Publications by authors named "Chao Ma"

1,304 Publications

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Fishing of α-Glucosidase's Ligands from by α-Glucosidase Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles.

Molecules 2021 Sep 26;26(19). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China.

α-Glucosidase was immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for selective solid-phase extraction of the enzyme's ligands present in , which is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases and possesses anti-diabetic activity. One new compound, aloeacone (), together with two known compounds, aloenin aglycone () and aloin A (), were fished out as the enzyme's ligands. The structure of was determined by HR-MS and comprehensive NMR techniques. Compound exhibited a weak inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, while compounds and were found to possess activation effects on the enzyme for the first time. It is interesting that both an inhibitor and agonists of α-glucosidase were fished out in one experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510290PMC
September 2021

Survival in Young-Onset Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Findings from Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance)/SWOG 80405.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The incidence of young-onset colorectal cancer (yoCRC) is increasing. It is unknown if there are survival differences between young and older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).

Methods: We studied the association of age with survival in 2326 mCRC patients enrolled in the CALGB/SWOG 80405 trial, a multi-center, randomized trial of first-line chemotherapy plus biologics. The primary and secondary outcomes of this study were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), respectively, which were assessed by Kaplan Meier method and compared among younger versus older patients with the log-rank test. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on Cox proportional hazards modeling, adjusting for known prognostic variables. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Of 2326 eligible subjects, 514 (22.1%) were younger than age 50 years at study entry (yoCRC cohort). The median age of yoCRC patients was 44.3 vs. 62.5 years in patients age 50 and over. There was no statistically significant difference in OS between yoCRC vs. older-onset patients (median = 27.07 vs. 26.12 months; adjusted HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.88-1.10, P = .78). The median PFS was also similar in yoCRC vs. older patients (10.87 vs. 10.55 months) with an adjusted HR of 1.02 (95% CI = 0.92-1.13, P = .67). Patients younger than age 35 years had the shortest OS with median OS of 21.95 vs. 26.12 months in older-onset patients with an adjusted HR of 1.08 (95% CI = 0.81-1.44, Ptrend =0.93).

Conclusion: In this large study of mCRC patients, there were no statistically significant differences in survival between patients with yoCRC and CRC patients age 50 and older.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab200DOI Listing
October 2021

Design and Synthesis of New Quinoxaline Derivatives as Potential Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Targeting Hepatocellular Carcinoma: , , and SAR Studies.

Front Chem 2021 22;9:725135. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Horus University-Egypt, New Damietta, Egypt.

Guided by the structural optimization principle and the promising anticancer effect of the quinoxaline nucleus, a new series of novel HDAC inhibitors were designed and synthesized. The synthesized compounds were designed to bear the reported pharmacophoric features of the HDAC inhibitors in addition to an extra moiety to occupy the non-used vacant deep pocket of the HDAC receptor. The newly prepared compounds were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities against HepG-2 and HuH-7 liver cancer cell lines. The tested compounds showed promising anti-proliferative activities against both cell lines. The most active ten candidates ( , , , , , , , , , and ) were further evaluated for their effect on the gene expression levels of Bax as an apoptotic marker and Bcl-2 as an anti-apoptotic one. Moreover, they were evaluated for their ability to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC1, HDAC4, and HDAC6) activities. Compound achieved the best cytotoxic activities on both HepG-2 and HuH-7 cell lines with IC values of 1.53 and 3.06 µM, respectively, and also it showed the most inhibitory activities on HDAC1, HDAC4, and HDAC6 with IC values of 1.76, 1.39, and 3.46 µM, respectively, compared to suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) as a reference drug (IC = 0.86, 0.97, and 0.93 µM, respectively). Furthermore, it achieved a more characteristic arrest in the growth of cell population of HepG-2 at both G0/G1 and S phases with 1.23-, and 1.18-fold, respectively, compared to that of the control, as determined by cell cycle analysis. Also, compound showed a marked elevation in the AnxV-FITC apoptotic HepG-2 cells percentage in both early and late phases increasing the total apoptosis percentage by 9.98-, and 10.81-fold, respectively, compared to the control. Furthermore, docking studies were carried out to identify the proposed binding mode of the synthesized compounds towards the prospective target (HDAC4). ADMET and toxicity studies revealed that most of the synthesized compounds have accepted profiles of drug-likeness with low toxicity. Finally, an interesting SAR analysis was concluded to help the future design of more potent HDACIs in the future by medicinal chemists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.725135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493129PMC
September 2021

Does integrated medical insurance system alleviate the difficulty of using cross-region health Care for the Migrant Parents in China-- evidence from the China migrants dynamic survey.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Oct 5;21(1):1053. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

University of International Business and Economics, Institute of International Economy, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: Many internal migrants during the urbanization process in China are Migrant Parents, the aging group who move to urban areas to support their family involuntarily. They are more vulnerable economically and physically than the younger migrants. However, the fragmentation of rural and urban health insurance schemes divided by "hukou" household registration system limit migrant's access to healthcare services in their resident location. Some counties have started to consolidate the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) and the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) as one Integrated Medical Insurance Schemes (IMIS) from 2008. The consolidation aimed to reduce the disparity between different schemes and increase the health care utilization of migrants.

Results: Using the inpatient sample of migrant parents from China Migrants Dynamic Survey in 2015, we used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) for regression models. We found that the migrant parents covered by the IMIS are more likely to choose inpatient services and seek medical treatment in the migrant destination. We further subdivide Non-IMISs into NCMSs and URBMIs in the regression to alleviate the doubt about endogenous. The results revealed that the migrant parents in IMIS use more local medical services than both of them in URBMI and NCMS.

Conclusions: The potential mechanisms of our results could be that IMIS alleviates the difficulty of seeking medical care in migrant destinations by improving the convenience of medical expense reimbursement and enhancing health insurance benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-07069-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493687PMC
October 2021

Electron penetration triggering interface activity of Pt-graphene for CO oxidation at room temperature.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 4;12(1):5814. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, 361005, Xiamen, China.

Achieving CO oxidation at room temperature is significant for gas purification but still challenging nowadays. Pt promoted by 3d transition metals (TMs) is a promising candidate for this reaction, but TMs are prone to be deeply oxidized in an oxygen-rich atmosphere, leading to low activity. Herein we report a unique structure design of graphene-isolated Pt from CoNi nanoparticles (PtǀCoNi) for efficiently catalytic CO oxidation in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. CoNi alloy is protected by ultrathin graphene shell from oxidation and therefore modulates the electronic property of Pt-graphene interface via electron penetration effect. This catalyst can achieve near 100% CO conversion at room temperature, while there are limited conversions over Pt/C and Pt/CoNiO catalysts. Experiments and theoretical calculations indicate that CO will saturate Pt sites, but O can adsorb at the Pt-graphene interface without competing with CO, which facilitate the O activation and the subsequent surface reaction. This graphene-isolated system is distinct from the classical metal-metal oxide interface for catalysis, and it provides a new thought for the design of heterogeneous catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26089-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490350PMC
October 2021

The association of depressive symptoms with disability among adults in China.

J Affect Disord 2021 Sep 17;296:189-197. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Tianjin Anding Hospital, Tianjin 300222, China.

Background: The symptoms that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience are the dominant contributing factors to its heavy disease burden. This study sought to identify key symptoms leading to disability in patients with MDD.

Methods: Subjects consisted of patients who had a 12-month MDD diagnosis based on the China Mental Health Survey (CMHS). World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was used to assess the degree of disability. The associations between depressive symptoms and disability were analyzed using a linear regression and logistic regression with a complex sampling design.

Results: Of the 32,552 community residents, 655 patients were diagnosed with 12-month MDD. The disability rate due to MDD was 1.06% (95% CI: 0.85%-1.28%) among adults in Chinese community and 50.7% (95% CI: 44.3%-57.1%) among MDD patients. Depression was associated with all functional losses measured by the WHODAS. Feelings of worthlessness in life or inappropriate guilt, and psychomotor agitation or retardation were the key symptoms related to disability. Economic status, co-morbidity of physical diseases or anxiety disorders were correlates of disability scores.

Limitations: The disability rate might be underestimated due to the exclusion of MDD patients living in hospitals. The effect of treatments on disability was excluded.

Conclusions: Psychological symptoms, not somatic symptoms, contribute to disability in MDD patients. Disability worsens when physical diseases or anxiety disorders are present. More attention could be paid to psychological symptoms, physical diseases, and anxiety disorders in MDD patients with disabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.09.030DOI Listing
September 2021

Occurrence of necrosis of balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus) caused by Nigrospora sphaerica in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Oct 3. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

ShenYang Agricultural University, Plant Protection, ShenYang city dongling road Num.120, Shenyang, Liaoning, China, 110161.

Balloon flower (Platycodon grandifloras (Jacq.) A.DC.) is a perennial dicotyledonous herb. It is one of the most commonly usedmost used medicinal plants in China with broad applications. It is also a functional food rich in polysaccharides, minerals, and fibres (Lee et al. 2014). Field surveys conducted in August and September of 2020 in major balloon flower-growing regions of Anhui province (115°25 'E, 33°08' N) in China revealed the occurrence of an unknown disease with characteristic necrosis symptoms. The disease occurred in 6 to 8% of the balloon flower leaves. Symptoms were characterized by leaf necrosis and plant withering. Infected leaves were cut into small pieces, surface-sterilized with 2% NaOCl for 2 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water for three times, and dried by blotting filter paper. Treated tissues were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at room temperature (25 ± 2C) for 2 days. Colonies grew rapidly and reached 8 cm in diameter after 15 days at 25C. Pure cultures were obtained, and their colonies were initially white and eventually turned grey. Conidia were black, single-celled, smooth, spherical, 10 to 22 μm in diameter (n = 30), and borne singly on a hyaline vesicle at the tip of each conidiophore. Based on the characteristics of colony morphology, the fungus was identified as Nigrospora species. Pathogenicity test was conducted on healthy balloon flower plants grown under greenhouse conditions to complete Koch's postulates. The adaxial surface of each of five healthy leaves was pricked and inoculated with a disc grown with the 6-day-old mycelium of Nigrospora species. Five leaves inoculated with PDA-only discs served as the controls. Treated leaves were wrapped with parafilm and treated plants were covered with polyethylene bags for 24 to 48 h. After 10 days of inoculation, typical necrotic lesions and stem necrotic developed on the inoculated leaves while no symptoms developed on the control leaves. The same fungus was re-isolated from diseased leaves and its identity confirmed based on morphology and culture characteristics. To confirm the identification, total DNA was extracted and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial sequence of the β-tubulin (TUB) gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) gene were amplified and sequenced using the primers ITS1/ITS4 (5'-TCCGTAGGTGAACCTGCGG-3' and 5'-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3') (White et al. 1990), Bt2a/Bt2b (5'-GGTAACCAAATCGGTGCTGCTTTC-3' and 5'-ACCCTCAGTGTAGTGACCCTTGGC3') (Glass and Donaldson 1995), and EF1-728F/EF1-986R (5'-CATCGAGAAGTTCGAGAAGG3' and 5'TACTTGAAGGAACCCTTACC-3') (Carbone and Kohn 1999), respectively. The sequences (GenBank acc. no. MW082789 for ITS, MW368916 for TUB, and MW368915 for TEF1) were aligned using Blastn in GenBank, revealing 100% identity (97% coverage) with Nigrospora sphaerica for ITS (MW081353), 100% identity (97% coverage) with N. sphaerica for TUB (MN719407), and 99% identity (98% coverage) with N. sphaerica for TEF1 (MN053315). Based on morphological, microscopic, and molecular characteristics, the associated fungal pathogen was identified as N. sphaerica. This is the first report of N. sphaerica causing necrosis disease on balloon flower in China. This study provides important information for the identification of the balloon flower fungal disease, which will help develop management strategies to reduce economic losses caused by the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-21-0960-PDNDOI Listing
October 2021

Polarization-insensitive ultra-short waveguide taper.

Opt Lett 2021 Oct;46(19):5027-5030

Waveguide taper, a key component in the photonic integrated circuit (PIC), enables on-chip mode conversion, but large-footprint tapers are detrimental to the PIC, which desires compact and efficient devices. Polarization sensitivity also limits the tapers in the applications involving orthogonal modes. In this work, we design an efficient polarization-insensitive ultra-short MMI-based waveguide taper, through the mode spreading principle and the self-image principle. The proposed taper is 26.3 µm long, one order of magnitude shorter than the standard linear taper. We fabricate the taper, and experimentally demonstrate that it exhibits a high transmission efficiency of ∼70 and a wide 1 dB bandwidth of >54, for both TE and TM polarizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.436223DOI Listing
October 2021

Immunoreactivity and a new staining method of monocarboxylate transporter 1 located in endothelial cells of cerebral vessels of human brain in distinguishing cerebral venules from arterioles.

Eur J Histochem 2021 Oct 1;65(s1). Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College.

Distinguishing brain venules from arterioles with arteriolosclerosis is less reliable using traditional staining methods. We aimed to immunohistochemically assess the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), a specific marker of venous endothelium found in rodent studies, in different caliber vessels in human brains. Both largeand small-caliber cerebral vessels were dissected from four autopsy donors. Immunoreactivity for MCT1 was examined in all autopsied human brain tissues, and then each vessel was identified by neuropathologists using hematoxylin and eosin stain, the Verhoeff's Van Gieson stain, immunohistochemical stain with antibodies for α-smooth muscle actin and MCT1 in sequence. A total of 61 cerebral vessels, including 29 arteries and 32 veins were assessed. Immunoreactivity for MCT1 was observed in the endothelial cells of various caliber veins as well as the capillaries, whereas that was immunenegative in the endothelium of arteries. The different labeling patterns for MCT1 could aid in distinguishing various caliber veins from arteries, whereas assessment using the vessel shape, the internal elastic lamina, and the pattern of smooth muscle fibers failed to make the distinction between small-caliber veins and sclerotic arterioles. In conclusion, MCT1 immunohistochemical staining is a sensitive and reliable method to distinguish cerebral veins from arteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ejh.2021.3306DOI Listing
October 2021

Burden of Mental and Substance Use Disorders - China, 1990-2019.

China CDC Wkly 2020 Oct;2(41):804-809

National Center for Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Mental and substance use disorders have notable contributions to the disease burden in China.



In China, mental disorders and substance use disorders accounted for 20.29 million and 5.76 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2019, respectively; depressive disorders were the leading cause of DALYs. For mental disorders, the numbers of DALYs increased 12.06% from 2000 to 2019 while the standardized rates declined 5.24%; for substance use disorders, both the numbers and standardized rates of DALYs decreased 8.52% and 18.52%, respectively.



Mental and substance use disorders pose a challenge to the healthcare system in China. The government should take action and decrease the associated burden of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2020.219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393143PMC
October 2020

Differentiating prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia using whole-lesion histogram and texture analysis of diffusion- and T2-weighted imaging.

Cancer Imaging 2021 Sep 27;21(1):54. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Radiology, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai, The Second Military Medical University, No.168 Changhai Road, 200433, Shanghai, China.

Background: To explore the usefulness of analyzing histograms and textures of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and T2-weighted (T2W) images to differentiate prostatic cancer (PCa) from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using histopathology as the reference.

Methods: Ninety patients with PCa and 112 patients with BPH were included in this retrospective study. Differences in whole-lesion histograms and texture parameters of ADC maps and T2W images between PCa and BPH patients were evaluated using the independent samples t-test. The diagnostic performance of ADC maps and T2W images in being able to differentiate PCa from BPH was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS : The mean, median, 5, and 95 percentiles of ADC values in images from PCa patients were significantly lower than those from BPH patients (p < 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the means, standard deviations, medians, kurtosis, skewness, and 5 percentile values of T2W image between PCa and BPH patients (p < 0.05). The ADC showed the largest AUC (0.906) with a sensitivity of 83.3 % and specificity of 89.3 %. The diagnostic performance of the T2W image histogram and texture analysis was moderate and had the largest AUC of 0.634 for T2W with a sensitivity and specificity of 48.9% and 79.5 %, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the combined ADC & T2W parameters was also similar to that of the ADC & ADC.

Conclusions: Histogram and texture parameters derived from the ADC maps and T2W images for entire prostatic lesions could be used as imaging biomarkers to differentiate PCa and BPH biologic characteristics, however, histogram parameters outperformed texture parameters in the diagnostic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40644-021-00423-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8477463PMC
September 2021

CD68 Macrophage Infiltration Associates With Poor Outcome of HPV Negative Oral Squamous Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation: Poly(I:C) Enhances Radiosensitivity of CAL-27 Cells but Promotes Macrophage Recruitment Through HMGB1.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:740622. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Laboratory of Basic Medical Sciences, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) negative oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) generally have poor clinical outcomes and worse responses to radiotherapy. It is urgent to explore the underlining mechanisms of the distinct prognoses between HPV negative and HPV positive OSCC and to develop effective therapy strategy to increase the survival rate of HPV negative OSCC patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort of 99 resected OSCC patients to evaluate the prognosis of HPV negative and HPV positive OSCC patients receiving radiation or not. We further addressed the association of CD68 macrophage infiltration with HPV status and the effects on survival of OSCC patients. We also used the TCGA-OSCC cohort for further verification. Based on the cohort study, we applied a synthetic dsRNA polymer, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), on CAL-27 (HPV negative OSCC cells). We co-cultured its condition medium with THP-1 derived macrophage and examined the cytokines and macrophage migration. We found that high CD68 macrophage infiltration associated with poor overall survival in HPV negative OSCC patients receiving radiation. , poly(I:C) could induce apoptosis and enhance the radiosensitivity, but increase macrophage recruitment. Targeting HMGB1 could inhibit IL-6 induction and macrophage recruitment. Our findings indicated that CD68 macrophage might play an important role in the outcomes of HPV negative OSCC patients receiving radiation. Our findings also suggested that radiation combined poly(I:C) might be a potential therapy strategy to increase the radiation response and prognosis of HPV negative OSCC. Notably, HMGB1 should be targeted to inhibit macrophage recruitment and enhance overall therapy effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.740622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459684PMC
September 2021

A monolithic InP/SOI platform for integrated photonics.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Sep 26;10(1):200. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

The deployment of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) necessitates an integration platform that is scalable, high-throughput, cost-effective, and power-efficient. Here we present a monolithic InP on SOI platform to synergize the advantages of two mainstream photonic integration platforms: Si photonics and InP photonics. This monolithic InP/SOI platform is realized through the selective growth of both InP sub-micron wires and large dimension InP membranes on industry-standard (001)-oriented silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. The epitaxial InP is in-plane, dislocation-free, site-controlled, intimately positioned with the Si device layer, and placed right on top of the buried oxide layer to form "InP-on-insulator". These attributes allow for the realization of various photonic functionalities using the epitaxial InP, with efficient light interfacing between the III-V devices and the Si-based waveguides. We exemplify the potential of this InP/SOI platform for integrated photonics through the demonstration of lasers with different cavity designs including subwavelength wires, square cavities, and micro-disks. Our results here mark a critical step forward towards fully-integrated Si-based PICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-021-00636-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473568PMC
September 2021

An acupoint-originated human interstitial fluid circulatory network.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Sep 21;134(19):2365-2369. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Cardiology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509956PMC
September 2021

Prevalence of depressive disorders and treatment in China: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

Lancet Psychiatry 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Mental Health Centre, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: In China, depressive disorders have been estimated to be the second leading cause of years lived with disability. However, nationally representative epidemiological data for depressive disorders, in particular use of mental health services by adults with these disorders, are unavailable in China. The present study, part of the China Mental Health Survey, 2012-15, aims to describe the socioeconomic characteristics and the use of mental health services in people with depressive disorders in China.

Methods: The China Mental Health Survey was a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of mental disorders in a multistage clustered-area probability sample of adults of Chinese nationality (≥18 years) from 157 nationwide representative population-based disease surveillance points in 31 provinces across China. Trained investigators interviewed the participants with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 to ascertain the presence of lifetime and 12-month depressive disorders according to DSM-IV criteria, including major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and depressive disorder not otherwise specified. Participants with 12-month depressive disorders were asked whether they received any treatment for their emotional problems during the past 12 months and, if so, the specific types of treatment providers. The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was used to assess impairments associated with 12-month depressive symptoms. Data-quality control procedures included logic check by computers, sequential recording check, and phone-call check by the quality controllers, and reinterview check by the psychiatrists. Data were weighted according to the age-sex-residence distribution data from China's 2010 census population survey to adjust for differential probabilities of selection and differential response, as well as to post-stratify the sample to match the population distribution.

Findings: 28 140 respondents (12 537 [44·6%] men and 15 603 [55·4%] women) completed the survey between July 22, 2013, and March 5, 2015. Ethnicity data (Han or non-Han) were collected for only a subsample. Prevalence of any depressive disorders was higher in women than men (lifetime prevalence odds ratio [OR] 1·44 [95% CI 1·20-1·72] and 12-month prevalence OR 1·41 [1·12-1·78]), in unemployed people than employed people (lifetime OR 2·38 [95% CI 1·68-3·38] and 12-month OR 2·80 [95% CI 1·88-4·18]), and in people who were separated, widowed, or divorced compared with those who were married or cohabiting (lifetime OR 1·87 [95% CI 1·39-2·51] and 12-month OR 1·85 [95% CI 1·40-2·46]). Overall, 574 (weighted % 75·9%) of 744 people with 12-month depressive disorders had role impairment of any SDS domain: 439 (83·6%) of 534 respondents with major depressive disorder, 207 (79·8%) of 254 respondents with dysthymic disorder, and 122 (59·9%) of 189 respondents with depressive disorder not otherwise specified. Only an estimated 84 (weighted % 9·5%) of 1007 participants with 12-month depressive disorders were treated in any treatment sector: 38 (3·6%) in speciality mental health, 20 (1·5%) in general medical, two (0·3%) in human services, and 21 (2·7%) in complementary and alternative medicine. Only 12 (0·5%) of 1007 participants with depressive disorders were treated adequately.

Interpretation: Depressive disorders in China were more prevalent in women than men, unemployed people than employed, and those who were separated, widowed, or divorced than people who were married or cohabiting. Most people with depressive disorders reported social impairment. Treatment rates were very low, and few people received adequate treatment. National programmes are needed to remove barriers to availability, accessibility, and acceptability of care for depression in China.

Funding: National Health Commission and Ministry of Science and Technology of People's Republic of China.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00251-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Roles of N6-Methyladenosine Demethylase FTO in Malignant Tumors Progression.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 16;14:4837-4846. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, People's Republic of China.

In 2007, the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene was discovered initially to regulate body mass index and obesity and was subsequently found to be the first mRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) demethylation enzyme, which can demethylate m6A. A growing body of evidence shows that m6A modification is involved in a variety of cell biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and self-renewal through different regulatory mechanisms. In recent years, a large number of studies have found that m6A modification play key role in the occurrence and development of tumors, such as acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, lung cancer, etc. As a function of m6A demethylase, FTO has attracted more and more attention in cancer. There is evidence that specific FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be significantly associated with overweight and cancer susceptibility by regulating the expression of related genes. Besides, when the expression level of FTO is altered or dysfunctional, it may be involved in the occurrence and progression of a variety of tumors as a tumor suppressor gene or oncogene, usually in an m6A-dependent manner. Further research found that FTO is involved in the development of different kinds of malignant tumors, but the mechanism is unknown. According to this review, The FTO gene's research progress in tumors is reviewed, aiming to find new targets for molecular pathological diagnosis and molecular targeted therapy of tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S329232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8453432PMC
September 2021

Rational Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Oxazolo[4,5-c]-quinolinone Analogs as Novel Interleukin-33 Inhibitors.

Chem Asian J 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

College of Pharmacy, Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong, 30019, South Korea.

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an epithelial-derived cytokine that plays an important role in immune-mediated diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Although IL-33 is considered a potential target for the treatment of allergy-related diseases, no small molecule that inhibits IL-33 has been reported. Based on the structure-activity relationship and in vitro 2D NMR studies employing N-labeled IL-33, we identified that the oxazolo[4,5-c]-quinolinone analog 7 c binds to the interface region of IL-33 and IL-33 receptor (ST2), an orphan receptor of the IL-1 receptor family. Compound 7 c effectively inhibited the production of IL-6 in human mast cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 7 c is the first low molecular weight IL-33 inhibitor and may be used as a prototype molecule for structural optimization and investigation of the IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100896DOI Listing
September 2021

Identification of a Novel Prognostic Gene Signature From the Immune Cell Infiltration Landscape of Osteosarcoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:718624. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) mainly comprises tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells mixed with stromal components. Latestresearch hasdisplayed that tumor immune cell infiltration (ICI) is associated with the clinical outcome of patients with osteosarcoma (OS). This work aimed to build a gene signature according to ICI in OS for predicting patient outcomes. The TARGET-OS dataset was used for model training, while the GSE21257 dataset was taken forvalidation. Unsupervised clustering was performed on the training cohort based on the ICI profiles. The Kaplan-Meier estimator and univariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify the differentially expressed genes between clusters to preliminarily screen for potential prognostic genes. We incorporated these potential prognostic genes into a LASSO regression analysis and produced a gene signature, which was next assessed with the Kaplan-Meier estimator, Cox proportional hazards models, ROC curves, IAUC, and IBS in the training and validation cohorts. In addition, we compared our signature to previous models. GSEAswere deployed to further study the functional mechanism of the signature. We conducted an analysis of 22 TICsfor identifying the role of TICs in the gene signature's prognosis ability. Data from the training cohort were used to generate a nine-gene signature. The Kaplan-Meier estimator, Cox proportional hazards models, ROC curves, IAUC, and IBS validated the signature's capacity and independence in predicting the outcomes of OS patients in the validation cohort. A comparison with previous studies confirmed the superiority of our signature regarding its prognostic ability. Annotation analysis revealed the mechanism related to the gene signature specifically. The immune-infiltration analysis uncoveredkey roles for activated mast cells in the prognosis of OS. We identified a robust nine-gene signature (ZFP90, UHRF2, SELPLG, PLD3, PLCB4, IFNGR1, DLEU2, ATP6V1E1, and ANXA5) that can predict OS outcome precisely and is strongly linked to activated mast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.718624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450587PMC
September 2021

Predicting the Survival and Immune Landscape of Colorectal Cancer Patients Using an Immune-Related lncRNA Pair Model.

Front Genet 2021 6;12:690530. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of General Surgery, The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that immune-related long non-coding ribonucleic acids (irlncRNAs) can be used as prognostic indicators of overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Our aim in this research, therefore, was to construct a risk model using irlncRNA pairs with no requirement for a specific expression level, in hope of reliably predicting the prognosis and immune landscape of CRC patients.

Methods: Clinical and transcriptome profiling data of CRC patients downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were analyzed to identify differentially expressed (DE) irlncRNAs. The irlncRNA pairs significantly correlated with the prognosis of patients were screened out by univariable Cox regression analysis and a prognostic model was constructed by Lasso and multivariate Cox regression analyses. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was then plotted, with the area under the curve calculated to confirm the reliability of the model. Based on the optimal cutoff value, CRC patients in the high- or low-risk groups were distinguished, laying the ground for evaluating the risk model from the following perspectives: survival, clinicopathological traits, tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), antitumor drug efficacy, kinase inhibitor efficacy, and molecules related to immune checkpoints.

Results: A prognostic model consisting of 15 irlncRNA pairs was constructed, which was found to have a high correlation with patient prognosis in a cohort from the TCGA ( < 0.001, HR = 1.089, 95% CI [1.067-1.112]). According to both univariate and multivariate Cox analyses, this model could be used as an independent prognostic indicator in the TCGA cohort ( < 0.001). Effective differentiation between high- and low-risk patients was also accomplished, on the basis of aggressive clinicopathological characteristics, sensitivity to antitumor drugs, and kinase inhibitors, the tumor immune infiltration status, and the expression levels of specific molecules related to immune checkpoints.

Conclusion: The prognostic model established with irlncRNA pairs is a promising indicator for prognosis prediction in CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.690530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8451271PMC
September 2021

Role of the KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX protein (KD1) in regulating abscission of tomato flower pedicels at early and late stages of the process.

Physiol Plant 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Postharvest Science, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Institute, Rishon LeZiyon, Israel.

The KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX PROTEIN1 (KD1) gene is highly expressed in flower and leaf abscission zones (AZs), and KD1 was reported to regulate tomato flower pedicel abscission via alteration of the auxin gradient and response in the flower AZ (FAZ). The present work was aimed to further examine how KD1 regulates signaling factors and regulatory genes involved in pedicel abscission, by using silenced KD1 lines and performing a large-scale transcriptome profiling of the FAZ before and after flower removal, using a customized AZ-specific microarray. The results highlighted a differential expression of regulatory genes in the FAZ of KD1-silenced plants compared to the wild-type. In the TAPG4::antisense KD1-silenced plants, KD1 gene expression decreased before flower removal, resulting in altered expression of regulatory genes, such as epigenetic modifiers, transcription factors, posttranslational regulators, and antioxidative defense factors occurring at zero time and before affecting auxin levels in the FAZ detected at 4 h after flower removal. The expression of additional regulatory genes was altered in the FAZ of KD1-silenced plants at 4-20 h after flower removal, thereby leading to an inhibited abscission phenotype, and downregulation of genes involved in abscission execution and defense processes. Our data suggest that KD1 is a master regulator of the abscission process, which promotes abscission of tomato flower pedicels. This suggestion is based on the inhibitory effect of KD1 silencing on flower pedicel abscission that operates via alteration of various regulatory pathways, which delay the competence acquisition of the FAZ cells to respond to ethylene signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13560DOI Listing
September 2021

The Association Between Perivascular Spaces and Cerebral Blood Flow, Brain Volume, and Cardiovascular Risk.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 31;13:599724. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Basal ganglia perivascular spaces are associated with cognitive decline and cardiovascular risk factors. There is a lack of studies on the cardiovascular risk burden of basal ganglia perivascular spaces (BG-PVS) and their relationship with gray matter volume (GMV) and GM cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the aging brain. Here, we investigated these two issues in a large sample of cognitively intact older adults. A total of 734 volunteers were recruited. MRI was performed with 3.0 T using a pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) sequence and a sagittal isotropic T1-weighted sequence for CBF and GMV analysis. The images obtained from 406 participants were analyzed to investigate the relationship between the severity of BG-PVS and GMV/CBF. False discovery rate-corrected -values ( ) of <0.05 were considered significant. The images obtained from 254 participants were used to study the relationship between the severity of BG-PVS and cardiovascular risk burden. BG-PVS were rated using a 5-grade score. The severity of BG-PVS was classified as mild (grade <3) and severe (grade ≥3). Cardiovascular risk burden was assessed with the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score (FGCRS). Severe basal ganglia perivascular spaces were associated with significantly smaller GMV and CBF in multiple cortical regions ( <0.05), and were associated with significantly larger volume in the bilateral caudate nucleus, pallidum, and putamen ( <0.05). The participants with severe BG-PVS were more likely to have a higher cardiovascular risk burden than the participants with mild BG-PVS (60.71% vs. 42.93%; =0.02). In cognitively intact older adults, severe BG-PVS are associated with smaller cortical GMV and CBF, larger subcortical GMV, and higher cardiovascular risk burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.599724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438293PMC
August 2021

Prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling of low-level sex chromosomal mosaicism with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Sep;60(5):953-954

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First People's Hospital of Yichang, Yichang, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.07.033DOI Listing
September 2021

Nanoplasmonic Sandwich Immunoassay for Tumor-Derived Exosome Detection and Exosomal PD-L1 Profiling.

ACS Sens 2021 09 8;6(9):3308-3319. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Materials Research and Education Center, Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, United States.

Tumor-derived exosomes play a vital role in the process of cancer development. Quantitative analysis of exosomes and exosome-shuttled proteins would be of immense value in understanding cancer progression and generating reliable predictive biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Recent studies have indicated the critical role of exosomal programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in immune checkpoint therapy and its application as a patient stratification biomarker in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we present a nanoplasmonic exosome immunoassay utilizing gold-silver ([email protected]) core-shell nanobipyramids and gold nanorods, which form sandwich immune complexes with target exosomes. The immunoassay generates a distinct plasmonic signal pattern unique to exosomes with specific exosomal PD-L1 expression, allowing rapid, highly sensitive exosome detection and accurate identification of PD-L1 exosome subtypes in a single assay. The developed nanoplasmonic sandwich immunoassay provides a novel and viable approach for tumor cell-derived exosome detection and analysis with quantitative molecular details of key exosomal proteins, manifesting its great potential as a transformative diagnostic tool for early cancer detection, prognosis, and post-treatment monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c01101DOI Listing
September 2021

Design of copper [email protected] nanohybrids to accomplish excellent resilience and superior fire safety for flexible polyurethane foam.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 24;606(Pt 2):1205-1218. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, PR China. Electronic address:

Flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) is the most commonly used polyurethane, but its highly flammable characteristics makes it ignite easily and release a lot of heat and toxic gases. Here, the effect of different forms of copper salt modified graphene ([email protected], [email protected] and [email protected]) on improving the fire protection efficiency and mechanical property of FPUF is explored. Hybrid FPUF is characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), cone calorimeter, thermogravimetric analysis/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR), tension, compression, and falling ball rebound testing. Compared with pure FPUF, the FPUF/[email protected] show a significant decreasement in reducing the heat release of FPUF, the PHRR and THR are reduced by 36.9% and 29.4%, respectively. While the FPUF/[email protected] demonstrate excellent smoke and toxic gases suppression in FPUF, the PSPR and TSR are reduced by 24.6% and 51.9%, and the COP and COY are also reduced by 51.9% and 55.3%, respectively. After adding the copper salt hybrid, the buffering performance of FPUF did not change. Fortunately, the tensile and compressive strength increase obviously. The flame retardant and smoke suppression mechanism of hybrid FPUF has also been studied. This article gives a effective strategy for the preparation of FPUF with outstanding mechanical property, flame retardant and smoke suppression properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.139DOI Listing
August 2021

Spectroscopic and computational studies on the binding interaction between gallic acid and Pin1.

Luminescence 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Gallic acid (GA) is a natural ingredient in functional foods, which has various health-promoting and antitumour effects. Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in preventing the development of some malignant tumours. However, whether there was an interaction between Pin1 and GA remains unknown. In this work, the binding information of GA and Pin1 was investigated systematically using multiple spectral and computational methods. GA bound to Pin1 directly with moderate binding affinity in the order of 10  mol/L, therefore decreasing the activity of Pin1. Also, the binding process of GA to Pin1 was driven through weak van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic forces. In addition, the important residues Lys63, Arg68, and Arg69 played a significant role in maintaining the binding stability between Pin1 and GA. Interestingly, GA reduced the activity of Pin1 by affecting its conformational characteristics. Our present work showed that GA binds to Pin1 and inhibits its activity, affecting its structural and functional properties, which may contribute to the therapy of Pin1-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.4138DOI Listing
September 2021

Auxin response and transport during induction of pedicel abscission in tomato.

Hortic Res 2021 Sep 1;8(1):192. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, 110866, China.

Auxin plays a central role in control of organ abscission, and it is thought that changes in the auxin gradient across the abscission zone are the primary determinant of the onset of abscission. The nature of this gradient, whether in concentration, flow, or perhaps in the response system has not conclusively been determined. We employed a DR5::GUS auxin response reporter system to examine the temporal and spatial distribution of the auxin response activity in response to developmental and environmental cues during pedicel abscission in tomato. In pedicels of young and fully open flowers, auxin response, as indicated by GUS activity, was predominantly detected in the vascular tissues and was almost entirely confined to the abscission zone (AZ) and to the distal portion of the pedicel, with a striking reduction in the proximal tissues below the AZ-a 'step', rather than a gradient. Following pollination and during early fruit development, auxin response increased substantially throughout the pedicel. Changes in GUS activity following treatments that caused pedicel abscission (flower removal, high temperature, darkness, ethylene, or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment) were relatively minor, with reduced auxin response in the AZ and some reduction above and below it. Expression of genes encoding some auxin efflux carriers (PIN) and influx carriers (AUX⁄LAX) was substantially reduced in the abscission zone of NPA-treated pedicels, and in pedicels stimulated to abscise by flower removal. Our results suggest that changes in auxin flow distribution through the abscission zone are likely more important than the auxin response system in the regulation of abscission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00626-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408206PMC
September 2021

HDAC6 inactivates Runx2 promoter to block osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells in age-related bone loss of mice.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Aug 28;12(1):484. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou Clinical School of Xuzhou Medical University, The Affiliated XuZhou Hospital of Medical College of Southeast University, Xuzhou Clinical Medical College of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Xuzhou, 221009, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Senile osteoporosis can cause bone fragility and increased risk for fractures and has been one of the most prevalent and severe diseases affecting the elderly population worldwidely. The underlying mechanisms are currently intensive areas of investigation. In age-related bone loss, decreased bone formation overweighs increased bone resorption. The molecular mechanisms underlying defective bone formation in age-related bone loss are not completely understood. In particular, the specific role of histone acetylation in age-related bone loss has not been examined thoroughly.

Methods: We employed 6- and 18-month-old mice to investigate the mechanisms of defective bone formation in age-related bone loss. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were induced to undergo in vitro osteogenic differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to investigate the binding of histone deacetylases (HDACs) on Runx2 promoter in BMSCs. Luciferase reporter and transient transfection assay were employed to study Runx2 gene expression modulation by HDAC and androgen receptor (AR). siRNA and HDAC6 inhibitor, Tubastatin A, were used to inhibit HDAC6 in vitro. And systemic administration of Tubastatin A was used to block HDAC6 in vivo.

Results: Age-related trabecular bone loss was observed in 18-month-old mice compared with 6-month-old mice. In vitro osteogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs from 18-month-old mice was weaker than 6-month-old mice, in which there was Runx2 expression inactivation in BMSCs of 18-month-old mice compared with 6-month-old mice, which was attributable to HDAC6-mediated histone hypoacetylation in Runx2 promoter. There was competitive binding of HDAC6 and AR on Runx2 promoter to modulate Runx2 expression in BMSCs. More importantly, through siRNA- or specific inhibitor-mediated HDAC6 inhibition, we could activate Runx2 expression, rescue in vitro osteogenesis potential of BMSCs, and alleviate in vivo age-related bone loss of mice.

Conclusion: HDAC6 accumulation and histone hypoacetylation on Runx2 promoter contributed to the attenuation of in vitro osteogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs from aged mice. Through HDAC6 inhibition, we could activate Runx2 expression and osteogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs from aged mice and alleviate the age-related bone loss of aged mice. Our study will benefit not only for understanding the age-related bone loss, but also for finding new therapies to treat senile osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02545-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403388PMC
August 2021

Neurovascular imaging with QUTE-CE MRI in APOE4 rats reveals early vascular abnormalities.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(8):e0256749. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Imaginostics, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Cerebrovascular abnormality is linked to Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRDs). ApoE-Ɛ4 (APOE4) is known to play a critical role in neurovascular dysfunction, however current medical imaging technologies are limited in quantification. This cross-sectional study tested the feasibility of a recently established imaging modality, quantitative ultra-short time-to-echo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (QUTE-CE MRI), to identify small vessel abnormality early in development of human APOE4 knock-in female rat (TGRA8960) animal model. At 8 months, 48.3% of the brain volume was found to have significant signal increase (75/173 anatomically segmented regions; q<0.05 for multiple comparisons). Notably, vascular abnormality was detected in the tri-synaptic circuit, cerebellum, and amygdala, all of which are known to functionally decline throughout AD pathology and have implications in learning and memory. The detected abnormality quantified with QUTE-CE MRI is likely a result of hyper-vascularization, but may also be partly, or wholly, due to contributions from blood-brain-barrier leakage. Further exploration with histological validation is warranted to verify the pathological cause. Regardless, these results indicate that QUTE-CE MRI can detect neurovascular dysfunction with high sensitivity with APOE4 and may be helpful to provide new insights into health and disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256749PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396782PMC
August 2021

Larger males facilitate population expansion in Ophraella communa.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

One of the most intriguing concepts in animal ecology is the reproductive advantages offered by larger body size, and the females prefer to mate with larger males to gain reproductive advantage. Currently, it is not clear how females recognize signs of male 'quality' and what mechanisms are involved in producing offspring with direct or indirect benefits. Our study aims to assess the preferences of females for males in Ophraella communa, determine the reproductive benefits and reveal the underlying mechanism behind this advantage. We demonstrate that male body size is an important determinant in the evolutionary process of O. communa, affecting female mate choice. Moreover, our study establishes that females prefer males with a larger body size, and this could further improve the developmental and reproductive fitness of their offspring. Finally, we focus on the seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) in O. communa, determine differentially expressed genes (i.e. OcACE, OcCBP and OcSFP) by analysing their proteomes and transcriptomes, and define the role of these SFPs-related genes through RNAi. Our study proved that the reproductive benefit of large males may be regulated by biased expression of crucial SFPs genes. The present study advances our understanding of the biological significance of preferential mating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13579DOI Listing
August 2021
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