Publications by authors named "Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue"

179 Publications

The mutational landscape of human somatic and germline cells.

Nature 2021 Sep 25;597(7876):381-386. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Cancer, Ageing and Somatic Mutation (CASM), Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.

Over the course of an individual's lifetime, normal human cells accumulate mutations. Here we compare the mutational landscape in 29 cell types from the soma and germline using multiple samples from the same individuals. Two ubiquitous mutational signatures, SBS1 and SBS5/40, accounted for the majority of acquired mutations in most cell types, but their absolute and relative contributions varied substantially. SBS18, which potentially reflects oxidative damage, and several additional signatures attributed to exogenous and endogenous exposures contributed mutations to subsets of cell types. The rate of mutation was lowest in spermatogonia, the stem cells from which sperm are generated and from which most genetic variation in the human population is thought to originate. This was due to low rates of ubiquitous mutational processes and may be partially attributable to a low rate of cell division in basal spermatogonia. These results highlight similarities and differences in the maintenance of the germline and soma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03822-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Pancreas cancer and BRCA: A critical subset of patients with improving therapeutic outcomes.

Cancer 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: Patients with germline/somatic BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations (g/sBRCA1/2) comprise a distinct biologic subgroup of pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Methods: Institutional databases were queried to identify patients who had PDAC with g/sBRCA1/2. Demographics, clinicopathologic details, genomic data (annotation sBRCA1/2 according to a precision oncology knowledge base for somatic mutations), zygosity, and outcomes were abstracted. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: In total, 136 patients with g/sBRCA1/2 were identified between January 2011 and June 2020. Germline BRCA1/2 (gBRCA1/2) mutation was identified in 116 patients (85%). Oncogenic somatic BRCA1/2 (sBRCA1/2) mutation was present in 20 patients (15%). Seventy-seven patients had biallelic BRCA1/2 mutations (83%), and 16 (17%) had heterozygous mutations. Sixty-five patients with stage IV disease received frontline platinum therapy, and 52 (80%) had a partial response. The median OS for entire cohort was 27.6 months (95% CI, 24.9-34.5 months), and the median OS for patients who had stage IV disease was 23 months (95% CI, 19-26 months). Seventy-one patients received a poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi), and 52 received PARPi monotherapy. For maintenance PARPi, 10 patients (36%) had a partial response, 12 (43%) had stable disease, and 6 (21%) had progression of disease as their best response. Six patients (21%) received maintenance PARPi for >2 years. For those with stage IV disease who received frontline platinum, the median OS was 26 months (95% CI, 20-52 months) for biallelic patients (n = 39) and 8.66 months (95% CI, 6.2 months to not reached) for heterozygous patients (n = 4). The median OS for those who received PARPi therapy was 26.5 months (95% CI, 24-53 months) for biallelic patients (n = 25) and 8.66 months (95% CI, 7.23 months to not reached) for heterozygous patients (n = 2).

Conclusions: g/sBRCA1/2 mutations did not appear to have different actionable utility. Platinum and PARPi therapies offer therapeutic benefit, and very durable outcomes are observed in a subset of patients who have g/sBRCA1/2 mutations with biallelic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33812DOI Listing
August 2021

Multi-omic analysis of lung tumors defines pathways activated in neuroendocrine transformation.

Cancer Discov 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

Lineage plasticity is implicated in treatment resistance in multiple cancers. In lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) amenable to targeted therapy, transformation to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a recognized resistance mechanism. Defining molecular mechanisms of neuroendocrine (NE) transformation in lung cancer has been limited by a paucity of pre-/post-transformation clinical samples. Detailed genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and protein characterization of combined LUAD/SCLC tumors, as well as pre-/post-transformation samples, support that NE transformation is primarily driven by transcriptional reprogramming rather than mutational events. We identify genomic contexts in which NE transformation is favored, including frequent loss of the 3p chromosome arm. We observed enhanced expression of genes involved in PRC2 complex and PI3K/AKT and NOTCH pathways. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway delayed tumor growth and NE transformation in an EGFR-mutant patient-derived xenograft model. Our findings define a novel landscape of potential drivers and therapeutic vulnerabilities of neuroendocrine transformation in lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-1863DOI Listing
June 2021

The pancreatic cancer genome revisited.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 07 4;18(7):469-481. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The David M. Rubenstein Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Pancreatic cancer is a genetic disease, and the recurrent genetic alterations characteristic of pancreatic cancer indicate the cellular processes that are targeted for malignant transformation. In addition to somatic alterations in the most common driver genes (KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53 and SMAD4), large-scale studies have revealed major roles for genetic alterations of the SWI/SNF and COMPASS complexes, copy number alterations in GATA6 and MYC that partially define phenotypes of pancreatic cancer, and the role(s) of polyploidy and chromothripsis as factors contributing to pancreatic cancer biology and progression. Germline variants that increase the risk of pancreatic cancer continue to be discovered along with a greater appreciation of the features of pancreatic cancers with mismatch repair deficiencies and homologous recombination deficiencies that confer sensitivity to therapeutic targeting. Wild-type KRAS pancreatic cancers, some of which are driven by alternative oncogenic events affecting NRG1 or NTRK1 - for which targeted therapies exist - further underscore that pancreatic cancer is formally entering the era of precision medicine. Given the vast developments within this field, here we review the wide-ranging and most current information related to pancreatic cancer genomics with the goal of integrating this information into a unifying description of the life history of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41575-021-00463-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Pancreatic cancer stem cells may define tumor stroma characteristics and recurrence patterns in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 9;21(1):385. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 300 East 66th street, office 1021, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Background: Herein, we investigate the relationship between pancreatic stem cell markers (PCSC markers), CD44, and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA), tumor stroma, and the impact on recurrence outcomes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients.

Methods: PDAC patients who underwent surgical resection between 01/2012-06/2014 were identified. CD44 and ESA expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Stroma was classified as loose, moderate, and dense based on fibroblast content. Overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between subgroups by log-rank test. The association between PCSC markers and stroma type was assessed by Fisher's exact test.

Results: N = 93 PDAC patients were identified. The number of PDAC patients with dense, moderate density, and loose stroma was 11 (12%), 51 (54%), and 31 (33%) respectively. PDAC with CD44/ESA had highest rate of loose stroma (63%) followed by PDAC CD44/ESA (50%), PDAC CD44ESA (35%), CD44ESA (9%) (p = 0.0033). Conversely, lack of CD44 and ESA expression was associated with the highest rate of moderate and dense stroma (91% p = 0.0033). No local recurrence was observed in patients with dense stroma and 9 had distant recurrence. The highest rate of cumulative local recurrence was observed in patients with loose stroma. No statistically significant difference in RFS and OS was observed among subgroups (P = 0.089).

Conclusions: These data indicate PCSCs may have an important role in stroma differentiation in PDAC. Our results further suggest that tumor stroma may influence the recurrence pattern in PDAC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08123-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034174PMC
April 2021

Early-Onset Pancreas Cancer: Clinical Descriptors, Genomics, and Outcomes.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Sep;113(9):1194-1202

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Recent evidence suggests a rising incidence of cancer in younger individuals. Herein, we report the epidemiologic, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of a patient cohort with early-onset pancreas cancer (EOPC).

Methods: Institutional databases were queried for demographics, treatment history, genomic results, and outcomes. Overall survival from date of diagnosis was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Between 2008 and 2018, 450 patients with EOPC were identified at Memorial Sloan Kettering. Median overall survival was 16.3  (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.6 to 17.7) months in the entire cohort and 11.3  (95% CI = 10.2 to 12.2) months for patients with stage IV disease at diagnosis. Of the patients, 132 (29.3% of the cohort) underwent somatic testing; 21 of 132 (15.9%) had RAS wild-type cancers with identification of several actionable alterations, including ETV6-NTRK3, TPR-NTRK1, SCLA5-NRG1, and ATP1B1-NRG1 fusions, IDH1 R132C mutation, and mismatch repair deficiency. A total of 138 patients (30.7% of the cohort) underwent germline testing; 44 of 138 (31.9%) had a pathogenic germline variant (PGV), and 27.5% harbored alterations in cancer susceptibility genes. Of patients seen between 2015 and 2018, 30 of 193 (15.5%) had a PGV. Among 138 who underwent germline testing, those with a PGV had a reduced all-cause mortality compared with patients without a PGV controlling for stage and year of diagnosis (hazard ratio = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.69).

Conclusions: PGVs are present in a substantial minority of patients with EOPC. Actionable somatic alterations were identified frequently in EOPC, enriched in the RAS wild-type subgroup. These observations underpin the recent guidelines for universal germline testing and somatic profiling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418394PMC
September 2021

Inflammatory Leptomeningeal Cytokines Mediate COVID-19 Neurologic Symptoms in Cancer Patients.

Cancer Cell 2021 02 16;39(2):276-283.e3. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Brain Tumor Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a wide spectrum of neurologic dysfunction that emerges weeks after the acute respiratory infection. To better understand this pathology, we prospectively analyzed of a cohort of cancer patients with neurologic manifestations of COVID-19, including a targeted proteomics analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid. We find that cancer patients with neurologic sequelae of COVID-19 harbor leptomeningeal inflammatory cytokines in the absence of viral neuroinvasion. The majority of these inflammatory mediators are driven by type II interferon and are known to induce neuronal injury in other disease states. In these patients, levels of matrix metalloproteinase-10 within the spinal fluid correlate with the degree of neurologic dysfunction. Furthermore, this neuroinflammatory process persists weeks after convalescence from acute respiratory infection. These prolonged neurologic sequelae following systemic cytokine release syndrome lead to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction. Our findings suggest a role for anti-inflammatory treatment(s) in the management of neurologic complications of COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833316PMC
February 2021

Initial Whole-Genome Sequencing of Plasma Cell Neoplasms in First Responders and Recovery Workers Exposed to the World Trade Center Attack of September 11, 2001.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 27;27(7):2111-2118. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Myeloma Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: The World Trade Center (WTC) attack of September 11, 2001 created an unprecedented environmental exposure to known and suspected carcinogens. High incidence of multiple myeloma and precursor conditions has been reported among first responders to the WTC disaster. To expand on our prior screening studies, and to characterize the genomic impact of the exposure to known and potential carcinogens in the WTC debris, we were motivated to perform whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of WTC first responders and recovery workers who developed a plasma cell disorder after the attack.

Experimental Design: We performed WGS of nine CD138-positive bone marrow mononuclear samples from patients who were diagnosed with plasma cell disorders after the WTC disaster.

Results: No significant differences were observed in comparing the post-WTC driver and mutational signature landscapes with 110 previously published WGSs from 56 patients with multiple myeloma and the CoMMpass WGS cohort ( = 752). Leveraging constant activity of the single-base substitution mutational signatures 1 and 5 over time, we estimated that tumor-initiating chromosomal gains were windowed to both pre- and post-WTC exposure.

Conclusions: Although limitations in sample size preclude any definitive conclusions, our findings suggest that the observed increased incidence of plasma cell neoplasms in this population is due to complex and heterogeneous effects of the WTC exposure that may have initiated or contributed to progression of malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026670PMC
April 2021

The Genetic Evolution of Treatment-Resistant Cutaneous, Acral, and Uveal Melanomas.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Mar 15;27(5):1516-1525. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: Melanoma is a biologically heterogeneous disease composed of distinct clinicopathologic subtypes that frequently resist treatment. To explore the evolution of treatment resistance and metastasis, we used a combination of temporal and multilesional tumor sampling in conjunction with whole-exome sequencing of 110 tumors collected from 7 patients with cutaneous ( = 3), uveal ( = 2), and acral ( = 2) melanoma subtypes.

Experimental Design: Primary tumors, metastases collected longitudinally, and autopsy tissues were interrogated. All but 1 patient died because of melanoma progression.

Results: For each patient, we generated phylogenies and quantified the extent of genetic diversity among tumors, specifically among putative somatic alterations affecting therapeutic resistance.

Conclusions: In 4 patients who received immunotherapy, we found 1-3 putative acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms coexisting in the same patient, including mechanisms that were shared by all tumors within each patient, suggesting that future therapies directed at overcoming intrinsic resistance mechanisms may be broadly effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925434PMC
March 2021

Unbiased in vivo preclinical evaluation of anticancer drugs identifies effective therapy for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 16;117(48):30670-30678. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

David M. Rubenstein Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065;

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage, which limits surgical options and portends a dismal prognosis. Current oncologic PDAC therapies confer marginal benefit and, thus, a significant unmet clinical need exists for new therapeutic strategies. To identify effective PDAC therapies, we leveraged a syngeneic orthotopic PDAC transplant mouse model to perform a large-scale, in vivo screen of 16 single-agent and 41 two-drug targeted therapy combinations in mice. Among 57 drug conditions screened, combined inhibition of heat shock protein (Hsp)-90 and MEK was found to produce robust suppression of tumor growth, leading to an 80% increase in the survival of PDAC-bearing mice with no significant toxicity. Mechanistically, we observed that single-agent MEK inhibition led to compensatory activation of resistance pathways, including components of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis, which was overcome with the addition of HSP90 inhibition. The combination of HSP90(i) + MEK(i) was also active in vitro in established human PDAC cell lines and in vivo in patient-derived organoid PDAC transplant models. These findings encourage the clinical development of HSP90(i) + MEK(i) combination therapy and highlight the power of clinically relevant in vivo model systems for identifying cancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1920240117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720119PMC
December 2020

Inflammatory leptomeningeal cytokines mediate delayed COVID-19 encephalopathy.

medRxiv 2020 Sep 18. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a wide spectrum of neurologic dysfunction. Here we show that a particularly vulnerable population with neurologic manifestations of COVID-19 harbor an influx of inflammatory cytokines within the cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of viral neuro-invasion. The majority of these inflammatory mediators are driven by type 2 interferon and are known to induce neuronal injury in other disease models. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-10 within the spinal fluid correlate with the degree of neurologic dysfunction. Furthermore, this neuroinflammatory process persists weeks following convalescence from the acute respiratory infection. These prolonged neurologic sequelae following a systemic cytokine release syndrome lead to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction with a wide range of phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.15.20195511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523144PMC
September 2020

Germ cell tumors and associated hematologic malignancies evolve from a common shared precursor.

J Clin Invest 2020 12;130(12):6668-6676

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common cancer in men between the ages of 15 and 40. Although most patients are cured, those with disease arising in the mediastinum have distinctly poor outcomes. One in every 17 patients with primary mediastinal nonseminomatous GCTs develop an incurable hematologic malignancy and prior data intriguingly suggest a clonal relationship exists between hematologic malignancies and GCTs in these cases. To date, however, the precise clonal relationship between GCTs and the diverse additional somatic malignancies arising in such individuals have not been determined. Here, we traced the clonal evolution and characterized the genetic features of each neoplasm from a cohort of 15 patients with GCTs and associated hematologic malignancies. We discovered that GCTs and hematologic malignancies developing in such individuals evolved from a common shared precursor, nearly all of which harbored allelically imbalanced p53 and/or RAS pathway mutations. Hematologic malignancies arising in this setting genetically resembled mediastinal GCTs rather than de novo myeloid neoplasms. Our findings argue that this scenario represents a unique clinical syndrome, distinct from de novo GCTs or hematologic malignancies, initiated by an ancestral precursor that gives rise to the parallel evolution of GCTs and blood cancers in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI139682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685753PMC
December 2020

Alterations in driver genes are predictive of survival in patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Cancer 2020 09 23;126(17):3939-3949. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4 are established driver genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study was aimed at determining whether the mutational status of driver genes and those involved in DNA repair pathways are associated with clinical outcomes for individuals who undergo resection.

Methods: Eligible individuals were those who underwent resection of PDAC and consented to targeted sequencing of their primary tumor via Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT). Genomic alterations were determined on the basis of MSK-IMPACT results from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Associations between genomic alterations and clinical outcomes were assessed.

Results: Targeted sequencing was performed on 283 primary tumors resected between 2004 and 2017. The median follow-up was 23 months among survivors. Alterations in KRAS and TP53 were associated with worse overall survival (OS) in comparison to wild type (median for KRAS, 38.8 months [95% CI, 33.0-45.5 months] vs 91.0 months [95% CI, 34.8 months to not available (NA)]; P = .043; median for TP53, 37.4 months [95% CI, 32.1-42.8 months] vs 65.0 months [95% CI, 33.0 months to NA]; P = .035). KRAS G12D mutations were associated with worse OS (median, 31.6 months [95% CI, 25.3-45.5 months] vs 39.2 months [95% CI, 37.4-75.2 months]; P = .012). TP53 truncating mutations (median, 39.6 months [95% CI, 32.4-75.2 months] vs 33.9 months [95% CI, 24.0-39.0 months]; P = .020) and those associated with loss of heterozygosity (median, 26.6 months [95% CI, 21.6-44.2 months] vs 39.2 months [95% CI, 34.5-49.1 months]; P = .048) had decreased OS. TP53 alterations were independently associated with OS in a multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33; P = .042). Individuals with germline alterations in homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) genes had improved OS in comparison with those without them (median, not reached vs 37.0 months; 95% CI, 33.0-49.8 months; P = .035).

Conclusions: In patients with resected PDAC, genomic alterations in KRAS and TP53 are associated with worse outcomes, whereas alterations in HRD genes are associated with a favorable prognosis. Further studies are needed to better define these alterations as biomarkers in resected PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7424538PMC
September 2020

Interrogation of the Microenvironmental Landscape in Brain Tumors Reveals Disease-Specific Alterations of Immune Cells.

Cell 2020 06 28;181(7):1643-1660.e17. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Oncology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Brain malignancies encompass a range of primary and metastatic cancers, including low-grade and high-grade gliomas and brain metastases (BrMs) originating from diverse extracranial tumors. Our understanding of the brain tumor microenvironment (TME) remains limited, and it is unknown whether it is sculpted differentially by primary versus metastatic disease. We therefore comprehensively analyzed the brain TME landscape via flow cytometry, RNA sequencing, protein arrays, culture assays, and spatial tissue characterization. This revealed disease-specific enrichment of immune cells with pronounced differences in proportional abundance of tissue-resident microglia, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages, neutrophils, and T cells. These integrated analyses also uncovered multifaceted immune cell activation within brain malignancies entailing converging transcriptional trajectories while maintaining disease- and cell-type-specific programs. Given the interest in developing TME-targeted therapies for brain malignancies, this comprehensive resource of the immune landscape offers insights into possible strategies to overcome tumor-supporting TME properties and instead harness the TME to fight cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.007DOI Listing
June 2020

Genomic Methods Identify Homologous Recombination Deficiency in Pancreas Adenocarcinoma and Optimize Treatment Selection.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 07 22;26(13):3239-3247. Epub 2020 May 22.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: Genomic methods can identify homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). Rigorous evaluation of their outcome association to DNA damage response-targeted therapies like platinum in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is essential in maximizing therapeutic outcome.

Experimental Design: We evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced-stage PDAC, who had both germline- and somatic-targeted gene sequencing. Homologous recombination gene mutations (HRm) were evaluated: , and HRm status was grouped as: (i) germline versus somatic; (ii) core ( and versus non-core (other HRm); and (iii) monoallelic versus biallelic. Genomic instability was compared using large-scale state transition, signature 3, and tumor mutation burden.

Results: Among 262 patients, 50 (19%) had HRD (15% germline and 4% somatic). Both groups were analyzed together due to lack of difference in their genomic instability and outcome. Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] follow-up was 21.9 (1.4-57.0) months. Median OS and PFS were 15.5 (14.6-19) and 7 (6.1-8.1) months, respectively. Patients with HRD had improved PFS compared with no HRD when treated with first-line (1L) platinum [HR, 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67); < 0.01], but not with 1L-non-platinum. Multivariate analysis showed HRD patients had improved OS regardless of their first-line treatment, but most had platinum exposure during their course. Biallelic HRm (11%) and core HRm (12%) had higher genomic instability, which translated to improved PFS on first-line platinum (1L-platinum) versus 1L-non-platinum.

Conclusions: Pathogenic HRm identifies HRD in patients with PDAC with the best outcome when treated with 1L-platinum. Biallelic HRm and core HRm further enriched benefit from 1L-platinum from HRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7380542PMC
July 2020

The mutational landscape of normal human endometrial epithelium.

Nature 2020 04 22;580(7805):640-646. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Cancer, Ageing and Somatic Mutation (CASM), Wellcome Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK.

All normal somatic cells are thought to acquire mutations, but understanding of the rates, patterns, causes and consequences of somatic mutations in normal cells is limited. The uterine endometrium adopts multiple physiological states over a lifetime and is lined by a gland-forming epithelium. Here, using whole-genome sequencing, we show that normal human endometrial glands are clonal cell populations with total mutation burdens that increase at about 29 base substitutions per year and that are many-fold lower than those of endometrial cancers. Normal endometrial glands frequently carry 'driver' mutations in cancer genes, the burden of which increases with age and decreases with parity. Cell clones with drivers often originate during the first decades of life and subsequently progressively colonize the epithelial lining of the endometrium. Our results show that mutational landscapes differ markedly between normal tissues-perhaps shaped by differences in their structure and physiology-and indicate that the procession of neoplastic change that leads to endometrial cancer is initiated early in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2214-zDOI Listing
April 2020

Genetic and clinical correlates of entosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Mod Pathol 2020 09 29;33(9):1822-1831. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

The David M. Rubenstein Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Entosis is a type of regulated cell death that promotes cancer cell competition. Though several studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms that govern entosis, the clinical and genetic correlates of entosis in human tumors is less well understood. Here we reviewed entotic cell-in-cell (CIC) patterns in a large single institution sequencing cohort (MSK IMPACT clinical sequencing cohort) of more than 1600 human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) samples to identify the genetic and clinical correlates of this cellular feature. After case selection, 516 conventional PDACs and 21 ASCs entered this study and ~45,000 HPFs (median 80 HPFs per sample) were reviewed; 549 entotic-CICs were detected through our cohort. We observed that entotic-CIC occurred more frequently in liver metastasis compared with primary in PDAC. Moreover, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma had more entotic-CIC than well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. With respect to genetic features TP53 mutations, KRAS amplification, and MYC amplification were significantly associated with entosis in PDAC tissues. From a clinical standpoint entotic CICs were independently associated with a poor prognosis by multivariate Cox regression analysis when considering all cases or primary PDACs specifically. These results provide a contextual basis for understanding entosis in PDAC, a highly aggressive cancer for which molecular insights are needed to improve survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0549-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7452867PMC
September 2020

The Human Tumor Atlas Network: Charting Tumor Transitions across Space and Time at Single-Cell Resolution.

Cell 2020 04;181(2):236-249

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Ludwig Center for Cancer Research and Laboratory of Systems Pharmacology, Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Crucial transitions in cancer-including tumor initiation, local expansion, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance-involve complex interactions between cells within the dynamic tumor ecosystem. Transformative single-cell genomics technologies and spatial multiplex in situ methods now provide an opportunity to interrogate this complexity at unprecedented resolution. The Human Tumor Atlas Network (HTAN), part of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Moonshot Initiative, will establish a clinical, experimental, computational, and organizational framework to generate informative and accessible three-dimensional atlases of cancer transitions for a diverse set of tumor types. This effort complements both ongoing efforts to map healthy organs and previous large-scale cancer genomics approaches focused on bulk sequencing at a single point in time. Generating single-cell, multiparametric, longitudinal atlases and integrating them with clinical outcomes should help identify novel predictive biomarkers and features as well as therapeutically relevant cell types, cell states, and cellular interactions across transitions. The resulting tumor atlases should have a profound impact on our understanding of cancer biology and have the potential to improve cancer detection, prevention, and therapeutic discovery for better precision-medicine treatments of cancer patients and those at risk for cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.03.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376497PMC
April 2020

The Evolutionary Origins of Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancer Discov 2020 06 19;10(6):792-805. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Surgery is the only curative option for stage I/II pancreatic cancer; nonetheless, most patients will experience a recurrence after surgery and die of their disease. To identify novel opportunities for management of recurrent pancreatic cancer, we performed whole-exome or targeted sequencing of 10 resected primary cancers and matched intrapancreatic recurrences or distant metastases. We identified that recurrent disease after adjuvant or first-line platinum therapy corresponds to an increased mutational burden. Recurrent disease is enriched for genetic alterations predicted to activate MAPK/ERK and PI3K-AKT signaling and develops from a monophyletic or polyphyletic origin. Treatment-induced genetic bottlenecks lead to a modified genetic landscape and subclonal heterogeneity for driver gene alterations in part due to intermetastatic seeding. In 1 patient what was believed to be recurrent disease was an independent (second) primary tumor. These findings suggest routine post-treatment sampling may have value in the management of recurrent pancreatic cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: The biological features or clinical vulnerabilities of recurrent pancreatic cancer after pancreaticoduodenectomy are unknown. Using whole-exome sequencing we find that recurrent disease has a distinct genomic landscape, intermetastatic genetic heterogeneity, diverse clonal origins, and higher mutational burden than found for treatment-naïve disease...
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-1508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323937PMC
June 2020

iNOS Regulates the Therapeutic Response of Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Radiotherapy.

Cancer Res 2020 04 21;80(8):1681-1692. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly resistant to radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities, and surgery remains the only curative intervention for localized disease. Although cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are abundant in PDAC tumors, the effects of radiotherapy on CAFs and the response of PDAC cells to radiotherapy are unknown. Using patient samples and orthotopic PDAC biological models, we showed that radiotherapy increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the tumor tissues. Mechanistic studies showed that, although undetectable in radiotherapy-activated tumor cells, iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO) secretion were significantly increased in CAFs secretome following radiotherapy. Culture of PDAC cells with conditioned media from radiotherapy-activated CAFs increased iNOS/NO signaling in tumor cells through NF-κB, which, in turn, elevated the release of inflammatory cytokines by the tumor cells. Increased NO after radiotherapy in PDAC contributed to an acidic microenvironment that was detectable using the radiolabeled pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP). In murine orthotopic PDAC models, pancreatic tumor growth was delayed when iNOS inhibition was combined with radiotherapy. These data show the important role that iNOS/NO signaling plays in the effectiveness of radiotherapy to treat PDAC tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: A radiolabeled pH-targeted peptide can be used as a PET imaging tool to assess therapy response within PDAC and blocking iNOS/NO signaling may improve radiotherapy outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-2991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7165066PMC
April 2020

Characterization of genetic subclonal evolution in pancreatic cancer mouse models.

Nat Commun 2019 11 28;10(1):5435. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA.

The KPC mouse model, driven by the Kras and Trp53 transgenes, is well regarded for faithful recapitulation of human pancreatic cancer biology. However, the extent that this model recapitulates the subclonal evolution of this tumor type is unknown. Here we report evidence of continuing subclonal evolution after tumor initiation that largely reflect copy number alterations that target cellular processes of established significance in human pancreatic cancer. The evolutionary trajectories of the mouse tumors show both linear and branching patterns as well as clonal mixing. We propose the KPC model and derivatives have unexplored utility as a functional system to model the mechanisms and modifiers of tumor evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13100-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882784PMC
November 2019

ID1 Mediates Escape from TGFβ Tumor Suppression in Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancer Discov 2020 01 3;10(1):142-157. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

TGFβ is an important tumor suppressor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), yet inactivation of TGFβ pathway components occurs in only half of PDA cases. TGFβ cooperates with oncogenic RAS signaling to trigger epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in premalignant pancreatic epithelial progenitors, which is coupled to apoptosis owing to an imbalance of SOX4 and KLF5 transcription factors. We report that PDAs that develop with the TGFβ pathway intact avert this apoptotic effect via ID1. family members are expressed in PDA progenitor cells and encode components of a set of core transcriptional regulators shared by PDAs. PDA progression selects against TGFβ-mediated repression of . The sustained expression of uncouples EMT from apoptosis in PDA progenitors. AKT signaling and mechanisms linked to low-frequency genetic events converge on to preserve its expression in PDA. Our results identify ID1 as a crucial node and potential therapeutic target in PDA. SIGNIFICANCE: Half of PDAs escape TGFβ-induced tumor suppression without inactivating the TGFβ pathway. We report that expression is selected for in PDAs and that ID1 uncouples TGFβ-induced EMT from apoptosis. ID1 thus emerges as a crucial regulatory node and a target of interest in PDA..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-0529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954299PMC
January 2020

Cell division rates decrease with age, providing a potential explanation for the age-dependent deceleration in cancer incidence.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 10 23;116(41):20482-20488. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205;

A new evaluation of previously published data suggested to us that the accumulation of mutations might slow, rather than increase, as individuals age. To explain this unexpected finding, we hypothesized that normal stem cell division rates might decrease as we age. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated cell division rates in the epithelium of human colonic, duodenal, esophageal, and posterior ethmoid sinonasal tissues. In all 4 tissues, there was a significant decrease in cell division rates with age. In contrast, cell division rates did not decrease in the colon of aged mice, and only small decreases were observed in their small intestine or esophagus. These results have important implications for understanding the relationship between normal stem cells, aging, and cancer. Moreover, they provide a plausible explanation for the enigmatic age-dependent deceleration in cancer incidence in very old humans but not in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1905722116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6789572PMC
October 2019

Cancer biology as revealed by the research autopsy.

Nat Rev Cancer 2019 12 13;19(12):686-697. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

A research autopsy is a post-mortem medical procedure performed on a deceased individual with the primary goal of collecting tissue to support basic and translational research. This approach has increasingly been used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of cancer evolution, metastasis and treatment resistance. In this Review, we discuss the rationale for the use of research autopsies in cancer research and provide an evidence-based discussion of the quality of post-mortem tissues compared with other types of biospecimens. We also discuss the advantages of using post-mortem tissues over other types of biospecimens, including the large amounts of tissue that can be obtained and the extent of multiregion sampling that is achievable, which is not otherwise possible in living patients. We highlight how the research autopsy has supported the identification of the clonal origins and modes of spread among metastases, the extent that selective pressures imposed by treatments cause bottlenecks leading to parallel and convergent tumour evolution, and the creation of rare tissue banks and patient-derived model systems. Finally, we comment on the future of the research autopsy as an integral component of precision medicine strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41568-019-0199-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453489PMC
December 2019

An analysis of genetic heterogeneity in untreated cancers.

Nat Rev Cancer 2019 11 27;19(11):639-650. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Genetic intratumoural heterogeneity is a natural consequence of imperfect DNA replication. Any two randomly selected cells, whether normal or cancerous, are therefore genetically different. Here, we review the different forms of genetic heterogeneity in cancer and re-analyse the extent of genetic heterogeneity within seven types of untreated epithelial cancers, with particular regard to its clinical relevance. We find that the homogeneity of predicted functional mutations in driver genes is the rule rather than the exception. In primary tumours with multiple samples, 97% of driver-gene mutations in 38 patients were homogeneous. Moreover, among metastases from the same primary tumour, 100% of the driver mutations in 17 patients were homogeneous. With a single biopsy of a primary tumour in 14 patients, the likelihood of missing a functional driver-gene mutation that was present in all metastases was 2.6%. Furthermore, all functional driver-gene mutations detected in these 14 primary tumours were present among all their metastases. Finally, we found that individual metastatic lesions responded concordantly to targeted therapies in 91% of 44 patients. These analyses indicate that the cells within the primary tumours that gave rise to metastases are genetically homogeneous with respect to functional driver-gene mutations, and we suggest that future efforts to develop combination therapies have the potential to be curative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41568-019-0185-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6816333PMC
November 2019

Fumarate hydratase FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) variant is not associated with cancer including renal cell carcinoma.

Hum Mutat 2020 01 3;41(1):103-109. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York.

Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutations underpin the autosomal recessive syndrome. FH deficiency and the autosomal dominant syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) genomic alteration has been conclusively shown to contribute to FH deficiency when occurring with another FH germline alteration. However, a sufficiently large dataset has been lacking to conclusively determine its clinical significance to cancer predisposition in the heterozygous state. We reviewed a series of 7,571 patients with cancer who received germline results through MSK-IMPACT testing at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) variant was detected in 24 individuals, none of whom was affected with renal cancer. Eleven of the 372 patients with renal cancer were identified to carried pathogenic FH variants associated with HLRCC. None of these 372 patients with renal cancer carried the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA variant. Our data indicate the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA is not associated with cancer including renal cell carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930334PMC
January 2020

CT radiomics associations with genotype and stromal content in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2019 09;44(9):3148-3157

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, C-276F, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CT imaging phenotypes and genetic and biological characteristics in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Methods: In this retrospective study, consecutive patients between April 2015 and June 2016 who underwent PDAC resection were included if previously consented to a targeted sequencing protocol. Mutation status of known PDAC driver genes (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4) in the primary tumor was determined by targeted DNA sequencing and results were validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Radiomic features of the tumor were extracted from the preoperative CT scan and used to predict genotype and stromal content.

Results: The cohort for analysis consisted of 35 patients. Genomic and IHC analysis revealed alterations in KRAS in 34 (97%) patients, and changes in expression of CDKN2A in 29 (83%), SMAD4 in 16 (46%), and in TP53 in 29 (83%) patients. Models created from radiomic features demonstrated associations with SMAD4 status and the number of genes altered. The number of genes altered was the only significant predictor of overall survival (p = 0.016). By linear regression analysis, a prediction model for stromal content achieved an R value of 0.731 with a root mean square error of 19.5.

Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrate that in PDAC SMAD4 status and tumor stromal content can be predicted using radiomic analysis of preoperative CT imaging. These data show an association between resectable PDAC imaging features and underlying tumor biology and their potential for future precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-019-02112-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6692205PMC
September 2019

Promoter methylation of ADAMTS1 and BNC1 as potential biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic cancer in blood.

Clin Epigenetics 2019 04 5;11(1):59. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Despite improvements in cancer management, most pancreatic cancers are still diagnosed at an advanced stage. We have recently identified promoter DNA methylation of the genes ADAMTS1 and BNC1 as potential blood biomarkers of pancreas cancer. In this study, we validate this biomarker panel in peripheral cell-free tumor DNA of patients with pancreatic cancer.

Results: Sensitivity and specificity for each gene are as follows: ADAMTS1 87.2% and 95.8% (AUC = 0.91; 95% CI 0.71-0.86) and BNC1 64.1% and 93.7% (AUC = 0.79; 95% CI 0.63-0.78). When using methylation of either gene as a combination panel, sensitivity increases to 97.3% and specificity to 91.6% (AUC = 0.95; 95% CI 0.77-0.90). Adding pre-operative CA 19-9 values to the combined two-gene methylation panel did not improve sensitivity. Methylation of ADAMTS1 was found to be positive in 87.5% (7/8) of stage I, 77.8% (7/9) of stage IIA, and 90% (18/20) of stage IIB disease. Similarly, BNC1 was positive in 62.5% (5/8) of stage I patients, 55.6% (5/9) of stage IIA, and 65% (13/20) of patients with stage IIB disease. The two-gene panel (ADAMTS1 and/or BNC1) was positive in 100% (8/8) of stage I, 88.9% (8/9) of stage IIA, and 100% (20/20) of stage IIB disease. The sensitivity and specificity of the two-gene panel for localized pancreatic cancer (stages I and II), where the cancer is eligible for surgical resection with curative potential, was 94.8% and 91.6% respectively. Additionally, the two-gene panel exhibited an AUC of 0.95 (95% CI 0.90-0.98) compared to 57.1% for CA 19-9 alone.

Conclusion: The methylation status of ADAMTS1 and BNC1 in cfDNA shows promise for detecting pancreatic cancer during the early stages when curative resection of the tumor is still possible. This minimally invasive blood-based biomarker panel could be used as a promising tool for diagnosis and screening in a select subset of high-risk populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0650-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451253PMC
April 2019

Ampullary cancer: Evaluation of somatic and germline genetic alterations and association with clinical outcomes.

Cancer 2019 05 8;125(9):1441-1448. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: Ampullary carcinoma (AC) is a rare gastrointestinal cancer. Pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) in BRCA2 and potentially targetable somatic alterations (SAs) in ERBB2 and ELF3 have been previously described in AC. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center has implemented an opt-in strategy for germline testing (GT) and somatic testing (ST) for patients with AC to further evaluate the spectrum of PGAs and SAs.

Methods: Forty-five patients with pathologically confirmed AC prospectively consented with the Memorial Sloan Kettering Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT) test (410-468 genes). A subset of the cohort (23 of the 45 patients) also consented to GT with MSK-IMPACT (76-88 genes). Germline data for 21 of the remaining 22 patients who had not consented to GT were obtained in a de-identified fashion without clinical correlation. Clinicopathologic features, treatment histories, and survival data for consenting patients were collected and analyzed.

Results: Pancreaticobiliary, intestinal, and mixed features of the 2 types were the primary pathologic subtypes of AC identified in this cohort. No difference in median overall survival was found between pathologic subtypes. Eight of 44 patients (18%) were identified as harboring pathogenic mutations in BRCA2, ATM, RAD50, and MUTYH. In addition, this study found a wide spectrum of SAs in genes such as KRAS, MDM2, ERBB2, ELF3, and PIK3CA. Two patients in the cohort underwent SA-targeted therapy, and 1 had a partial radiographic response.

Conclusions: Mutations in multiple somatic and germline genes were identified in this cohort. Significantly, actionable targets were identified in the tumors, and broader testing for PGAs and SAs should be considered for all patients with AC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467723PMC
May 2019

and Amplifications Determine Response to HER2 Inhibition in -Amplified Esophagogastric Cancer.

Cancer Discov 2019 02 21;9(2):199-209. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

The anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab is standard care for advanced esophagogastric (EG) cancer with (HER2) amplification or overexpression, but intrinsic and acquired resistance are common. We conducted a phase II study of afatinib, an irreversible pan-HER kinase inhibitor, in trastuzumab-resistant EG cancer. We analyzed pretreatment tumor biopsies and, in select cases, performed comprehensive characterization of postmortem metastatic specimens following acquisition of drug resistance. Afatinib response was associated with coamplification of and . Heterogeneous Zr-trastuzumab PET uptake was associated with genomic heterogeneity and mixed clinical response to afatinib. Resistance to afatinib was associated with selection for tumor cells lacking amplification or with acquisition of amplification, which could be detected in plasma cell-free DNA. The combination of afatinib and a MET inhibitor induced complete tumor regression in and coamplified patient-derived xenograft models established from a metastatic lesion progressing on afatinib. Collectively, differential intrapatient and interpatient expression of HER2, EGFR, and MET may determine clinical response to HER kinase inhibitors in -amplified EG cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of patients with -amplified, trastuzumab-resistant EG cancer who were treated with the HER kinase inhibitor afatinib revealed that sensitivity and resistance to therapy were associated with / coamplification and amplification, respectively. HER2-directed PET imaging and cell-free DNA sequencing could help guide strategies to overcome the emergence of resistant clones...
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368868PMC
February 2019
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