Publications by authors named "Claire M Tully"

4 Publications

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Novel Bivalent Viral-Vectored Vaccines Induce Potent Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Conferring Protection against Stringent Influenza A Virus Challenge.

J Immunol 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, United Kingdom;

Seasonal influenza viruses are a common cause of acute respiratory illness worldwide and generate a significant socioeconomic burden. Influenza viruses mutate rapidly, necessitating annual vaccine reformulation because traditional vaccines do not typically induce broad-spectrum immunity. In addition to seasonal infections, emerging pandemic influenza viruses present a continued threat to global public health. Pandemic influenza viruses have consistently higher attack rates and are typically associated with greater mortality compared with seasonal strains. Ongoing strategies to improve vaccine efficacy typically focus on providing broad-spectrum immunity; although B and T cells can mediate heterosubtypic responses, typical vaccine development will augment either humoral or cellular immunity. However, multipronged approaches that target several Ags may limit the generation of viral escape mutants. There are few vaccine platforms that can deliver multiple Ags and generate robust cellular and humoral immunity. In this article, we describe a novel vaccination strategy, tested preclinically in mice, for the delivery of novel bivalent viral-vectored vaccines. We show this strategy elicits potent T cell responses toward highly conserved internal Ags while simultaneously inducing high levels of Abs toward hemagglutinin. Importantly, these humoral responses generate long-lived plasma cells and generate Abs capable of neutralizing variant hemagglutinin-expressing pseudotyped lentiviruses. Significantly, these novel viral-vectored vaccines induce strong immune responses capable of conferring protection in a stringent influenza A virus challenge. Thus, this vaccination regimen induces lasting efficacy toward influenza. Importantly, the simultaneous delivery of dual Ags may alleviate the selective pressure that is thought to potentiate antigenic diversity in avian influenza viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1600939DOI Listing
July 2017

Enhancing cellular immunogenicity of MVA-vectored vaccines by utilizing the F11L endogenous promoter.

Vaccine 2016 Jan 24;34(1):49-55. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored vaccines against malaria, influenza, tuberculosis and recently Ebola virus are in clinical development. Although this vector is safe and immunogenic in humans, efforts remain on-going to enhance immunogenicity through various approaches such as using stronger promoters to boost transgene expression. We previously reported that endogenous MVA promoters such as pB8 and pF11 increased transgene expression and immunogenicity, as compared to the conventional p7.5 promoter. Here, we show that both promoters also rivalled the mH5 promoter in enhancing MVA immunogenicity. We investigated the mechanisms behind this improved immunogenicity and show that it was a result of strong early transgene expression in vivo, rather than in vitro as would normally be assessed. Moreover, keeping the TK gene intact resulted in a modest improvement in immunogenicity. Utilizing pB8 or pF11 as ectopic promoters at the TK locus instead of their natural loci also increased transgene expression and immunogenicity. In addition to a reporter antigen, the pF11 promoter was tested with the expression of two vaccine antigens for which cellular immunogenicity was significantly increased as compared to the p7.5 promoter. Our data support the use of the pF11 and pB8 promoters for improved immunogenicity in future MVA-vectored candidate vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.11.028DOI Listing
January 2016

A Monovalent Chimpanzee Adenovirus Ebola Vaccine Boosted with MVA.

N Engl J Med 2016 Apr 28;374(17):1635-46. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).

Background: The West African outbreak of Ebola virus disease that peaked in 2014 has caused more than 11,000 deaths. The development of an effective Ebola vaccine is a priority for control of a future outbreak.

Methods: In this phase 1 study, we administered a single dose of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 (ChAd3) vaccine encoding the surface glycoprotein of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) to 60 healthy adult volunteers in Oxford, United Kingdom. The vaccine was administered in three dose levels--1×10(10) viral particles, 2.5×10(10) viral particles, and 5×10(10) viral particles--with 20 participants in each group. We then assessed the effect of adding a booster dose of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strain, encoding the same Ebola virus glycoprotein, in 30 of the 60 participants and evaluated a reduced prime-boost interval in another 16 participants. We also compared antibody responses to inactivated whole Ebola virus virions and neutralizing antibody activity with those observed in phase 1 studies of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing a ZEBOV glycoprotein (rVSV-ZEBOV) to determine relative potency and assess durability.

Results: No safety concerns were identified at any of the dose levels studied. Four weeks after immunization with the ChAd3 vaccine, ZEBOV-specific antibody responses were similar to those induced by rVSV-ZEBOV vaccination, with a geometric mean titer of 752 and 921, respectively. ZEBOV neutralization activity was also similar with the two vaccines (geometric mean titer, 14.9 and 22.2, respectively). Boosting with the MVA vector increased virus-specific antibodies by a factor of 12 (geometric mean titer, 9007) and increased glycoprotein-specific CD8+ T cells by a factor of 5. Significant increases in neutralizing antibodies were seen after boosting in all 30 participants (geometric mean titer, 139; P<0.001). Virus-specific antibody responses in participants primed with ChAd3 remained positive 6 months after vaccination (geometric mean titer, 758) but were significantly higher in those who had received the MVA booster (geometric mean titer, 1750; P<0.001).

Conclusions: The ChAd3 vaccine boosted with MVA elicited B-cell and T-cell immune responses to ZEBOV that were superior to those induced by the ChAd3 vaccine alone. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240875.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1411627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5798586PMC
April 2016

Emergency Ebola response: a new approach to the rapid design and development of vaccines against emerging diseases.

Lancet Infect Dis 2015 Mar 14;15(3):356-9. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The epidemic of Ebola virus disease has spread at an alarming rate despite containment efforts. As a result, unprecedented large-scale international response efforts have been made in an attempt to gain control of the outbreak and reduce transmission. Several international consortia have been formed in a remarkable worldwide collaborative effort to expedite trials of two candidate Ebola virus vaccines: cAd3-EBOZ and rVSV-EBOV. In parallel, both vaccines are being manufactured in large amounts to enable future rapid deployment for management of the crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(14)71071-0DOI Listing
March 2015