Publications by authors named "Christine Aanyu"

6 Publications

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Designing for Scale and taking scale to account: lessons from a community score card project in Uganda.

Int J Equity Health 2021 01 11;20(1):31. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, 21205, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background: Planning for the implementation of community scorecards (CSC) is an important, though seldom documented process. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH) and Future Health Systems Consortium set out to develop and test a sustainable and scalable CSC model. This paper documents the process of planning and adapting the design of the CSC, incorporating key domains of the scalable model such as embeddedness, legitimacy, feasibility and ownership, challenges encountered in this process and how they were mitigated.

Methods: The CSC intervention comprised of five rounds of scoring in five sub counties and one town council of Kibuku district. Data was drawn from ten focus group discussions, seven key informant interviews with local and sub national leaders, and one reflection meeting with the project team from MakSPH. More data was abstracted from notes of six quarterly stakeholder meetings and six quarterly project meetings. Data was analyzed using a thematic approach, drawing constructs outlined in the project's theory of change.

Results: Embeddedness, legitimacy and ownership were promoted through aligning the model with existing processes and systems as well as the meaningful and strategic involvement of stakeholders and leaders at local and sub national level. The challenges encountered included limited technical capacity of stakeholders facilitating the CSC, poor functionality of existing community engagement platforms, and difficulty in promoting community participation without financial incentives. However, these challenges were mitigated through adjustments to the intervention design based on the feedback received.

Conclusion: Governments seeking to scale up CSCs and to take scale to account should keenly adapt existing models to the local implementation context with strategic and meaningful involvement of key legitimate local and sub national leaders in decision making during the design and implementation process. However, they should watch out for elite capture and develop mitigating strategies. Social accountability practitioners should document their planning and adaptive design efforts to share good practices and lessons learned. Enhancing local capacity to implement CSCs should be ensured through use of existing local structures and provision of technical support by external or local partners familiar with the skill until the local partners are competent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01367-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802338PMC
January 2021

Influence of community scorecards on maternal and newborn health service delivery and utilization.

Int J Equity Health 2020 11 2;19(1):145. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Introduction: The community score card (CSC) is a participatory monitoring and evaluation tool that has been employed to strengthen the mutual accountability of health system and community actors. In this paper we describe the influence of the CSC on selected maternal and newborn service delivery and utilization indicators.

Methods: This was a mixed methods study that used both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. It was implemented in five sub-counties and one town council in Kibuku district in Uganda. Data was collected through 17 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions as well as CSC scoring and stakeholder meeting reports. The repeated measures ANOVA test was used to test for statistical significance. Qualitative data was analyzed manually using content analysis. The analysis about the change pathways was guided by the Wild and Harris dimensions of change framework.

Results: There was an overall improvement in the common indicators across sub-counties in the project area between the 1st and 5th round scores. Almost all the red scores had changed to green or yellow by round five except for availability of drugs and mothers attending Antenatal care (ANC) in the first trimester. There were statistically significant differences in mean scores for men escorting their wives for ante natal care (ANC) (F(4,20) = 5.45, P = 0.01), availability of midwives (F(4,16) =5.77, P < 0.01), availability of delivery beds (F(4,12) =9.00, P < 0.01) and mothers delivering from traditional birth attendants (TBAs), F(4,16) = 3.86, p = 0.02). The qualitative findings suggest that strengthening of citizens' demand, availability of resources through collaborative problem solving, increased awareness about targeted maternal health services and increased top down performance pressure contributed to positive changes as perceived by community members and their leaders.

Conclusions And Recommendations: The community score cards created opportunities for community leaders and communities to work together to identify innovative ways of dealing with the health service delivery and utilization challenges that they face. Local leaders should encourage the availability of safe spaces for dialogue between communities, health workers and leaders where performance and utilization challenges can be identified and solutions proposed and implemented jointly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01184-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604954PMC
November 2020

Maternal health challenges experienced by adolescents; could community score cards address them? A case study of Kibuku District- Uganda.

Int J Equity Health 2020 11 2;19(1):191. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.

Introduction: Approximately 34.8% of the Ugandan population is adolescents. The national teenage pregnancy rate is 25% and in Kibuku district, 17.6% of adolescents aged 12-19 years have begun child bearing. Adolescents mothers are vulnerable to many maternal health challenges including; stigma, unfriendly services and early marriages. The community score card (CSC) is a social accountability tool that can be used to point out challenges faced by the community in service delivery and utilization and ultimately address them. In this paper we aimed to document the challenges faced by adolescents during pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period and the extent to which the community score card could address these challenges.

Methods: This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews conducted in August 2018 among 15 purposively selected adolescent women who had given birth 2 years prior to the study and had attended CSC meetings. The study was conducted in six sub counties of Kibuku district where the CSC intervention was implemented. Research assistants transcribed the audio-recorded interviews verbatim, and data was analyzed manually using the framework analysis approach.

Findings: This study found five major maternal health challenges faced by adolescents during pregnancy namely; psychosocial challenges, physical abuse, denial of basic human rights, unfriendly adolescent services, lack of legal and cultural protection, and lack of birth preparedness. The CSC addressed general maternal and new born health issues of the community as a whole rather than specific adolescent health related maternal health challenges.

Conclusion: The maternal health challenges faced by adolescents in Kibuku have a cultural, legal, social and health service dimension. There is therefore need to look at a multi-faceted approach to holistically address them. CSCs that are targeted at the entire community are unlikely to address specific needs of vulnerable groups such as adolescents. To address the maternal health challenges of adolescents, there is need to have separate meetings with adolescents, targeted mobilization for adolescents to attend meetings and deliberate inclusion of their maternal health challenges into the CSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01267-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604956PMC
November 2020

Prevalence, knowledge and practices of shisha smoking among youth in Kampala City, Uganda.

Pan Afr Med J 2019 5;32:61. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Introduction: globally tobacco use kills more than seven million people annually, a figure expected to rise to 8 million deaths every year by 2030. Though perceived as safe, shisha smoking is reported to have the same or worse health effects as cigarette smoking yet, this practice has gained popularity especially among youths globally. We assessed shisha smoking and factors associated with shisha smoking to support public health interventions.

Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among 663 systematically selected youths aged between 18-30 years attending bars in two divisions of Kampala city Uganda. Data was analyzed using Stata version 12 and logistic regression model run to establish factors independently associated with shisha smoking.

Results: we found that 458 (86.4%) youths had low knowledge of the health effects of shisha and 193 (36.4%) smoked shisha. Majority of the respondents, 184 (97.4%) smoked flavoured and sweetened tobacco, 69 (36.5%) smoked on a weekly basis, 163 (86.2%) smoked in the company of friends, 162 (85.7%) shared shisha pipes. Factors associated with shisha smoking include smoking cigarettes adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.91, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.86-9.05); positive attitude (aOR: 3.89, 95% CI: 2.50-6.05); urban residence (aOR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.99-8.00) and older age [25-30 years] (aOR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.37-3.22).

Conclusion: the prevalence of shisha smoking is high with three in ten youths smoking shisha yet their knowledge about the health effects associated with shisha smoking was low. Shisha smoking ban should be implemented in all bars in Kampala as stated by the newly enacted tobacco law.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2019.32.61.15184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560999PMC
July 2019

Maternal and newborn health needs for women with walking disabilities; "the twists and turns": a case study in Kibuku District Uganda.

Int J Equity Health 2019 03 12;18(1):43. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: In Uganda 13% of persons have at least one form of disability. The United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities guarantees persons with disabilities the same level of right to access quality and affordable healthcare as persons without disability. Understanding the needs of women with walking disabilities is key in formulating flexible, acceptable and responsive health systems to their needs and hence to improve their access to care. This study therefore explores the maternal and newborn health (MNH)-related needs of women with walking disabilities in Kibuku District Uganda.

Methods: We carried out a qualitative study in September 2017 in three sub-counties of Kibuku district. Four In-depth Interviews (IDIs) among purposively selected women who had walking disabilities and who had given birth within two years from the study date were conducted. Trained research assistants used a pretested IDI guide translated into the local language to collect data. All IDIs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim before analysis. The thematic areas explored during analysis included psychosocial, mobility, health facility and personal needs of women with walking disabilities. Data was analyzed manually using framework analysis.

Results: We found that women with walking disabilities had psychosocial, mobility, special services and personal needs. Psychosocial needs included; partners', communities', families' and health workers' acceptance. Mobility needs were associated with transport unsuitability, difficulty in finding transport and high cost of transport. Health facility needs included; infrastructure, and responsive health services needs while personal MNH needs were; personal protective wear, basic needs and birth preparedness items.

Conclusions: Women with walking disabilities have needs addressable by their communities and the health system. Communities, and health workers need to be sensitized on these needs and policies to meet and implement health system-related needs of women with disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-019-0947-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416885PMC
March 2019

Ebola a reality of modern Public Health; need for Surveillance, Preparedness and Response Training for Health Workers and other multidisciplinary teams: a case for Uganda.

Pan Afr Med J 2015 23;20:404. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health sciences.

Introduction: West Africa is experiencing the largest ever reported Ebola outbreak. Over 20,000 people have been infected of which about 9000 have died. It is possible that lack of community understanding of the epidemic and lack of institutional memory and inexperienced health workers could have led to the rapid spread of the disease. In this paper, we share Uganda's experiences on how the capacity of health workers and other multidisciplinary teams can be improved in preparing and responding to Ebola outbreaks.

Methods: Makerere University School of Public Health in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET), trained health care workers and other multidisciplinary teams from six border districts of Uganda so as to increase their alertness and response capabilities towards Ebola. We used participatory training methods to impart knowledge and skills and guided participants to develop district epidemic response plans. Communities were sensitized about Ebola through mass media, IEC materials, and infection control and prevention materials were distributed in districts.

Results: We trained 210 health workers and 120 other multidisciplinary team members on Ebola surveillance, preparedness and response. Evaluation results demonstrated a gain in knowledge and skills. Communities were sensitized about Ebola and Districts received person protective equipments and items for infection prevention. Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were also developed.

Conclusion: Training of multidisciplinary teams improves the country's preparedness, alertness and response capabilities in controlling Ebola. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw lessons from the Uganda experience to contain the outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.20.404.6159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524909PMC
May 2016
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