Publications by authors named "Catherine Crawford"

7 Publications

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SAGES guidelines for the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD).

Surg Endosc 2021 Sep 19;35(9):4903-4917. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is an extremely common condition with several medical and surgical treatment options. A multidisciplinary expert panel was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations to support clinicians, patients, and others in decisions regarding the treatment of GERD with an emphasis on evaluating different surgical techniques.

Methods: Literature reviews were conducted for 4 key questions regarding the surgical treatment of GERD in both adults and children: surgical vs. medical treatment, robotic vs. laparoscopic fundoplication, partial vs. complete fundoplication, and division vs. preservation of short gastric vessels in adults or maximal versus minimal dissection in pediatric patients. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated using the GRADE methodology by subject experts. Recommendations for future research were also proposed.

Results: The panel provided seven recommendations for adults and children with GERD. All recommendations were conditional due to very low, low, or moderate certainty of evidence. The panel conditionally recommended surgical treatment over medical management for adults with chronic or chronic refractory GERD. There was insufficient evidence for the panel to make a recommendation regarding surgical versus medical treatment in children. The panel suggested that once the decision to pursue surgical therapy is made, adults and children with GERD may be treated with either a robotic or a laparoscopic approach, and either partial or complete fundoplication based on surgeon-patient shared decision-making and patient values. In adults, the panel suggested either division or non-division of the short gastric vessels is appropriate, and that children should undergo minimal dissection during fundoplication.

Conclusions: These recommendations should provide guidance with regard to surgical decision-making in the treatment of GERD and highlight the importance of shared decision-making and patient values to optimize patient outcomes. Pursuing the identified research needs may improve future versions of guidelines for the treatment of GERD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08625-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Iron overdose epidemiology, clinical features and iron concentration-effect relationships: the UK experience 2008-2017.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 11 28;56(11):1098-1106. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

a Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics , University/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh , UK.

Iron poisoning is potentially serious, but mortality has fallen worldwide since implementation of pack size and packaging restrictions, and changes in iron use during pregnancy. The management of individual cases of overdose remains problematic due to uncertainty about indications for antidote. We examine the epidemiology of iron overdose in hospital cases referred to the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) and evaluate the toxicokinetics of iron in patients ingesting only iron preparations. Anonymized hospital referral patient data from the NPIS database were collated for the period 1 January 2008 to 31 July 2017. Information was extracted, where recorded, on type of ingestion [iron alone (single), or combined with other agents (mixed)], reported dose, iron salt, timed iron concentrations and symptoms. In single-agent ingestions, the relationships between reported elemental iron dose, early concentrations (4-6 h), and symptoms were evaluated in teenagers and adults (≥13 years) and children (≤12 years) using standard statistical techniques (correlation and unpaired nonparametric comparisons). In those patients with sufficient sample points (three or more), a simple kinetic analysis was conducted. Of 2708 patients with iron overdoses referred by UK hospitals for advice during the 9.7 years study period, 1839 were single-agent ingestions. There were two peaks in age incidence in single-agent exposures; 539/1839 (28.4%) were <6 years (54.1% males) while 675/1839 (36.7%) were between 13 and 20 years (91% females), the latter a substantial excess over the proportion in the totality of hospital referrals to the NPIS in the same period (13-20 years: 23,776/144,268 16.5%; 67.5% female) ( < .0001 overall and for female %). In 475 teenagers and adults and 86 children, with at least one-timed iron concentration available, there was no correlation between stated dose and iron concentration measured 4-6 h post-ingestion. Observed peak iron concentrations were not related to reported symptoms in adults. Initial iron concentrations were significantly higher in 30 patients (25 adults, 5 children) who received desferrioxamine (DFO) compared to those that did not [no DFO: mean 63.8 μmol/L (95% CI 62.1-65.6), median 64; DFO: mean 78.5 μmol/L (95% CI 69.2-87.7), median 78.1; Mann-Whitney  < .0018). No significant differences in symptoms were observed pre-treatment between DFO-treated and untreated groups. No patients died in this cohort. Single-agent iron exposures reported from UK hospitals were most common in children <5 years and young people aged 13-20 years. Poisoning with organ failure was not identified and there were no fatalities. No correlations were observed between reported iron doses and early concentrations, or between iron concentrations and symptoms in this cohort of mild-to-moderate poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1455978DOI Listing
November 2018

Arthroscopic versus open excision of dorsal ganglion cysts: a systematic review.

J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2018 Jul 12;43(6):659-664. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

We conducted a systematic review comparing recurrence and complication rate following open versus arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts. Sixteen full-text articles were included. The pooled recurrence rate of open excision was 20% (range: 5.6-40.7%) with Q value of 27 and I of 82%. The pooled recurrence rate of arthroscopic excision was 9% (range: 0-17%) with Q value of 10 and I of 2%. Eleven of 16 studies were low quality or had a high risk of bias; however, excluding low quality studies or those with high risk of bias produced similar recurrence rates in arthroscopic and open excision (7.9% versus 9.8%). For the subset of studies with complete reporting of complications, rates were similar in open and arthroscopic excision (6% versus 4%). Our review suggests that arthroscopic and open approaches have comparable outcome profiles. Nevertheless, standardized study methods with adequate powering are required to collect high quality data, allowing for greater confidence in conclusions regarding these two approaches for existing ganglion cysts.

Level Of Evidence: II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753193417734428DOI Listing
July 2018

Analysing the relationship between urban livelihoods and water infrastructure in three settlements in Cusco, Peru.

Urban Stud 2012 ;49(5):1045-64

University College London.

This paper explores the role played by water infrastructure in urban livelihoods. It is based on a study of three settlements in Cusco, Peru, and shows that different modes of organising infrastructure co-exist within the same city, despite national policy prescriptions for urban water provision. Further, unequal access of households to these services exists within the same settlements and amplifies household vulnerability which, in turn, feeds back to undermine local, autonomous governance of water. This paper draws on the work of van Vliet et al. and Marvin and Graham to develop a framework that considers infrastructure organisation alongside household livelihoods in order to analyse the features of governance and vulnerability that affect urban livelihoods by privileging some groups and bypassing others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042098011408140DOI Listing
October 2012

KRAB zinc-finger proteins localise to novel KAP1-containing foci that are adjacent to PML nuclear bodies.

J Cell Sci 2009 Apr 3;122(Pt 7):937-46. Epub 2009 Mar 3.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK.

The KRAB-zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) represent a very large, but poorly understood, family of transcriptional regulators in mammals. They are thought to repress transcription via their interaction with KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1), which then assembles a complex of chromatin modifiers to lay down histone marks that are associated with inactive chromatin. Studies of KRAB-ZFP/KAP1-mediated gene silencing, using reporter constructs and ectopically expressed proteins, have shown colocalisation of both KAP1 and repressed reporter target genes to domains of constitutive heterochromatin in the nucleus. However, we show here that although KAP1 does indeed become recruited to pericentric heterochromatin during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, endogenous KRAB-ZFPs do not. Rather, KRAB-ZFPs and KAP1 relocalise to novel nucleoplasmic foci that we have termed KRAB- and KAP1-associated (KAKA) foci. HP1s can also concentrate in these foci and there is a close spatial relationship between KAKA nuclear foci and PML nuclear bodies. Finally, we reveal differential requirements for the recruitment of KAP1 to pericentric heterochromatin and KAKA foci, and suggest that KAKA foci may contain sumoylated KAP1 - the form of the protein that is active in transcriptional repression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.034793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720929PMC
April 2009

Play preparation for children with special needs.

Paediatr Nurs 2002 Oct;14(8):27-9

Child Development Centre, City Hospital, Nottingham.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/paed2002.10.14.8.27.c7895DOI Listing
October 2002

Tunable front interaction and localization of periodically forced waves.

Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 2002 Jun 28;65(6 Pt 2):066307. Epub 2002 Jun 28.

Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.

In systems that exhibit a bistability between nonlinear traveling waves and the basic state, pairs of fronts connecting these two states can form localized wave pulses whose stability depends on the interaction between the fronts. We investigate wave pulses within the framework of coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations describing the traveling-wave amplitudes. We find that the introduction of resonant temporal forcing results in a tunable mechanism for stabilizing such wave pulses. In contrast to other localization mechanisms the temporal forcing can achieve localization by a repulsive as well as by an attractive interaction between the fronts. Systems for which the results are expected to be relevant include binary-mixture convection and electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.65.066307DOI Listing
June 2002
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