Publications by authors named "Chi Zhang"

2,664 Publications

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Comparative proteomic analysis identifies differentially expressed proteins and reveals potential mechanisms of traumatic heterotopic ossification progression.

J Orthop Translat 2022 May 14;34:42-59. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, And Shanghai Institute of Microsurgery on Extremities, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China.

Background: Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification (tHO) is one of complications of elbow fractures to the detriment of patients' rehabilitation, and the severity of tHO corresponds to the size of ectopic bone. It has yet to be elucidated which proteins and pathways underlying the progression of tHO, and biomarkers to predict the severity of tHO at early stage of the disease also need further investigation.

Methods: In this study, a new rat model with distinct volume of ectopic bone was established first. Then a data-independent acquisition proteomics approach was used to investigate injured site tissues sequentially obtained from these rats (2, 7, 14, and 28 days post-injury). Differentially expressed analysis, functional annotation and co-expression analysis and protein-protein interaction network were performed to explore the pathways and hub proteins in the tHO progression. Clinical samples from a nest case-control study were used to validate the selected proteins for predicting the severity of tHO.

Results: The Achilles Tenotomy (AT) induced significantly larger sizes of ectopic bone compared to Partial Achilles Tenotomy (PAT) in rat models. A total of 3547 quantifiable proteins were screened for differential expression analysis among the AT, PAT and control groups. The hierarchical clustering and expression pattern analysis revealed more apparent difference in the pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial function, and sirtuin signaling between AT and PAT group at the early stage (2 dpi) of tHO. The co-expression analysis identified five hub proteins, UBA1, EIF3E, RPL17, RPL27, and RPS28. qPCR assay, immunoblot assay and immunohistochemistry assay verified that these proteins had higher expression level in the tissue samples of clinically relevant HO patients and clinically irrelevant HO patients than HO negative patients.

Conclusion: The new established animal model and proteome profile could serve as a solid foundation for the comprehensive investigation of the progression of traumatic heterotopic ossification. And the identified 5 proteins (UBA1, EIF3E, RPL17, RPL27, and RPS28) may serve as potential biomarkers to predict the severity of tHO.

The Translational Potential Of This Article: The proteins identified in this study may be the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for predicting and treating the tHO at early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2022.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117278PMC
May 2022

Associations Between Online Learning, Smartphone Addiction Problems, and Psychological Symptoms in Chinese College Students After the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Public Health 2022 4;10:881074. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Education, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatrics Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Smartphone-based online education gained popularity during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Although recent studies have highlighted the association between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and mental health symptoms, the potential role of online learning in this relationship remains unclear. This study aimed o analyze the relationships between higher education modes, PSU, and related psychological symptoms in university students.

Methods: A total of 1,629 Chinese university students from five provinces completed a web-based questionnaire survey between March 2020 and October 2021. Demographic characteristics and learning conditions were recorded. All participants completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and Athens Insomnia Scale. Multiple regressions models and stratified analyses were used to examine the association between online education mode, PSU, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia.

Results: The prevalence of PSU was 58.5%. Students who relied primarily on online learning had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms (29.95% vs. 22.24%), anxiety symptoms (25.13% vs. 18.91%), and insomnia symptoms (75.89% vs. 70.27%) than those who relied on traditional face-to-face learning ( < 0.05). After adjusting for covariates, subjects with PSU were more likely to report depressive symptoms (AdjOR = 3.14, 95% CI = 2.26-4.37), anxiety symptoms (AdjOR = 3.73, 95% CI = 2.13-4.59), and insomnia symptoms (AdjOR = 2.96, 95% CI = 2.23-3.92) than those without PSU. Furthermore, the associations of PSU with depressive symptoms (OR = 4.66 vs. 2.33, for interaction = 0.015) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 6.05 vs. 2.94, for interaction = 0.021) were more pronounced in the online learning group.

Conclusion: Our study provides preliminary evidence that Chinese university students have serious smartphone addiction problems, which are associated with depressive, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms. Online learning is found to exacerbate PSU and mental health problems. Our findings provide valuable information for targeted psychological interventions in the post-COVID-19 era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.881074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9114473PMC
May 2022

In situ real time dosimetric studies for spine stereotactic body radiation therapy in a cadaver implanted with carbon fiber and titanium instrumentation.

World Neurosurg 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the dosimetric accuracy of post-operative SBRT in a carbon-fiber versus titanium instrumented spine using cadaveric model METHODS: In situ cadaveric implantation of titanium and carbon fiber instrumentation and dosimeter chips in a thoracic spine. The cadaver underwent SBRT and dose of RT was calculated, measured, and then compared. The sensors were placed in positions to provide data on dosimetry near the screws (within 1 cm) as well as between the screws. The differences between calculated and measured doses were reported as in percentage.

Results: There was a significant difference in the dosimetry from calculated versus measured values near the screws of carbon fiber compared to titanium (P = 0.0057) with a mean percentage difference of only 2.93 for CF and a much higher value of 19.32 for titanium near the screws. There was also greater variability in the percent difference for the two screw types, with differences ranging from -16.54% to 35.20% near titanium screws and -3.37% to 1.66% near CF screws.

Conclusion: More accurate dosimetry and RT delivery with carbon fiber screws compared to traditional titanium screws may have implications on optimal radiation delivery as well as complication avoidance. This may be due to reduced scatter and thus lower variability in radiation delivery with VMAT technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2022.05.043DOI Listing
May 2022

Screening of highly discriminative microhaplotype markers for individual identification and mixture deconvolution in East Asian populations.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2022 May 15;59:102720. Epub 2022 May 15.

National Engineering Laboratory for Forensic Science, Key Laboratory of Forensic Genetics of Ministry of Public Security, Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Public Security, Beijing 100038, China. Electronic address:

Microhaplotypes are forensic genetic markers that combine single nucleotide polymorphisms in close proximity to one another. Highly discriminative microhaplotype markers could be superior to short tandem repeats (STRs) in DNA mixture deconvolution investigations because they are not interfered by stutters. In this study, the effective number of alleles (A) and discrimination power values of microhaplotypes and STRs were compared. It was found that current microhaplotypes are not as discriminative as commonly used forensic STRs. Effective screening of highly discriminative microhaplotype markers were consequently conducted for East Asian populations. To satisfy different forensic application needs, four sets of microhaplotypes with A values ≥ 4 were screened for under different conditions that included marker length and physical distances between markers. While the four sets contained 703, 301, 337, and 190 microhaplotypes, their average A values reached 5.38, 6.30, 7.39, and 5.61, respectively. The microhaplotype group containing 301 markers (maximum length of 200 bp and separated by ≥ 5 million bases) was further investigated. The results showed that none of the 301 loci were exactly the same as those previously reported, while seven loci partially overlapped with known markers. While A values of 45 loci were ≥ 8, the A value of the mh17WL-008 locus reached a maximum of 93.57. Further analysis showed that the newly identified microhaplotype markers were also highly polymorphic in African, American, European, and South Asian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2022.102720DOI Listing
May 2022

Quantum Key Distribution over 658 km Fiber with Distributed Vibration Sensing.

Phys Rev Lett 2022 May;128(18):180502

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Twin-field quantum key distribution (TFQKD) promises ultralong secure key distribution which surpasses the rate distance limit and can reduce the number of the trusted nodes in long-haul quantum network. Tremendous efforts have been made toward implementation of TFQKD, among which, the secure key with finite size analysis can distribute more than 500 km in the lab and in the field. Here, we demonstrate the sending-or-not-sending TFQKD experimentally, achieving a secure key distribution with finite size analysis over a 658 km ultra-low-loss optical fiber. Meanwhile, in a TFQKD system, any phase fluctuation due to temperature variation and ambient variation during the channel must be recorded and compensated, and all this phase information can then be utilized to sense the channel vibration perturbations. With our quantum key distribution system, we recovered the external vibrational perturbations generated by artificial vibroseis on both the quantum and frequency calibration link, and successfully located the perturbation position in the frequency calibration fiber with a resolution better than 1 km. Our results not only set a new distance record of quantum key distribution, but also demonstrate that the redundant information of TFQKD can be used for remote sensing of the channel vibration, which can find applications in earthquake detection and landslide monitoring besides secure communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.180502DOI Listing
May 2022

An ultraweak mechanical stimuli actuated single electrode triboelectric nanogenerator with high energy conversion efficiency.

Nanoscale 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China.

Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) as a new energy harvester has attracted significant attention due to its excellent output performance and high energy conversion efficiency at low-frequency, small-amplitude and weak-force compared with a traditional electromagnetic generator. Here, an ultraweak mechanical stimuli actuated single electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (UMA-TENG) has been studied with an atomic force microscope. The electrical output and force curve of UMA-TENG were studied at first, as well as the maximum output performance and highest energy conversion efficiency. Then the influence of the driving frequency, separation distance and motion amplitude was investigated, respectively. Moreover, by introducing an external switch to reach a cycle of maximized energy output, the maximum energy conversion efficiency of the UMA-TENG was up to 73.6% with an input mechanical energy of 48 pJ. This work demonstrates that the TENG shows excellent performance in ultraweak mechanical stimuli and could broaden the applications of the TENG in sensors, actuators, micro-robotics, micro-electro-mechanical-systems, and wearable electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2nr01530gDOI Listing
May 2022

Steering the Reaction Pathways of Terminal Alkynes by Introducing Oxygen Species: From C-C Coupling to C-H Activation.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

Selective regulation of chemical reactions is crucial in chemistry. Oxygen, as a key reagent in ubiquitous oxidative chemistry, exhibits great potential in regulating molecular assemblies, and more importantly, chemical reactions in molecular systems supported by metal surfaces. However, the unique catalytic performance and reaction mechanisms of oxygen species remain elusive, which are essential for understanding reaction selection and regulation. In this study, by a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging/manipulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we showed that the on-surface reaction pathways of terminal alkynes could be steered from C-C coupling to C-H activation with high selectivity by introducing O into the molecular system. The catalytic performance and reaction mechanisms of oxygen species were explored in the C-H activation processes, and both molecular O and atomic O could efficiently steer the reaction pathways. These results would provide a fundamental understanding of interfacial catalytic reaction processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.2c01026DOI Listing
May 2022

2D Homologous Series SrFMBiS (M = Pb, AgBi; = 0, 1) and Commensurately Modulated SrFBiS.

Inorg Chem 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.

We report three new mixed-anion two-dimensional (2D) compounds: SrFPbBiS, SrFAgBiS, and SrFBiS. Their structures as well as the parent compound SrFBiS were refined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, with the sequence of SrFBiS, SrFPbBiS, and SrFAgBiS defining the new homologous series SrFMBiS (M = Pb, AgBi; = 0, 1). SrFBiS has a different structure, which is modulated with a vector of 1/3* and was refined in superspace group 2/(0β0)00 as well as in the 1 × 3 × 1 superstructure with space group 2/ (with similar results). SrFBiS features hexagonal layers of alternating [SrF] and [BiS], and the modulated structure arises from the unique ordering pattern of Sr cations. SrFPbBiS, SrFAgBiS, and SrFBiS are semiconductors with band gaps of 1.31, 1.21, and 1.85 eV, respectively. The latter compound exhibits room temperature red photoluminescence at ∼700 nm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c00663DOI Listing
May 2022

Friction-Dominated Carrier Excitation and Transport Mechanism for GaN-Based Direct-Current Triboelectric Nanogenerators.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Center on Nanoenergy Research, Research Center for Optoelectronic Materials and Devices,, School of Physical Science & Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 China.

The semiconductor triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on the tribovoltaic effect has the characteristics of direct current and high current density, but the energy transfer and conversion mechanism is not completely clear. Here, a series of gallium nitride (GaN)-based semiconductor direct-current TENGs (SDC-TENGs) are investigated for clarifying the carrier excitation and transport mechanism. During the friction process, the external output current always flows from GaN to silicon or aluminum, regardless of the direction of the built-in electric field, because of the semiconductor types. These results reveal that the carrier transport direction is dominated by the interfacial electric field formed by triboelectrification, which is also verified under different bias voltages. Moreover, the characteristics dependent on the frictional force have been systematically investigated under different normal forces and frictional modes. The open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of SDC-TENG are both increased with a larger frictional force, which shows that the more severe friction results in both a larger interface electric field and more excited carriers. The maximum voltage can reach 25 V for lighting up a series of LEDs, which is enhanced by four times compared to the cutting-edge reported SDC-TENGs. This work has clarified the friction-dominated carrier excitation and transport mechanism for the tribovoltaic effect, which demonstrates the great potential of semiconductor materials for frictional energy recovery and utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c03853DOI Listing
May 2022

Direct Comparison of Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy for Chemical Imaging.

J Vis Exp 2022 04 28(182). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Chemistry, Purdue University;

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy are the most widely used coherent Raman scattering imaging technologies. Hyperspectral SRS and CARS imaging offer Raman spectral information at every pixel, which enables better separation of different chemical compositions. Although both techniques require two excitation lasers, their signal detection schemes and spectral properties are quite different. The goal of this protocol is to perform both hyperspectral SRS and CARS imaging on a single platform and compare the two microscopy techniques for imaging different biological samples. The spectral focusing method is employed to acquire spectral information using femtosecond lasers. By using standard chemical samples, the sensitivity, spatial resolution, and spectral resolution of SRS and CARS in the same excitation conditions (i.e., power at the sample, pixel dwell time, objective lens, pulse energy) are compared. The imaging contrasts of CARS and SRS for biological samples are juxtaposed and compared. The direct comparison of CARS and SRS performances would allow for optimal selection of the modality for chemical imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/63677DOI Listing
April 2022

Microrheological Approach for Probing the Entanglement Properties of Polyelectrolyte Solutions.

ACS Macro Lett 2022 01 22;11(1):84-90. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Kunigami-gun, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan.

The entanglement dynamics and viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte solutions remain active research topics. Previous studies have reported conflicting experimental results when compared to Dobrynin's scaling predictions derived from the Doi-Edwards (DE) tube model for entangled polymers. Herein, by combining classical bulk shear rheometry with diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) microrheometry, we investigate how the key viscoelastic parameters (the specific viscosity η, the plateau modulus , and the ratio of the reptation time to the Rouse time of an entanglement strand τ/τ) depend on the polymer concentration for semidilute entangled (SE) solutions containing poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) with high molecular weight. Our experimental measurements yield ∝ , in good agreement with the scaling of ∝ predicted by Dobrynin's model for salt-free polyelectrolyte SE solutions, suggesting that the electrostatic interaction influences the viscoelastic properties of polyelectrolyte SE solutions. On the other hand, the deviation in the scaling exponent for η ∝ and τ/τ ∝ is observed between our DWS experiments and Dobrynin's model prediction (∝ ), likely due to the fact that Dobrynin's scaling model does not account for mechanisms such as the contour length fluctuation, the constraint release, and the retardation of solvent dynamics, which are known to occur for SE solutions of neutral polymers. Our results demonstrate that DWS serves as a powerful rheological tool to study the entanglement dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions. The scaling relationships obtained in this study provide new insights to the long-standing debate on the entanglement dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.1c00563DOI Listing
January 2022

Bioinspired Polyurethane Using Multifunctional Block Modules with Synergistic Dynamic Bonds.

ACS Macro Lett 2021 05 12;10(5):510-517. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education and College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Nature embraces an intriguing strategy to create high-performance biomaterials, such as spider silk which presents an unparalleled combination of stiffness, tensile strength, and toughness via hierarchical structures. However, to fabricate synthetic polymers with such excellent properties remains a challenging task. Inspired by the integration of multiblock backbone and densely H-bonding assemblies in spider silk as well as the delicate iron-catecholate complexes in mussel byssus, we proposed a novel molecular design with multifunctional block modules to obtain polymer materials that exhibit excellent mechanical property, self-healing ability, and reprocessability. It was achieved by introducing reversible iron-catechol (DOPA-Fe) cross-links and quadruple H-bonds bearing 2-ureido-4-[1]-pyrimidinone (UPy) dimers as multifunctional blocks into a segmented polyurethane backbone with urethane blocks and semicrystalline polycaprolactone (PCL) blocks. These two types of dynamic cross-linking knots served as the sacrificial bonds to dissipate energy efficiently under external stress burden, endowing the dual physical cross-linked networks with increased toughness and breaking elongation. Moreover, the DOPA-Fe complexes could increase the crystallization of PCL, leading to remarkably enhanced Young's modulus and tensile strength. Solid-state NMR revealed the formation of quadruple H-bonds in UPy dimers and the presence of DOPA-Fe complexes, which restricted the mobility of the mobile phase and enhanced the crystallinity of the PCL domain. This work provides a feasible way to develop bioinspired materials with self-healable and reprocessable features, in addition to balanced enhancement of both stiffness and toughness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.1c00054DOI Listing
May 2021

Investigating Differential Expressed Genes of LR08 Regulated by Soybean Protein and Peptides.

Foods 2022 Apr 26;11(9). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Engineering and Technology Research Center of Food Additives, National Soybean Processing Industry Technology Innovation Center, School of Food and Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China.

Soybean protein and peptides have the potential to promote the growth of , but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of () LR08 responding to soybean protein and peptides using transcriptome. The results showed that both digested protein (dpro) and digested peptides (dpep) could enhance a purine biosynthesis pathway which could provide more nucleic acid and ATP for bacteria growth. Moreover, dpep could be used instead of dpro to promote the ABC transporters, especially the genes involved in the transportation of various amino acids. Interestingly, dpro and dpep played opposite roles in modulating DEGs from the and gene families which participate in fatty acid biosynthesis. These not only provide a new direction for developing nitrogen-sourced prebiotics in the food industry but could also help us to understand the fundamental mechanism of the effects of dpro and dpep on their growth and metabolisms and provides relevant evidence for further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11091251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9105380PMC
April 2022

Annexin A protein family in atherosclerosis.

Clin Chim Acta 2022 May 10;531:406-417. Epub 2022 May 10.

Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Hengyang Medical College, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Atherosclerosis, a silent chronic vascular pathology, is the cause of the majority of cardiovascular ischaemic events. Atherosclerosis is characterized by a series of deleterious changes in cellularity, including endothelial dysfunction, transmigration of circulating inflammatory cells into the arterial wall, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, lipid accumulation in the intima, vascular local inflammatory response, atherosclerosis-related cells apoptosis and autophagy. Proteins of Annexin A (AnxA) family, the well-known Ca phospholipid-binding protein, have many functions in regulating inflammation-related enzymes and cell signaling transduction, thus influencing cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. There is now accumulating evidence that some members of the AnxA family, such as AnxA1, AnxA2, AnxA5 and AnxA7, play major roles in the development of atherosclerosis. This article discusses the major roles of AnxA1, AnxA2, AnxA5 and AnxA7, and the multifaceted mechanisms of the main biological process in which they are involved in atherosclerosis. Considering these evidences, it has been proposed that AnxA are drivers- and not merely participator- on the road to atherosclerosis, thus the progression of atherosclerosis may be prevented by targeting the expression or function of the AnxA family proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2022.05.009DOI Listing
May 2022

Better adherence to the Chinese Healthy Eating Index is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components.

Nutr Res 2022 Mar 9;104:20-28. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. China. Electronic address:

The Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) was built on Dietary Guidelines for Chinese-2016 and has been confirmed as a valid measuring instrument to evaluate the diet quality of the Chinese population. Studies have shown that healthy dietary patterns were associated with reduced metabolic syndrome (MS) risk. Here, we hypothesized a better adherence to CHEI was effective in preventing MS. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional study (n = 704; 298 males and 406 females) in Hubei. Dietary data were collected by 3-day 24-hour dietary recalls. MS was diagnosed using Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of type 2 Diabetes in China (2017 edition). Logistic regression and propensity and restricted cubic splines analysis were used to evaluate the associations of CHEI with MS and its components. In a comparison of the adjusted risk of MS in participants in the third and first tertile of CHEI, a 47% lower risk was observed for MS in females, especially for those who were middle-aged. However, no significant association of CHEI was exhibited with MS in males. Propensity analysis validated the findings in females, presenting a 58% lower MS risk and 71% lower risk of central obesity. It exhibited a linear association of CHEI score with MS and abdominal obesity. The associations were consistent after excluding those with prior hypertension or diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, a negative linear association was identified between CHEI score and MS and central obesity, which was pronounced in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2022.02.008DOI Listing
March 2022

Research on antibody changes and nucleic acid clearance in COVID-19 patients treated with convalescent plasma.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(4):2655-2667. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

The Eighth Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University Urumqi 830013, Xinjiang, China.

Purpose: To investigate changes in the production of IgM and IgG antibodies and the negative transformation of viral nucleic acids in COVID-19 patients after convalescent plasma therapy, and also to discuss the clinical therapeutic effect, so as to provide a basis for the treatment of COVID-19 using specific antibodies.

Methods: The convalescent plasma of recovered patients from COVID-19 was used to treat other patients, and the levels of antibodies IgM and IgG and the nucleic acid genes ORF1ab and N in the patients were tested regularly for statistical comparison and analysis.

Results: In general, the Ct value and concentration of IgM and IgG antibodies in the plasma infusion group were significantly higher (1-3 times higher) than those in the non-plasma infusion group, respectively, but these differences were not significant (P>0.05). However, the content of antibodies in severe patients in the plasma transfusion group was significantly higher than those in the non-plasma transfusion group at discharge, the results being statistically significant (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The application of convalescent plasma significantly increases the antibody content in severe and critical inpatients, effectively enhances immune function, accelerates the clearance of virus and the nucleic acid negative conversion rate, and significantly promotes early improvement in COVID-19 patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091113PMC
April 2022

Clinical features and burden of osteoporotic fractures among the elderly in the USA from 2016 to 2018.

Arch Osteoporos 2022 05 12;17(1):78. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Orthopaedics, International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Spinal Cord Injury, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, People's Republic of China.

This study provides a national estimate of the incidence of hospitalizations and assesses the clinical features and outcomes during inpatient admission due to osteoporotic fractures diagnosed by ICD-10-CM/PCS among the elderly in the USA, using the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2016-2018.

Purpose: To provide a national estimate of the incidence of hospitalizations and assess the clinical features and outcomes during inpatient admission due to osteoporotic fractures (OFs) among the elderly in the USA.

Methods: The study included all inpatients aged 65 years and older who participated in the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with OFs diagnosed by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification/Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS), using the US NIS, 2016-2018. Trends in epidemiological characteristics and outcomes were calculated by annual percentage change (APC).

Results: From 2016 to 2018, there were an estimated 0.16 million hospitalizations for OFs, and the estimated annual incidence rate changed from 995 cases per 1 million persons in 2016 to 1114 cases per 1 million persons in 2018 (APC, 5.8% [95% CI, 0.0 to 12.0]; P > 0.05). Over two-thirds of the patients (68.2%) were age-related osteoporosis with current pathological fracture, and OFs were more likely to occur in vertebra (51.7%) and femur (34.7%). During the hospitalization, the average length of stay (LOS) was 5.83 days, the average cost reached $60,901.04, and the overall mortality was 2.3%. All outcomes including LOS, average cost and mortality did not change significantly in 2016-2018 (all P values for trend were over 0.05).

Conclusion: Between 2016 and 2018, the incidence rate of OFs remained relatively stable, but the total number of cases was huge. OFs was predominantly age-related, mostly in vertebrae and femurs, with relatively stable cost and mortality during hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-022-01113-wDOI Listing
May 2022

Maladaptation after a virus host switch leads to increased activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 12;119(20):e2115354119. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95618.

SignificanceMyxoma virus (MYXV) is benign in the natural brush rabbit host but causes a fatal disease in European rabbits. Here, we demonstrate that MYXV M156 inhibited brush rabbit protein kinase R (bPKR) more efficiently than European rabbit PKR (ePKR). Because ePKR was not completely inhibited by M156, there was a depletion of short-half-life proteins like the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor IκBα, concomitant NF-κB activation and NF-κB target protein expression in ePKR-expressing cells. NF-κB pathway activation was blocked by either hypoactive or hyperactive M156 mutants. This demonstrates that maladaptation of viral immune antagonists can result in substantially different immune responses in aberrant hosts. These different host responses may contribute to altered viral dissemination and may influence viral pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2115354119DOI Listing
May 2022

Chemotactic response of Escherichia coli to polymer solutions.

Phys Biol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Rd, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, CHINA.

Polymers are important components of the complex fluid environment for microorganisms. The mechanical effects on bacterial motile behavior due to the viscous or viscoelastic properties of polymers were extensively studied, whereas possible chemical effects on bacterial motility through bacterial chemoreception of the polymers were unclear. Here we studied the chemotactic response of Escherichia coli to polymeric solutions by combining the bead assay and FRET measurements. We found that the wild-type E. coli strain exhibited an attractant response to widely used polymers such as Ficoll 400, PEG 20000 and PVP 360000, and the response amplitude from chemoreception was much larger than that from the load-dependence of motor switching due to viscosity change. The chemotactic response depended on the type of receptors and the chain length of the polymers. Our findings here provided novel ingredients for further studies of bacterial motile behavior in complex fluids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1478-3975/ac6eb1DOI Listing
May 2022

Activatable cancer sono-immunotherapy using semiconducting polymer nanobodies.

Adv Mater 2022 May 6:e2203246. Epub 2022 May 6.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637457, Singapore.

Despite the great promises of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) in combination cancer therapy, its clinical applications are hindered by the lack of efficient sonosensitizers and "always-on" pharmacological activities of therapeutic agents. Herein, we report the development of semiconducting polymers as efficient sonosensitizers and further development of sono-immunotherapeutic nanobodies (SPN ) for activatable cancer sono-immunotherapy. Conjugation of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies onto the polymer nanoparticles through O -cleavable linker affords SPN with relatively low CTLA-4 binding affinity. Upon sono-irradiation, SPN generates O not only to elicit sonodynamic effect to induce the immunogenic cell death, but also to release anti-CTLA-4 antibodies and trigger in situ checkpoint blockade. Such a synergistic therapeutic action mediated by SPN modulates the tumoricidal function of T-cell immunity by promoting the proliferation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and depleting immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, resulting in effective tumor regression, metastasis inhibition, durable immunological memory, and prevention of relapse. Therefore, this study represents a proof-of-concept sonodynamic strategy using semiconducting polymers for precise spatiotemporal control over immunotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202203246DOI Listing
May 2022

Effects of the Encapsulation Membrane in Operando Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

Nano Lett 2022 May 6;22(10):4137-4144. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.

Nanoscale tailoring of catalytic materials and Li-battery alternatives has elevated the importance of gas-phase electron microscopy. Such advanced techniques are often performed using an environmental cell inserted into a conventional S/TEM setup, as this method facilitates concurrent electrochemical and temperature stimulations in a convenient and cost-effective manner. However, these cells are made by encapsulating gas between two insulating membranes, which introduces additional electron scattering. We have evaluated strengths and limitations of the gas-phase E-cell S/TEM technique, both experimentally and through simulations, across a variety of practical parameters. We reveal the degradation of image quality in an E-cell setup from various components and explore opportunities to improve imaging quality through intelligent choice of experimental parameters. Our results underscore the benefits of using an E-cell STEM technique, due to its versatility and excellent ability to suppress the exotic contributions from the membrane device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c00893DOI Listing
May 2022

miR-320a targeting RGS5 aggravates atherosclerosis by promoting migration and proliferation of ox-LDL-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells.

Authors:
Chi Zhang Xun Wang

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

M.D., Department of Cardiology, Wuhan No. 3 Hospital, Wuhan 430061, Hubei, China.

Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in atherosclerosis (AS) progression. Here, we focused on how miR-320a affect AS progression via vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL)-stimulated VSMCs were used as an AS cell model and qRT-PCR was performed to measure miR-320a and RGS5 levels. CCK-8 and wound healing assays were used to detect the viability and migration of VSMCs. Western blotting was used to measure the protein expression levels of PCNA, Bax, and Bcl-2. The interaction of miR-320a and RGS5 was determined by dual-luciferase and RNA pull-down assays. MiR-320a was highly expressed while RGS5 showed low levels of expression in the arterial plaque tissues. Silencing of miR-320a blocked cell viability and migration, inhibited expression of the proliferation-specific protein PCNA in ox-LDL-treated VSMCs, promoted Bax protein expression and inhibited Bcl-2 protein expression. Furthermore, miR-320a was found to exert these effects by inhibiting RGS5 expression. Collectively, miR-320a promoted cell viability, migration, and proliferation while reducing apoptosis of ox-LDL-stimulated VSMCs by inhibiting RGS5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000001286DOI Listing
May 2022

Correction of out-of-focus microscopic images by deep learning.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2022 20;20:1957-1966. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

College of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, China.

Motivation: Microscopic images are widely used in basic biomedical research, disease diagnosis and medical discovery. Obtaining high-quality in-focus microscopy images has been a cornerstone of the microscopy. However, images obtained by microscopes are often out-of-focus, resulting in poor performance in research and diagnosis.

Results: To solve the out-of-focus issue in microscopy, we developed a Cycle Generative Adversarial Network (CycleGAN) based model and a multi-component weighted loss function. We train and test our network in two self-collected datasets, namely Leishmania parasite dataset captured by a bright-field microscope, and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) captured by a confocal fluorescence microscope. In comparison to other GAN-based deblurring methods, the proposed model reached state-of-the-art performance in correction. Another publicly available dataset, human cells dataset from the Broad Bioimage Benchmark Collection is used for evaluating the generalization abilities of the model. Our model showed excellent generalization capability, which could transfer to different types of microscopic image datasets.

Availability And Implementation: Code and dataset are publicly available at: https://github.com/jiangdat/COMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2022.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9062264PMC
April 2022

Parameter Space Optimization for Robust Controller Synthesis With Structured Feedback Gain.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2022 May 2;PP. Epub 2022 May 2.

Various optimal control and system designs involve searching for a feedback gain matrix with structural constraints. As an alternative solution, the parameter space methods map the constraints from the state space to another extended state-input space, in which an equivalent optimization problem is solved. However, to further extend its applications, there are still some issues need to be addressed, such as the limited type of structural constraints, the marginally stable solutions, and the low computation efficiency. In this article, we aim to make this method applicable to a class of structural constraints for some elements in the gain matrix being zero or with intrarow and intracolumn constraints. To address such structured control problem, we propose a procedure to transform the original system to an extended system with the decentralized feedback matrix. From here, the mapping rules to the parameter space are given for the decentralized feedback matrix with both intrarow and intracolumn constraints. To avoid oscillatory closed-loop dynamics, we include the closed-loop dominant pole constraints during optimization. In addition, to improve the computation efficiency during optimization, we revise the cutting plane logic, which allows adding multiple linear constraints within a single iteration. Simulation examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2022.3166775DOI Listing
May 2022

Urban-Rural Differences: The Impact of Social Support on the Use of Multiple Healthcare Services for Older People.

Authors:
Zhang Chi Hu Han

Front Public Health 2022 14;10:851616. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: There are many kinds of chronic diseases, high incidence and high hospitalization rate in older people caused by population aging. The increasing demand for healthcare services has become an increasingly prominent problem in Chinese society. The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of social support on multiple healthcare services for older people and the urban-rural differences among them.

Methods: The data are from our field survey in Shaanxi province in 2019. Using the Anderson model as the basic explanatory framework, this paper uses the Tobit-model to analyses the impact of social support for older people on the utilization of therapeutic healthcare services, and the Logit-model to analyze the impact of living arrangements and social support on the utilization of preventive healthcare services for older people.

Results: This paper examines the impact of formal and informal support on outpatient, inpatient, and preventive healthcare services for older people, provides an in-depth analysis of the differences in the impact of social support on healthcare service utilization between urban and rural older people and analyses the contribution of various factors to the impact. The coefficient effect is divided into two parts: the coefficient "premium" of urban older people relative to urban and rural older people as a whole, which accounts for 10.8% of the total difference; and the "premium" of urban and rural older people as a whole to rural older people, which accounts for 18.9% of the total difference. The coefficient effect accounts for 29.7 per cent of the total difference.

Conclusions: Rural older people place greater importance on the quantity of formal social support, while urban older people place greater importance on the quality of formal social support. The phenomenon of raising children for old age was evident in the use of healthcare services by rural older people, while the phenomenon of distant relatives being better than close neighbors was evident in the use of healthcare services by urban older people. Free preventive healthcare services in rural China have largely compensated for the lack of health benefits for rural older people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.851616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9051021PMC
May 2022

Heptanol-mediated phase separation determines phase preference of molecules in live cell membranes.

J Lipid Res 2022 Apr 28:100220. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Biological Sciences and Centre for Bioimaging Sciences (CBIS), National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore; Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore. Electronic address:

The localization of many membrane proteins within cholesterol- and sphingolipid-containing microdomains is essential for proper cell signaling and function. These membrane domains, however, are too small and dynamic to be recorded, even with modern super-resolution techniques. Therefore, the association of membrane proteins with these domains can only be detected with biochemical assays that destroy the integrity of cells, require pooling of many cells, and take a long time to perform. Here, we present a simple membrane fluidizer-induced clustering (MFIC) approach to identify the phase-preference of membrane associated molecules in individual live cells within 10-15 minutes. Experiments in phase-separated bilayers and live cells on molecules with known phase preference show that heptanol hyperfluidizes the membrane and stabilizes phase separation. This results in a transition from nano- to micron-sized clusters of associated molecules allowing their identification using routine microscopy techniques. MFIC is an inexpensive and easy to implement method that can be conducted at large-scale and allows easy identification of protein partitioning in live cell membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlr.2022.100220DOI Listing
April 2022

Exposed facets mediated interaction of polystyrene nanoplastics (PSNPs) with iron oxides nanocrystal.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Aug 25;435:128994. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agro-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Nanoplastics (NPs), which are often detected in the natural environment, are regarded as a group of emerging pollutants. Hematite is a substance that exists widely in the surface environment and has an important impact on the environmental behavior of pollutants. Clarifying the migration of NPs requires an in-depth understanding of intrinsic interaction mechanisms of NPs with iron-containing minerals. The interaction process of polystyrene nanoplastics (PSNPs) on the hematite exposed facets was systematically studied by experiments under different conditions, adsorption isotherm curves, Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) analyses. We found that PSNPs were adsorbed on the three exposed faces of hematite ({001}, {012}, and {100}) by electrostatic interaction, respectively, but the capacities for PSNPs were different. Adsorption models were established to explore the preferred interaction surface dependent on the exposed facets, and it was found that {012} surfaces were more favorable for PSNPs adsorption, while {001} surface has better adsorption capacity for PSNPs than {100} surface, which is due to the different density and proportion of hydroxyl groups on the exposed facets of hematite. These findings elucidated the dependence of PSNPs adsorption on the hematite facets, and illustrated t the effect of hematite on the migration of PSNPs in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128994DOI Listing
August 2022

Residual RAKI: A hybrid linear and non-linear approach for scan-specific k-space deep learning.

Neuroimage 2022 Aug 27;256:119248. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Parallel imaging is the most clinically used acceleration technique for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in part due to its easy inclusion into routine acquisitions. In k-space based parallel imaging reconstruction, sub-sampled k-space data are interpolated using linear convolutions. At high acceleration rates these methods have inherent noise amplification and reduced image quality. On the other hand, non-linear deep learning methods provide improved image quality at high acceleration, but the availability of training databases for different scans, as well as their interpretability hinder their adaptation. In this work, we present an extension of Robust Artificial-neural-networks for k-space Interpolation (RAKI), called residual-RAKI (rRAKI), which achieves scan-specific machine learning reconstruction using a hybrid linear and non-linear methodology. In rRAKI, non-linear CNNs are trained jointly with a linear convolution implemented via a skip connection. In effect, the linear part provides a baseline reconstruction, while the non-linear CNN that runs in parallel provides further reduction of artifacts and noise arising from the linear part. The explicit split between the linear and non-linear aspects of the reconstruction also help improve interpretability compared to purely non-linear methods. Experiments were conducted on the publicly available fastMRI datasets, as well as high-resolution anatomical imaging, comparing GRAPPA and its variants, compressed sensing, RAKI, Scan Specific Artifact Reduction in K-space (SPARK) and the proposed rRAKI. Additionally, highly-accelerated simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) functional MRI reconstructions were also performed, where the proposed rRAKI was compred to Read-out SENSE-GRAPPA and RAKI. Our results show that the proposed rRAKI method substantially improves the image quality compared to conventional parallel imaging, and offers sharper images compared to SPARK and ℓ-SPIRiT. Furthermore, rRAKI shows improved preservation of time-varying dynamics compared to both parallel imaging and RAKI in highly-accelerated SMS fMRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119248DOI Listing
August 2022

Optically levitated conveyor belt based on polarization-dependent metasurface lens arrays.

Opt Lett 2022 May;47(9):2194-2197

In this Letter, we have proposed an optically levitated conveyor belt based on periodic arrays of a polarization-dependent nanoslit-based metasurface lens (NBML) that is capable of realizing far-field capture, transport, and sorting. The NBML in arrays can be lit up in a relay way by rotating the polarization angle of the excitation beam and thereby provide a better stiffness for transporting particles. When excited at the wavelength of 1064 nm and power density of 0.3 mW/µm, the particles will follow the directional movement of hot spots with an alternative switch of polarization angle and the success ratio of transport can be up to 97.0% with the consideration of Brownian motion. Furthermore, the influence of polarization switching time and incident optical power densities on the efficiency of transport are investigated numerically from a statistical point of view. The sorting of particles with different sizes has also been proved in a given power density. With the analysis of numerical results, our research provides a new approach, to the best of our knowledge, for particle trapping and transport, which is beneficial to on-chip optofluidic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.457314DOI Listing
May 2022

Correction: Natural bamboo leaves as dielectric layers for flexible capacitive pressure sensors with adjustable sensitivity and a broad detection range.

RSC Adv 2021 Jul 27;11(42):25848-25849. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Applied Physics and Materials, Wuyi University Jiangmen 529020 Guangdong P. R. China

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1039/D1RA03207K.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra90133hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9037309PMC
July 2021
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