Publications by authors named "Clara Aarts"

14 Publications

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Strategy for nursing research in Sweden.

Authors:
Clara Aarts

Invest Educ Enferm 2017 Jan;35(1):5-7

Uppsala University, Sweden,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17533/udea.iee.v35n1a01DOI Listing
January 2017

Is pregnancy planning associated with background characteristics and pregnancy-planning behavior?

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2016 Feb 8;95(2):182-9. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Introduction: Prevalence of planned pregnancies varies between countries but is often measured in a dichotomous manner. The aim of this study was to investigate to what level pregnant women had planned their pregnancies and whether pregnancy planning was associated with background characteristics and pregnancy-planning behavior.

Material And Methods: A cross-sectional study that utilized the baseline measurements from the Swedish Pregnancy Planning study. Pregnant women (n = 3390) recruited at antenatal clinics answered a questionnaire. Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression, Kruskal-Wallis H and chi-squared tests.

Results: Three of four pregnancies were very or fairly planned and 12% fairly or very unplanned. Of women with very unplanned pregnancies, 32% had considered an induced abortion. Women with planned pregnancies were more likely to have a higher level of education, higher household income, to be currently working (≥50%) and to have longer relationships than women with unplanned pregnancies. The level of pregnancy planning was associated with planning behavior, such as information-seeking and intake of folic acid, but without a reduction in alcohol consumption. One-third of all women took folic acid 1 month prior to conception, 17% used tobacco daily and 11% used alcohol weekly 3 months before conception.

Conclusions: A majority rated their pregnancy as very or fairly planned, with socio-economic factors as explanatory variables. The level of pregnancy planning should be queried routinely to enable individualized counseling, especially for women with unplanned pregnancies. Preconception recommendations need to be established and communicated to the public to increase health promoting planning behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.12816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4737297PMC
February 2016

Association between parental depressive symptoms and impaired bonding with the infant.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2016 Feb 10;19(1):87-94. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Impaired bonding with the infant is associated with maternal postpartum depression but has not been investigated extensively in fathers. The primary study aim was to evaluate associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and impaired bonding with their infant. A secondary aim was to determine the associations between parents' marital problems and impaired bonding with the infant. The study is part of a population-based cohort project (UPPSAT) in Uppsala, Sweden. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at 6 months postpartum were completed by 727 couples. The prevalence of impaired bonding was highest among couples in which both spouses had depressive symptoms. Impaired bonding was associated with higher EPDS scores in both mothers and fathers, as well as with experiencing a deteriorated marital relationship. The association between maternal and paternal impaired bonding and the mothers' and fathers' EPDS scores remained significant even after adjustment for relevant confounding factors. Depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum are associated with impaired bonding with the infant at 6 months postpartum for both mothers and fathers. It is critical to screen for and prevent depressive symptoms in both parents during early parenthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-015-0522-3DOI Listing
February 2016

Principles of Lifeworld Led Public Health Practice in the UK and Sweden: Reducing Health Inequalities.

Nurs Res Pract 2015 6;2015:124591. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Uppsala University, 751 05 Uppsala, Sweden.

The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of the lifeworld perspective in reducing inequalities in health and we explain how the public health practitioner can use this perspective to address public health issues with individuals and groups. We offer ideas for public health actions that are based on and deal with the lifeworld context of individual people or families. Each of the dimensions of the lifeworld temporality, spatiality, intersubjectivity, embodiment and mood are outlined and their significance explained in relation to health inequalities. Suggestions for action to reduce health inequalities are made and overall principles of lifeworld led public health practice are proposed by way of conclusion. The principles comprise understanding the community members' lifeworld view, understanding their view of their potential, offering resources and facilitating empowerment, and sharing lifeworld case studies and lobbying to influence local and national policy in relation to both the individual and communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/124591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4302377PMC
February 2015

Depressive symptoms postpartum among parents are associated with marital separation: a Swedish cohort study.

Scand J Public Health 2014 Nov 22;42(7):660-8. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Departments of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Aims: To study whether there is an association between dyadic consensus, depressive symptoms, and parental stress during early parenthood and marital separation 6-8 years after childbirth, among couples in Sweden.

Methods: At baseline, 393 couples were included. The couples answered three questionnaires, including: Dyadic consensus at 1 week post-partum, depressive symptoms at 3 months post-partum and parental stress at 18 months post-partum. The parents' addresses were followed up after 6-8 years, to study the marital separation rate.

Results: We found, 6-8 years after childbirth, that 20% of study couples were separated. Separation was associated with less dyadic consensus (mothers p < 0.001; fathers p < 0.001), depressive symptoms (mothers p = 0.022; fathers p = 0.041) and parental stress (mothers p = 0.002; fathers p = 0.040). The hazard ratio (HR) for marital separation was related to dyadic consensus for fathers (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.28-0.92), depressive symptoms for mothers (HR 1.69; 95% CI 1.01-2.84) and fathers (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.12-3.28), and the mother's parental stress (HR 2.16; 95% CI 1.14-4.07).

Conclusions: Understanding how dyadic consensus, depressive symptoms and parental stress are associated with marital separation is important for health professionals it could be useful in developing interventions to provide parents with adequate support during pregnancy and early parenthood this knowledge is also important for the public parents should get support in pregnancy and while bringing up children, which may help prevent marital separation and optimize conditions for the children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1403494814542262DOI Listing
November 2014

Association between mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, sense of coherence and perception of their child's temperament in early parenthood in Sweden.

Scand J Public Health 2013 May 24;41(3):233-9. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Centre for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Västmanland County Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.

Aims: To examine whether there was any association between mothers' and fathers' post-partum depressive symptoms and sense of coherence and perception of their child's temperament. The hypotheses were that parents with depressive symptoms: 1) have more often a poor sense of coherence, and 2) perceive their child's temperament to be more difficult than parents without depressive symptoms.

Methods: A total of 401 Swedish-speaking couples, who were the parents of children born through the years 2004-2006 in the northern part of the county of Västmanland, Sweden, were invited to participate in the study. The parents answered 3 questionnaires including: at inclusion of the study: demographic data (n = 393 couples); at 3 months: the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Sense of Coherence Scale (n = 308 couples); and at 18 months: the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (n = 272 couples).

Results: Depressive symptoms measured at 3 months, were reported by 17.7% of mothers and 8.7% of fathers, and correlated significantly between mothers and fathers within couples (rho = 0.165, p = 0.003). Mothers and fathers with depressive symptoms had a poorer sense of coherence (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and perceived their child's temperament as more difficult than mothers and fathers without depressive symptoms at 3 (p = 0.028, p < 0.001) and 18 months (p = 0.145, p = 0.012 respectively).

Conclusions: Early parenthood has been studied thoroughly in mothers, but few studies have included fathers. Identifying problems in early parenthood could help predict later problems exhibited by the preschool child, which might be prevented by supportive programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1403494812472006DOI Listing
May 2013

A European union and Canadian review of public health nursing preparation and practice.

Public Health Nurs 2013 Jan 5;30(1):58-69. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Public Health Lead for Research, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset, BH13LG, UK.

Objective: This study explores the preparation and role of the public health nurse (PHN) across European Union (EU) countries (Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) and Canadian provinces (Alberta, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island).

Methods: A literature review including relevant peer reviewed articles from 2000 on, in conjunction, with critical debate was undertaken. The results were considered in relation to the three essential areas of PHN practice, outlined in the World Health Organization (Moving on from Munich: A reference guide to the implementation of the declaration on nurses and midwives: A force for health, 2001b) recommendations, family oriented care, public health action, and policy making.

Results: The major challenge the review revealed across a variety of international education and practice environments was the lack of consistent preparation for and engagement with leadership and policy making in practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1446.2012.01048.xDOI Listing
January 2013

Being a close relative of a patient with a left ventricular assist device.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2013 Feb 11;12(1):64-8. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Every year in Sweden, between five and ten patients receive a mechanical heart pump due to grave heart failure. One such pump is the left ventricle assist device (LVAD). At home they need much support from their family.

Aim: To investigate the close relatives' experience of their role in relation to patients with an LVAD.

Methods: An exploratory study using unstructured interviews with six close relatives of patients with an LVAD. The interviews consisted of one open question: 'What is it like to be the close relative of a patient with an LVAD?' The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis.

Results: The time before LVAD surgery was described as a time of emotional ups and downs, and compared to 'being on an emotional rollercoaster ride'. The nearest relatives were in shock, felt anxiety and uncertainty, and wished to be near the patient. The time after surgery was described as a period in which they had to 'cope with the new situation.' During this period, the staff was experienced as a resource and the relatives described feelings of gratitude, willpower, and acceptance. The stay at home with a person with an LVAD was described as a 'new orientation phase' with limited freedom and the need for respite care. The interviewees expressed the need for support, especially once the patient was at home.

Conclusion: It is important to also offer long-term professional support to the nearest relatives of patients with an LVAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1474515111432996DOI Listing
February 2013

Pregnancy planning in Sweden--a pilot study among 270 women attending antenatal clinics.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2011 Apr 3;90(4):408-12. Epub 2011 Feb 3.

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objective: Health status and lifestyle before and at the time of conception could affect the health of both mother and child, but there is a lack of knowledge about the degree to which pregnancies are planned. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether and how women plan their pregnancies.

Material And Methods: The main outcome measures were use of timetables, ovulation tests and lifestyle changes. Women (n= 322) visiting four antenatal clinics were asked to fill out a questionnaire (participation rate = 83.9%, n= 270).

Results: Three of four pregnancies (n= 202) were very or rather well planned, whereas 4.4% (n= 12) were totally unplanned. During the planning period, 37.1% (n= 100) made up a timetable for getting pregnant, 23% (n= 62) used ovulation tests, 20.7% (n= 56) took folic acid and 10.4% (n= 28) changed alcohol consumption.

Conclusion: Although a majority of these women had planned pregnancies, only one in five had taken folic acid during the planning period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0412.2010.01055.xDOI Listing
April 2011

Student experiences with an international public health exchange project.

Nurse Educ 2009 Mar-Apr;34(2):69-74

School of Nursing, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

With growing interconnectivity of healthcare systems worldwide and increased immigration, inappropriate cultural and role assumptions are often seen when cultures clash within a country or when there is practice across country boundaries in times of disaster and during international travel. To increase students' multicultural awareness and work experiences abroad, the authors describe a 7-school, 5-country international student exchange project. The authors also share the students' evaluations of their experiences as they are challenged to erase boundaries and embrace nursing across countries. Participating faculty describe the process, challenges, and keys to success found in creating and living this international project. Students involved in the exchange process evaluate the learning opportunities and challenges and the joy of coming together as newfound colleagues and friends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0b013e3181990ed4DOI Listing
June 2010

First-time parents' experiences of home-based postnatal care in Sweden.

Ups J Med Sci 2010 May;115(2):131-7

Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health, University Hospital, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Aim: To gain a deeper understanding of first-time parents' experiences of early discharge from hospital after delivery and home-based postnatal care.

Material And Methods: The study was comprised of focus group interviews, interviews with couples and with fathers. Twenty-one parents participated.

Inclusion Criteria: healthy women who have given birth to their first child after a normal pregnancy and delivery, the women's partners, healthy and full term babies, Swedish-speaking, discharge from the delivery ward within 24 hours, resident in the Uppsala community, the parents cohabited at the time of the delivery. The material was analysed by qualitative content analysis.

Results: Three themes emerged: The family's strategy, which describes the family's expectations of postnatal care and their experiences of the real situation. Some are flexible concerning going home early, and others have decided in advance. Self-reliance and strength, which explores the parents' feelings of security and uncertainty, freedom and independence, and shared responsibility. Breast-feeding is described as the 'main thing', an interactive learning process. Professional support in the home summarizes the parents' experience of the midwife's support at home. While conflicting feelings may be revealed during the first days, the midwife confirms their new roles as parents. The midwife is seen as a support and adviser to the parents.

Conclusion: This study shows that parents welcome home-based postnatal care with professional support from midwives. We conclude that this care suits healthy families. We think it will be more important in the future to discriminate between healthy families and those in need of hospital care, than to focus on the moment when they leave the hospital, early or late.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03009730903431809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2853791PMC
May 2010

Enhancing cultural competence: trans-atlantic experiences of European and Canadian nursing students.

Int J Nurs Pract 2009 Dec;15(6):502-9

Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Unit of Health Care, PL 1028, 70111 Kuopio, Finland.

This paper describes the enhancement of cultural competence through trans-Atlantic rural community experiences of European and Canadian nursing students using critical incident technique (CIT) as the students' reflective writing method. The data generated from 48 students' recordings about 134 critical incidents over a 2-year project were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Five main learning categories were identified as: cross-cultural ethical issues; cultural and social differences; health-care inequalities; population health concerns; and personal and professional awareness. Four emergent cultural perspectives for the health sector that became apparent from the reflections were: health promotion realm; sensitivity to social and cultural aspects of people's lives; channels between the health sector and society; cultural language and stories of local people. CIT was successfully used to foster European and Canadian undergraduate students' cultural reflections resulting in considerations and suggestions for future endeavours to enhance cultural competence in nursing education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01776.xDOI Listing
December 2009

Professional role and identity in a changing society: three paradoxes in Swedish midwives' experiences.

Midwifery 2009 Aug 7;25(4):373-81. Epub 2007 Nov 7.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Sweden.

Objectives: to explore how experienced midwives understand and experience their professional role and identity after the continuing changes that have taken place within their working domain over the last 20-25 years.

Design: four focus group interviews with 20 a total of participants in total were conducted and analysed by thematic content analysis.

Setting: one university hospital in mid-Sweden.

Findings: two main themes were conceptualised: (1) organisation of and situation at the workplace; and (2) the societal context. Three paradoxes became apparent. The midwives felt that their professional role in childbirth care had decreased in favour of other professionals, but they had a better dialogue with physicians and auxiliary nurses, which led to better teamwork and joint decisions. Secondly, the midwives expressed a strong professional identity on the basis of self-confidence and long experience, but their handcraft skills and clinical experience have become less valued due to increased medical technology and organisational changes that contributed to loss of locus of control. Finally, the midwives described a more humanised childbirth care and better collaboration with women/couples over the last decades. The couples are, however, more knowledgeable and enquiring, and the midwives expressed a fear that professional competency could be set aside. Furthermore, lack of trust in the normal birth process among women also affects midwives and the risk of litigation influences practice.

Key Conclusions And Implications For Practice: the midwives had experienced both positive and negative changes, but generally felt that their role had become more limited and their professional identity challenged by technology, other professionals and contemporary parents. A loss of locus of control may increase the risk of illness and burn-out symptoms, and must be considered by supervisors and managers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2007.07.009DOI Listing
August 2009
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