Publications by authors named "Christel Moræus Olsen"

4 Publications

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Molecular Basis for Antigenic Diversity of Genus Betanodavirus.

PLoS One 2016 20;11(7):e0158814. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

OIE Reference Laboratory for Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease for the Mediterranean mariculture. Four different betanodavirus species are recognized, Striped jack-, Redspotted grouper-, Tiger puffer-, and Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV), but there is little knowledge on their antigenic properties. In order to describe the serological relationships among different betanodavirus genotypes, serum neutralization assays were performed using rabbit polyclonal antisera against eight fish nodaviruses that cover a wide species-, temporal-, spatial- and genetic range. The results indicate that the SJNNV and RGNNV are antigenically distinct, constituting serotypes A and C, respectively. The TPNNV and BFNNV, the latter representing cold-water betanodaviruses, are antigenically related and cluster within serotype B. The reassortant viruses RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV group within serotypes A and C, respectively, indicating that the coat protein encoded by RNA2 acts as major immunoreactivity determinant. Immunostaining of in vitro expressed wild type and chimeric capsid proteins between the RGNNV and the SJNNV species indicated that the C-terminal part of the capsid protein retains the immunoreactive portion. The amino acid (aa) residues determining RGNNV and SJNNV antigenic diversity were mapped to aa residues 217-256 and aa 257-341, respectively. Neutralization of reverse genetics derived chimeric viruses indicated that these areas determine the neutralizing epitopes. The data obtained are crucial for the development of targeted serological tests for the diagnosis of VNN, and informative for development of cross-protective vaccines against various betanodavirus genotypes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158814PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4954670PMC
July 2017

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) replicates in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) erythrocytes ex vivo.

Vet Res 2015 Mar 6;46:26. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

Section of Immunology, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is a reovirus that has predominantly been detected in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is associated with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon, and recently erythrocytes were identified as major target cells. The study of PRV replication and pathogenesis of the infection has been impeded by the inability to propagate PRV in vitro. In this study we developed an ex vivo cultivation system for PRV in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. PRV was successfully passaged to naïve erythrocytes using lysates of blood cells from infected salmon. During cultivation a significant increase in viral load was observed by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry, which coincided with the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions. The inclusions resembled viral factories and contained both PRV protein and dsRNA. In addition, the erythrocytes generated an antiviral immune gene activation after PRV infection, with significant up-regulation of IFN-α, RIG-I, Mx and PKR transcripts. Supernatants from the first passage successfully transmitted virus to naïve erythrocytes. This study demonstrates that PRV replicates in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes ex vivo. The ex vivo infection model closely reflects the situation in vivo and can be used to study the infection and replication mechanisms of PRV, as well as the antiviral immune responses of salmonid erythrocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-015-0154-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350956PMC
March 2015

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infects Atlantic salmon erythrocytes.

Vet Res 2014 Apr 3;45:35. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) belongs to the Reoviridae family and is the only known fish virus related to the Orthoreovirus genus. The virus is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and high loads of PRV in the heart are consistent findings in HSMI. The mechanism by which PRV infection causes disease remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the presence of PRV in blood and erythrocytes using an experimental cohabitation challenge model. We found that in the early phases of infection, the PRV loads in blood were significantly higher than in any other organ. Most virus was found in the erythrocyte fraction, and in individual fish more than 50% of erythrocytes were PRV-positive, as determined by flow cytometry. PRV was condensed into large cytoplasmic inclusions resembling viral factories, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. By electron microscopy we showed that these inclusions contained reovirus-like particles. The PRV particles and inclusions also had a striking resemblance to previously reported viral inclusions described as Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). We conclude that the erythrocyte is a major target cell for PRV infection. These findings provide new information about HSMI pathogenesis, and show that PRV is an important factor of viral erythrocytic inclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-45-35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4234517PMC
April 2014

Characterization of the prion protein 3F4 epitope and its use as a molecular tag.

J Neurosci Methods 2007 Sep 13;165(2):183-90. Epub 2007 Jun 13.

Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo, Norway.

The monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3F4 has for nearly two decades been one of the most commonly used tools in prion research. This MAb has contributed significantly to our understanding of the normal cell biology of the prion protein (PrP(C)), as well as the disease related abnormalities occurring in prion diseases. The 3F4 antibody binds strongly to human and hamster PrP, with a specific requirement of two Met residues at positions 109 and 112 in the human PrP. Other species in which PrP lack one of the Met residues, like cattle and sheep, or both, like rat and mouse, do not react with the 3F4 antibody. These and other observations have led to the commonly accepted notion that the 3F4 epitope consists of the tetra-peptide Met-Lys-His-Met. In this study, we have identified the minimal epitope for 3F4 by studying its binding to synthetic peptides and by analysis of mutated ovine PrP::GFP constructs expressed in cell culture. We have found that the 3F4 epitope consists of a hepta-peptide (Lys-Thr-Asn-Met-Lys-His-Met), which in sheep encompass residues 109-115. We found that Lys 109 is critically important for 3F4 binding, as omission, or substitution of this residue to Ala resulted in no binding. We also demonstrate that the hepta-peptide constituting the minimal 3F4 epitope, can be used as a discrete, moveable high-affinity molecular tag. Thus, the 3F4 antibody can find its use beyond prion research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2007.06.005DOI Listing
September 2007