n = 17) or AD dementia (MCI-AD; n = 41) during follow-up, and a comparison cohort of CU controls (n = 100) were included.

Results: Patients with MCI-DLB had hypometabolism in the parieto-occipital cortex extending into temporal lobes, substantia nigra and thalamus. When compared to MCI-AD, medial temporal and posterior cingulate metabolism were preserved in patients with MCI-DLB, accompanied by greater hypometabolism in the substantia nigra in MCI-DLB compared to MCI-AD. In distinguishing MCI-DLB from MCI-AD at the maximum value of Youden's index, CIS ratio was highly specific (90%) but not sensitive (59%), but a higher medial temporal to substantia nigra ratio was both sensitive (94%) and specific (83%).

Conclusion: FDG PET is a potential biomarker for the prodromal stage of DLB. A higher medial temporal metabolism and CIS ratio, and lower substantia nigra metabolism have additive value in distinguishing prodromal DLB and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278422PMC
September 2021

Developing the ATX(N) classification for use across the Alzheimer disease continuum.

Nat Rev Neurol 2021 Sep 8;17(9):580-589. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Neurology Business Group, Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USA.

Breakthroughs in the development of highly accurate fluid and neuroimaging biomarkers have catalysed the conceptual transformation of Alzheimer disease (AD) from the traditional clinical symptom-based definition to a clinical-biological construct along a temporal continuum. The AT(N) system is a symptom-agnostic classification scheme that categorizes individuals using biomarkers that chart core AD pathophysiological features, namely the amyloid-β (Aβ) pathway (A), tau-mediated pathophysiology (T) and neurodegeneration (N). This biomarker matrix is now expanding towards an ATX(N) system, where X represents novel candidate biomarkers for additional pathophysiological mechanisms such as neuroimmune dysregulation, synaptic dysfunction and blood-brain barrier alterations. In this Perspective, we describe the conceptual framework and clinical importance of the existing AT(N) system and the evolving ATX(N) system. We provide a state-of-the-art summary of the potential contexts of use of these systems in AD clinical trials and future clinical practice. We also discuss current challenges related to the validation, standardization and qualification process and provide an outlook on the real-world application of the AT(N) system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41582-021-00520-wDOI Listing
September 2021

A trial of gantenerumab or solanezumab in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Med 2021 Jul 21;27(7):1187-1196. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease (DIAD) causes predictable biological changes decades before the onset of clinical symptoms, enabling testing of interventions in the asymptomatic and symptomatic stages to delay or slow disease progression. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-arm trial of gantenerumab or solanezumab in participants with DIAD across asymptomatic and symptomatic disease stages. Mutation carriers were assigned 3:1 to either drug or placebo and received treatment for 4-7 years. The primary outcome was a cognitive end point; secondary outcomes included clinical, cognitive, imaging and fluid biomarker measures. Fifty-two participants carrying a mutation were assigned to receive gantenerumab, 52 solanezumab and 40 placebo. Both drugs engaged their Aβ targets but neither demonstrated a beneficial effect on cognitive measures compared to controls. The solanezumab-treated group showed a greater cognitive decline on some measures and did not show benefits on downstream biomarkers. Gantenerumab significantly reduced amyloid plaques, cerebrospinal fluid total tau, and phospho-tau181 and attenuated increases of neurofilament light chain. Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities edema was observed in 19.2% (3 out of 11 were mildly symptomatic) of the gantenerumab group, 2.5% of the placebo group and 0% of the solanezumab group. Gantenerumab and solanezumab did not slow cognitive decline in symptomatic DIAD. The asymptomatic groups showed no cognitive decline; symptomatic participants had declined before reaching the target doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01369-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Diffusion models reveal white matter microstructural changes with ageing, pathology and cognition.

Brain Commun 2021 19;3(2):fcab106. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

White matter microstructure undergoes progressive changes during the lifespan, but the neurobiological underpinnings related to ageing and disease remains unclear. We used an advanced diffusion MRI, Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging, to investigate the microstructural alterations due to demographics, common age-related pathological processes (amyloid, tau and white matter hyperintensities) and cognition. We also compared Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging findings to the older Diffusion Tensor Imaging model-based findings. Three hundred and twenty-eight participants (264 cognitively unimpaired, 57 mild cognitive impairment and 7 dementia with a mean age of 68.3 ± 13.1 years) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging with multi-shell diffusion imaging, fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI as well as amyloid and tau PET scans were included in this study. White matter tract level diffusion measures were calculated from Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed with diffusion measures as the outcome and age, sex, education/occupation, white matter hyperintensities, amyloid and tau as predictors. Analyses were also performed with each diffusion MRI measure as a predictor of cognitive outcomes. Age and white matter hyperintensities were the strongest predictors of all white matter diffusion measures with low associations with amyloid and tau. However, neurite density decrease from Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging was observed with amyloidosis specifically in the temporal lobes. White matter integrity (mean diffusivity and free water) in the corpus callosum showed the greatest associations with cognitive measures. All diffusion measures provided information about white matter ageing and white matter changes due to age-related pathological processes and were associated with cognition. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are two different diffusion models that provide distinct information about variation in white matter microstructural integrity. Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging provides additional information about synaptic density, organization and free water content which may aid in providing mechanistic insights into disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202149PMC
May 2021

Cerebrovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and clinical phenotype in dementia with Lewy bodies.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 09 14;105:252-261. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

We investigated whether cerebrovascular disease contributes to neurodegeneration and clinical phenotype in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Regional cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes were estimated from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 165 DLB patients. Cortical and subcortical infarcts were recorded and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were assessed. Subcortical only infarcts were more frequent (13.3%) than cortical only infarcts (3.1%) or both subcortical and cortical infarcts (2.4%). Infarcts, irrespective of type, were associated with WMHs. A higher WMH volume was associated with thinner orbitofrontal, retrosplenial, and posterior cingulate cortices, smaller thalamus and pallidum, and larger caudate volume. A higher WMH volume was associated with the presence of visual hallucinations and lower global cognitive performance, and tended to be associated with the absence of probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Presence of infarcts was associated with the absence of parkinsonism. We conclude that cerebrovascular disease is associated with gray matter neurodegeneration in patients with probable DLB, which may have implications for the multifactorial treatment of probable DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.04.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8338792PMC
September 2021

Selecting software pipelines for change in flortaucipir SUVR: Balancing repeatability and group separation.

Neuroimage 2021 09 9;238:118259. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, 200 First Street SW, Rochester 55905, MN, USA.

Since tau PET tracers were introduced, investigators have quantified them using a wide variety of automated methods. As longitudinal cohort studies acquire second and third time points of serial within-person tau PET data, determining the best pipeline to measure change has become crucial. We compared a total of 415 different quantification methods (each a combination of multiple options) according to their effects on a) differences in annual SUVR change between clinical groups, and b) longitudinal measurement repeatability as measured by the error term from a linear mixed-effects model. Our comparisons used MRI and Flortaucipir scans of 97 Mayo Clinic study participants who clinically either: a) were cognitively unimpaired, or b) had cognitive impairments that were consistent with Alzheimer's disease pathology. Tested methods included cross-sectional and longitudinal variants of two overarching pipelines (FreeSurfer 6.0, and an in-house pipeline based on SPM12), three choices of target region (entorhinal, inferior temporal, and a temporal lobe meta-ROI), five types of partial volume correction (PVC) (none, two-compartment, three-compartment, geometric transfer matrix (GTM), and a tau-specific GTM variant), seven choices of reference region (cerebellar crus, cerebellar gray matter, whole cerebellum, pons, supratentorial white matter, eroded supratentorial WM, and a composite of eroded supratentorial WM, pons, and whole cerebellum), two choices of region masking (GM or GM and WM), and two choices of statistic (voxel-wise mean vs. median). Our strongest findings were: 1) larger temporal-lobe target regions greatly outperformed entorhinal cortex (median sample size estimates based on a hypothetical clinical trial were 520-526 vs. 1740); 2) longitudinal processing pipelines outperformed cross-sectional pipelines (median sample size estimates were 483 vs. 572); and 3) reference regions including supratentorial WM outperformed traditional cerebellar and pontine options (median sample size estimates were 370 vs. 559). Altogether, our results favored longitudinally SUVR methods and a temporal-lobe meta-ROI that includes adjacent (juxtacortical) WM, a composite reference region (eroded supratentorial WM + pons + whole cerebellum), 2-class voxel-based PVC, and median statistics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407434PMC
September 2021

Dementia with Lewy bodies: association of Alzheimer pathology with functional connectivity networks.

Brain 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is neuropathologically defined by the presence of α-synuclein aggregates, but many DLB cases show concurrent Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in the form of β-amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles. The first objective of this study was to investigate the effect of AD co-pathology on functional network changes within the default mode network (DMN) in DLB. Secondly, we studied how the distribution of tau pathology measured with PET relates to functional connectivity in DLB. Twenty-seven DLB, 26 AD, and 99 cognitively unimpaired (CU) participants (balanced on age and sex to the DLB group) underwent tau-PET with AV-1451 (flortaucipir), β-amyloid-PET with Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB), and resting state (rs)-fMRI scans. The rs-fMRI data were used to assess functional connectivity within the posterior DMN. This was then correlated with overall cortical flortaucipir-PET and PiB-PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr). The strength of inter-regional functional connectivity was assessed using the Schaefer atlas. Tau-PET covariance was measured as the correlation in flortaucipir SUVr between any two regions across participants. The association between region-to-region functional connectivity and tau-PET covariance was assessed using linear regression. Additionally, we identified the region with highest and the region with lowest tau SUVrs (tau hot- and coldspot) and tested whether tau SUVr in all other brain regions was associated with the strength of functional connectivity to these tau hot- and coldspots. A reduction in posterior DMN connectivity correlated with overall higher cortical tau- (r=-0.39, p = 0.04) and amyloid-PET uptake (r=-0.41, p = 0.03) in the DLB group, i.e. DLB patients with more concurrent AD pathology showed a more severe loss of DMN connectivity. Higher functional connectivity between regions was associated with higher tau covariance in CU, AD, and DLB. Furthermore, higher functional connectivity of a target region to the tau hotspot (i.e. inferior/medial temporal cortex) was related to higher flortaucipir SUVRs in the target region whereas higher functional connectivity to the tau coldspot (i.e. sensory-motor cortex) was related to lower flortaucipir SUVr in the target region. Our findings suggest that a higher burden of AD co-pathology in DLB patients is associated with more AD-like changes in functional connectivity. Furthermore, we found an association between the brain's functional network architecture and the distribution of tau pathology which has recently been described in AD. We show that this relationship also exists in DLB patients, indicating that similar mechanisms of connectivity-dependent occurrence of tau pathology might be at work in both diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab218DOI Listing
June 2021

A molecular pathology, neurobiology, biochemical, genetic and neuroimaging study of progressive apraxia of speech.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3452. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative syndrome affecting spoken communication. Molecular pathology, biochemistry, genetics, and longitudinal imaging were investigated in 32 autopsy-confirmed patients with progressive apraxia of speech who were followed over 10 years. Corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy (4R-tauopathies) were the most common underlying pathologies. Perceptually distinct speech characteristics, combined with age-at-onset, predicted specific 4R-tauopathy; phonetic subtype and younger age predicted corticobasal degeneration, and prosodic subtype and older age predicted progressive supranuclear palsy. Phonetic and prosodic subtypes showed differing relationships within the cortico-striato-pallido-nigro-luysial network. Biochemical analysis revealed no distinct differences in aggregated 4R-tau while tau H1 haplotype frequency (69%) was lower compared to 1000+ autopsy-confirmed 4R-tauopathies. Corticobasal degeneration patients had faster rates of decline, greater cortical degeneration, and shorter illness duration than progressive supranuclear palsy. These findings help define the pathobiology of progressive apraxia of speech and may have consequences for development of 4R-tau targeting treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23687-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187627PMC
June 2021

Clinical, Imaging, and Pathologic Characteristics of Patients With Right vs Left Hemisphere-Predominant Logopenic Progressive Aphasia.

Neurology 2021 08 4;97(5):e523-e534. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

From the Departments of Neurology (M.B., J.R.D., J.G.-R., K.A.J.), Psychiatry and Psychology (M.M.M.), Radiology (N.T.T.P., M.L.S., C.R.J., V.J.L., J.L.W.), Health Science Research (P.R.M.), and Information Technology (M.L.S.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and Departments of Neurology (N.E.-T.) and Neuroscience (N.E.-T., D.W.D.), Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Objective: To assess and compare demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and pathologic characteristics of a cohort of patients with right hemisphere-predominant vs left hemisphere-predominant logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA).

Methods: This is a case-control study of patients with LPA who were prospectively followed at Mayo Clinic and underwent [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scan. Patients were classified as rLPA if right temporal lobe metabolism was ≥1 SD lower than left temporal lobe metabolism. Patients with rLPA were frequency-matched 3:1 to typical left-predominant LPA based on degree of asymmetry and severity of temporal lobe metabolism. Patients were compared on clinical, imaging (MRI, FDG-PET, β-amyloid, and tau-PET), and pathologic characteristics.

Results: Of 103 prospectively recruited patients with LPA, 8 (4 female) were classified as rLPA (7.8%); all patients with rLPA were right-handed. Patients with rLPA had milder aphasia based on the Western Aphasia Battery-Aphasia Quotient ( = 0.04) and less frequent phonologic errors ( = 0.015). Patients with rLPA had shorter survival compared to typical LPA: hazard ratio 4.0 (1.2-12.9), = 0.02. There were no other differences in demographics, handedness, genetics, or neurologic or neuropsychological tests. Compared to the 24 frequency-matched patients with typical LPA, patients with rLPA showed greater frontotemporal hypometabolism of the nondominant hemisphere on FDG-PET and less atrophy in amygdala and hippocampus of the dominant hemisphere. Autopsy evaluation revealed a similar distribution of pathologic findings in both groups, with Alzheimer disease pathologic changes being the most frequent pathology.

Conclusions: rLPA is associated with less severe aphasia but has shorter survival from reported symptom onset than typical LPA, possibly related to greater involvement of the nondominant hemisphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356378PMC
August 2021

MRI quantitative susceptibility mapping of the substantia nigra as an early biomarker for Lewy body disease.

J Neuroimaging 2021 09 25;31(5):1020-1027. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background And Purpose: Neurodegeneration of the substantia nigra in Lewy body disease is associated with iron deposition, which increases the magnetic susceptibility of the substantia nigra on MRI. Our objective was to measure iron deposition in the substantia nigra in patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies (pDLB) and patients who are at risk for pDLB by quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).

Methods: Participants included pDLB (n = 36), mild cognitive impairment with at least one core feature of DLB (MCI-LB; n = 15), idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD; n = 11), and an age-and gender-matched clinically unimpaired control group (n = 102). QSM was derived from multi-echo 3D gradient recalled echo MRI at 3T, and groups were compared on mean susceptibility values of the substantia nigra and its relation to parkinsonism severity.

Results: Patients with pDLB had higher susceptibility in the substantia nigra compared to controls (p< 0.001) and MCI-LB (p = 0.043). The susceptibility of substantia nigra showed an increasing trend from controls to iRBD and MCI-LB, and to pDLB (p< 0.001). Parkinsonism severity was not associated with the mean susceptibility in the substantia nigra in the patient groups.

Conclusions: Our data suggested that QSM is sensitive to the increased magnetic susceptibility due to higher iron content in the substantia nigra in pDLB. The trend of increasing susceptibility from controls to iRBD and MCI-LB, and to pDLB suggests that iron deposition in the substantia nigra starts to increase as early as the prodromal stage in DLB and continues to increase as the disease progresses, independent of parkinsonism severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440493PMC
September 2021

P-tau/Aβ42 and Aβ42/40 ratios in CSF are equally predictive of amyloid PET status.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 18;13(1):e12190. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology Mayo Clinic Rochester Minnesota USA.

Introduction: Measurement of amyloid beta (Aβ40 and Aβ42) and tau (phosphorylated tau [p-tau] and total tau [t-tau]) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be utilized to differentiate clinical and preclinical Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) from other neurodegenerative processes.

Methods: CSF biomarkers were measured in 150 participants from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging and the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. P-tau/Aβ42 (Roche Elecsys, Fujirebio LUMIPULSE) and Aβ42/40 (Fujirebio LUMIPULSE) ratios were compared to one another and to amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) classification.

Results: Strong correlation was observed between LUMIPULSE p-tau/Aβ42 and Aβ42/40, as well as Elecsys and LUMIPULSE p-tau/Aβ42 and Aβ42/40 (Spearman's ρ = -0.827, -0.858, and 0.960, respectively). Concordance between LUMIPULSE p-tau/Aβ42 and Aβ42/40 was 96% and between Elecsys p-tau/Aβ42 and both LUMIPULSE ratios was 97%. All ratios had > 94% overall, positive, and negative percent agreement with amyloid PET classification.

Discussion: These data suggest that p-tau/Aβ42 and Aβ42/40 ratios provide similar clinical information in the assessment of amyloid pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129859PMC
May 2021
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